List of helvetisms
- "Helvetism" in the sense of variation linguistics refers to those linguistic peculiarities that are typically used in Swiss Standard German and not in the entire German-speaking area (example: nut lettuce, parkieren ). According to Ulrich Ammon, a distinction is made between three types:
- specific Helvetism: the occurrence is limited to Switzerland, for example morning meal, agenda item .
- unspecific Helveticism: the occurrence is limited to Switzerland and parts of the wider German-speaking area, for example compensation (Switzerland and Austria), vehicle drivers (Switzerland, Austria and southern Germany).
- Frequency helvetism : The occurrence is much more pronounced in Switzerland than in other German-speaking areas, for example, subject to health insurance, young team, cooked butter (these also occur in Germany, but are rarely used there)
- «Helvetism» in the sense of words that originally come from the German-speaking Swiss language area and are used today in the entire German-speaking area (examples: muesli , putsch ) - analogous to terms such as Anglicism - denotes words that come from Swiss German and have been adopted into municipal German (see list below ; see also: loan word ).
«Helvetism» is not only understood to mean typical Swiss words ( lexemes ), but also the special features of word formation , word inflection , sentence formation , spelling and pronunciation . Sometimes the term Helvetism is only used for words .
The Helvetisms recorded in lexicons and dictionaries on Swiss High German are part of the standard Swiss language . These are words that are considered appropriate and correct in texts that are written or published in Switzerland. Naturally, less formal journalistic and literary texts can tend to be closer to the Swiss-German dialects; Alemannic-based words used in this way have a more colloquial or dialect-like character and thus represent borderline cases of the standard. For the revision of the German dictionary of variants , which appeared in 2016, three “pillars” were defined on which the classification of the standard language of a lemma is based, namely firstly, the frequency in "model texts" (regional and national newspaper texts), secondly, the assessment of language experts with regard to standard language acceptance, and thirdly, their appearance in current reference works. Such words, the frequency of use of which reached a defined threshold value, but which only appeared in certain types of text close to orally or mainly between quotation marks, were given the addition "Borderline case of the standard" - comparable to the marking "dialect" in the publication Schweizerhochdeutsch from 2012 / 2018 and the marking "mundartl [I]" in the Swiss dictionary from 2006.
A considerable part of the Helvetisms is based on the fact that Switzerland and its cantons are independent states that know their own legal and administrative language, which is independent of that of the Federal Republic of Germany and Austria. Another main factor is the landscape belonging to the Alemannic region, which is not only reflected in the dialect (examples of words that have come from Swiss German into Swiss written language are, for example, Beiz , Guetsli / Guetzli , Metzgete , Rande and Rüebli ), but which has always shaped the German-speaking language of Switzerland. As a result of Switzerland's multilingualism, influences from French cannot be overlooked, including borrowings such as chicken and hairdressing . A number of words of French origin in Swiss German, such as Trottoir or Perron , used to be communal German, but have been supplanted in Germany and Austria by deliberate Germanization since the late 19th century. A rather conservative element are also the English expressions inherent in Swiss sports language, such as goalie and penalty , which have long since been replaced by the local vocabulary in the rest of the German-speaking area.
Helvetisms can denote something for which there is no common German term; they can be used next to a common German word or replace such a word. In addition to a basic meaning, some words have an additional Swiss meaning.
Abbreviations used in the word lists
- dtl. - German
- municipality. - communal German
- inf. - used in informal situations
- Mdal. - mundartlich
- Austrian - Austrian
- bair. - Bavarian
- Wz. - registered trademark
(used instead of or next to a common German word; in other parts of the German-speaking area - especially in the south - some of these expressions are also known, but used less often)
Kitchen, food, restaurant
- the aperitif (aperitif, drink)
- the station buffet (station restaurant)
- the tree nut (walnut)
- the pickling, inf. (Pub, see Austrian Beis (e) l , bair. Boazn )
- the Bettmümpfeli (sweet before bed)
- das Brunsli mdal. (chocolate biscuits, especially at Christmas)
- the buffet à discrétion (open buffet without additional payment)
- der (also: die) Cervelat (short, thick boiled sausage)
- the chilli (the chilli pepper), see also paprika , hot peppers , peperoncino
- the coupe (sundae)
- the Cüpli (glass of champagne, no sparkling wine or prosecco!)
- the summit or croissant (croissant, croissant )
- the ice cream or the ice cream (ice cream)
- delicious (tasty, appetizing)
- to grill (grill)
- das Güggeli mdal. (grilled chicken)
- the biscuit, biscuit mdal./inf. (Cookie, biscuit)
- das Hacktätschli mdal., (meatball)
- the tap water (also southern German, tap water)
- the mashed potatoes (mashed potatoes)
- the kirsch ( kirschwasser )
- the Metzgete (slaughter, 'slaughter festival' in the sense of the offer of freshly slaughtered meat in restaurants)
- the morning meal (breakfast)
- the muesli and muesli (after Maximilian Bircher-Benner ; outside Switzerland : cereal )
- the evening meal (dinner)
- of the lamb's lettuce , Nüssler (lamb's lettuce, lettuce Vogel, Tangled)
- the Panaché , often also Panache ( Radler )
- the hot peppers (red, green or yellow peppers, large and mild; taken from Italian)
- the (mainly as a dried and ground spice) / the (fruit) paprika (pepperoni; from Hungarian, only rarely used for the fruit)
- der / die (sing.) Peperoncino / i (paprika fruit, hot and elongated; taken from Italian, Italian plural often wrongly used as singular), sometimes or earlier also used for the small variant: the chili (the chilli pepper)
- the chicken (chicken as food)
- the praline (emphasis on the a; the praline)
- the raffle (grater, grater)
- der Rahm (cream), also Nidel / Nidle mdal.
- the edge of the Randen (usually plural .; beets, beet, see. bair. Ranna )
- the Rösti (boiled, grated and then fried potatoes) - Attention: no plural, but rather “the Rösti”, so to speak, hence “a Rösti”. Pronunciation [rø: ʃtɪ], not [rœsti:].
- the Ruchbrot and Ruchmehl ; mdal. ruch means "rough, coarse"
- the carrot mdal./inf. (otherwise: carrots, also southern German; carrot, yellow turnip)
- the pocket knife (also South German, pocket knife)
- the bowl (light milk coffee )
- of the whisk (dt .: whisk, Austrian .: Schneerute)
- the Silserli ( pretzel roll )
- the waitress (waitress)
- the pasta (noodles)
- of clay (processed, pickled in oil and usually packed in cans of tuna)
- to table (to set the table)
- the Voressen (stew, sauce; also Bair.)
- the flan (sheet cake with a fruit or vegetable topping; also in southwest Germany and Alsace)
- der / das Zmorge (n) mdal./inf. (Breakfast)
- of / the morning snack mdal./inf. (Snack in the morning at ~ 9 a.m.)
- the lunch, mdal./inf. (Having lunch)
- the Zvieri mdal./inf. (Snack in the afternoon at ~ 4 p.m.)
- the night mdal./inf. (Dinner)
- the zucchini (zucchini)
- the caretaker (caretaker, caretaker)
- the shelf ((hat) wardrobe, shelf)
- the drop (strip off their clothes, coat hanging in the wardrobe), the off / removal (strip off their clothes, replace linen)
- the application (clothes jacket) Tighten
- the attic apartment (penthouse, top apartment with surrounding terrace)
- the topping (D: Topping; A: First party, direct party )
- the fireplace (open fireplace)
- the screed (also south German, attic)
- the winch (attic)
- the finches (slippers)
- the hag (fence)
- der Harass , the Harasse ( drinks crate; open wooden crate)
- das Heimet mdal. (small farm)
- the waste (mdal .: Güsel / Ghüder; rubbish, garbage - also derived from this the waste incineration plant , which usually only appears in abbreviated form as KVA in texts)
- the lavabo (hand basin)
- the handkerchief (also South German , handkerchief)
- the pan (saucepan)
- the ceiling (also southern German and Austrian, the ceiling)
- the console (desk)
- the pajamas ( the pajamas, pajamas)
- the rechaud candle (tea light)
- the timber house (timbered house)
- ring-hearing (slightly permeable to sound; ring = Alemannic for light, low)
- the pouring stone (also southern German, sink, sink, sink, sink, sink, washing up)
- the pocket knife (also South German, pocket knife)
- the Sonnerie (bell [system])
- the fitted carpet
- the stand lamp (floor lamp)
- das Stöckli mdal. (Old part, Ausgedinge; also informal name of the Swiss Council of States )
- the blinds (blinds, awnings)
- the door latch (also southern German, door handle)
- the tumbler ((laundry) dryer)
- supply (also Austrian military, clear away)
- wipe (sweep, sweep)
- curb (move house, change of residence)
- the subscription stop (interruption of membership, in Germany usually called rest period)
- the demolition (rip-off, excessive or too high price)
- the regulations (originally coming from the Swiss military: overview, tabular list)
- the enforcement ( foreclosure )
- the beer depot (beer wholesale, beer warehouse, not: bottle deposit)
- das Brockenhaus (second-hand shop)
- the Büez (work, backbreaking work, exertion, show of strength, maloche , drudgery, drudgery)
- the check (check)
- the coiffeur (hairdresser)
- the depot (deposit for reusable packaging, but also storage and rental deposit) (emphasis on the first syllable)
- the retail trade (retail trade )
- the payment slip (transfer, payment card, payment slip )
- the transport (vehicles, movable goods, e.g. in the insurance contract - in contrast to real estate)
- FDA , telecommunications service provider ( telephone company )
- The Holiday (in Germany a distinction is made between holidays (school holidays) and holidays (non-paid days off for workers), Switzerland)
- the collective labor contract , abbreviation GAV (collective agreement, collective agreement)
- the wholesaler (retail chain)
- the KV (apprenticeship designation for training as a businessman)
- to compete (to compete )
- Konti as plural of account (in German: accounts)
- the apprentice daughter (the trainee)
- the limit (upper limit)
- the wage (in Germany a distinction is made between wages and salaries , in Switzerland not)
- the offer (the offer)
- the papeterie (stationery shop)
- the pending ( pending process, still open point), also as an adjective: pendent
- Derived from this: the pending mountain (in the actual or figurative sense: the pile of dossiers to be processed / the
- the trailer train (road train )
- the autocar, short car (coach in charter or long-distance traffic)
- the motorist (motorist)
- the car transport (also Austrian, piggyback transport for cars)
- the lorry (truck)
- the trucker (haulier)
- the chauffeur (also South German, Austrian, driver, (professional) driver)
- the distance beacon ( distance beacon )
- the redemption (insurance for road traffic)
- the garage (covered parking for vehicles, including: Underground)
- the vehicle registration document (vehicle registration document) (there is only one document)
- the driver's license , driving license (driver's license)
- the carrier (transport company), analogous to the carrier for the company
- the garage (car dealership, garage )
- the garage owner (car dealership or garage owner)
- the cabin (cab)
- the Kehrplatz (turning area)
- the control plate (license plate number, license plate)
- the conductor (conductor, train attendant, this job title does not even exist in French, it is an artificial word)
- the motor vehicle (motor vehicle)
- emphasizes the used car on the first syllable (second-hand goods, especially: the used car)
- park (park)
- the passerelle ( footbridge )
- the tire (automobile tires)
- the Postbus (also outdated in southern Germany, Postbus)
- the postman (also South German Stud Books outdated, Postal Worker, mostly. postman)
- the PW (PKW)
- the red light (traffic lights)
- the self- accident ( solo accident )
- the motorbike inf. (also southern German, motorcycle)
- the Töffli inf. (Bicycle with auxiliary motor, moped)
- the route ( the route )
- the scooter (scooter)
- the trolleybus , trolley for short (trolleybus, trolleybus for short)
- the sidewalk (emphasized on the first syllable; also southern German, sidewalk, sidewalk)
- the bypass road (the bypass road)
- the right of way (also South German outdated, right of way)
- the Velo (from Velociped; Bicycle)
- the Wegfahrt (o as a sign for exit in a parking lot. ä.)
- Planes in short form are masculine (as in French): the Vampire , the Venom , the Hunter , the Mirage , the Tiger , the F / A-18 , the Gripen ; with some, both are possible, but rather unusual: the Rafale / the Rafale
- the reception building ( reception building , in Austria also reception building )
- the branch station (also Austrian, separation station )
- discard (also gemeindt. coll., decommission )
- the car transport (also Austrian, car transport )
- banalized traffic (track changing operation)
- the barrier keeper ( barrier keeper )
- cover (protect, set up stop signals to protect an obstacle)
- the ticket (t) (municipality, out of date, ticket ) - usually only with a t
- the ticket agent ( conductors , especially for trams and buses)
- the braked weight hundredth (brake hundredth)
- the depot (depot, depot)
- the service station ( depot )
- the service route ( operating route )
- the official train (formerly communal, train for official purposes)
- the double shuttle train (train with sandwich traction )
- single-track, double-track, multi-track ( single-track , double-track, multi-track)
- the extra train (special train, relief train)
- the catenary ( overhead line ) - In Germany, catenary serves as a generic term for overhead line, overhead conductor rail and lateral conductor rail.
- the timetable field (course book route)
- the travel position indicator ( travel indicator )
- the general subscription , abbreviation GA ( Bahncard 100 )
- the Half-Fare Card , the Half-Fare Card ( Bahncard 50 )
- Stop on demand ( stop on demand )
- the main line ( main air line )
- the main revision ( main inspection )
- the main workshop (also Austrian, repair shop )
- the auxiliary signal (substitute signal)
- the infrastructure manager ( railway infrastructure company )
- the conductor (also south German outdated, conductor , train attendant)
- the conductor (conductor, train attendant) - This job title doesn't even exist in French, it is an artificial word.
- the (also: the) Perron (municipality, obsolete, platform )
- the line ( railway line )
- the shuttle train ( push-pull train )
- the private railway( non-federal railway )
- the Q-Lok ( final locomotive )
- the shunting brake (compressed air brake that acts directly on the traction vehicle)
- the shunting track ( siding )
- the shunting signal (railway signal for regulating shunting trips) - in Germany , the shunting signal refers to a hand signal from a shunting attendant.
- der Regio , until 2004 regional train (regional train also Austrian, regional train)
- the RegioExpress (Regional Express)
- the regulating brake (compressed air brake that acts directly on the entire train)
- the return ticket (t) ( return ticket )
- the rolling highway ( Rollende Landstrasse )
- the safety control (safety driving circuit) - also commonly used for programmable controls for use in safety-critical systems
- the holding brake weight (holding brake weight)
- the stock rail ( stock rail )
- Route with steep incline ( steep route )
- the route table (book timetable)
- the tractor ( small locomotive )
- the trassee ( the route , railway body)
- the drive axle, the driving wheel ( driving axle , drive wheel)
- the substation ( substation ) - In Germany only substations for supplying railway systems are called substations .
- the multiple control (push-pull train control, multiple traction control)
- the vigilance control , (technical term for dead man's device for rail vehicles)
- the vacuum brake (municipality, outdated, suction air brake )
- steepened double crossing switch ( double crossing switch with curved inlet )
- the repeat signal ( distant signal repeater )
- the train protection system , the train protection (train control)
- the train composition , the composition (train formation) - The SBB use formation for announcements .
- the train set ( train running in subsequent train operations) - Train set refers to a train composition in Germany .
- the dwarf signal (protection signal)
- the discharging (discharge from the service mandatory )
- the auditor ( public prosecutor / prosecutor at military court )
- the excavation ( pattern ); excavate (sample)
- the COs ( weir COs )
- the final alarm (all clear)
- the Feldweibel ( Sergeant )
- the cadre (the cadre)
- the company commander (slang: Kadi from Arabic القاضي for judges) (company commander)
- the cantonment (troop accommodation)
- the Mandatory ( abbr. for Compulsory shooting, annual compulsory shooting practice for conscripts)
- the recruit school, abbr .: RS (D: basic military training; A: military service)
- the watch ( guarding )
- the arsenal (military training area)
- the repetition course, abbr .: WK (distantly comparable: reservist exercise)
- the Gymi (pronounced: [ ˈgimi ]) or the Gymer (only Canton Bern ) inf. (High school)
- the main teacher (permanent teacher with guaranteed workload)
- the overhead projector ( overhead projector )
- the canton school (cantonal middle school; inf./mal. Kanti )
- the legitimation card (student ID; inf./mdal. Legi )
- the Maibummel (May hike)
- the Matura, Matura ( Matura also Austrian; Abitur)
- the high school graduate (high school graduate; Austrian: high school graduate)
- the middle school (also Austrian., high school)
- the doctorate (also Austrian, promotion to the next class)
- the school trip (class trip)
- the school desk / bar / school sack (satchel, knapsack )
- the sports day (school sports festival)
Politics, state, law
- the active citizen (adult citizen)
- the absence (the absence, also the entry in the absence control)
- march out (delimit, define through discussion)
- increase (determine the majority in a rural community)
- deport (shift (applicant, criminals))
- conditional (also Austrian, with probation period)
- to blame (to hold responsible)
- Contribution à fonds perdu (state subsidy, etc., is used throughout the country, i.e. not only in the French-speaking part)
- the recipient (recipient)
- penance with transitive usage: the driver was fined 120 francs (subject to a fine)
- the classe politique (often disparaging; the (professional) politicians as a political class )
- the Courant normal (normal daily business)
- the department ( ministry , faculty, department), in some cantons also the directorate
- enter into (enter into) something
- the residents 'registration office (residents' registration office)
- the decision (official decision, resolution)
- fallible (guilty, contravening). Typical formula: … forbidden, mistakes are shown!
- the advocate or advocate (in the cantons of Bern, Solothurn and older also Aargau: lawyer)
- the opposing majority ( opposing votes in an open vote)
- the complicity (subsidy for an offense, z. B. fraud, killing, etc.)
- the mayor (mayor in some cantons, debtor in others)
- the mayor (in some cantons: mayor)
- large majority (with large majority)
- the identity card , short ID (identity card)
- launch (trigger something, bring it into being, found something, e.g. launch a petition )
- the Landammann (Prime Minister in some cantons)
- the majority , often the absolute majority (the majority or the number of votes that represents a majority)
- the mutation , mostly the mutations (changes in membership, entries and / or exits)
- the nomination (listing of a candidate, nomination)
- the compulsory subject (compulsory subject, but also e.g. kindergarten compulsory, snow chain compulsory; in the sense of: compulsory, obligation)
- the identity card (employee ID , see also ID above)
- the government council (in most cantons: government; state minister)
- die Sans papiers (foreigners without valid papers)
- the writings (identity papers, certificate of origin )
- the threshold , delivery to the threshold corporation in the canton of Bern
- the secondo, the seconda (immigrant son, immigrant daughter)
- the signalement, pronounced in German (personal description)
- the Council of State (in the mostly non-German-speaking cantons: government; ministers)
- the city administrator (mayor in some cantons)
- the mayor, inf. Stapi (Lord Mayor)
- the professional ethics committee ( Appenzell Innerrhoden : government)
- the tax office (tax office)
- the voters (eligible voters)
- the agenda (agenda)
- the trustee (including tax advisor)
- the work , mostly used in the plural (effort; expenses, expenses, expenses, costs; (colloquial) expenses, but also circumstance in the sense of: unnecessary effort and superfluous, time-consuming effort)
- unconditional, unconditional punishment (also Austrian, without probation option)
- the consultation (survey of parties and associations about a legislative project)
- show (show someone)
- Weibel (civil servant at various levels with mainly ceremonial tasks)
- the scientist (scientist). See also academic degrees such as dipl. Natural scientist ETH etc.
Society, folk culture
- the abdication (funeral service)
- the alpine lift (alpine lift )
- the ascension (ascension)
- the exit (noun to go out in the evening, not only used militarily)
- the gathering (gathering, not just used militarily)
- the Cervelat celebrities (local celebrities; pseudo-celebrities) ( Cervelat : Swiss national sausage )
- the Chilbi / Kilbi mdal. (Kirchweih; Kirmes, cf. Südwestdt. Kirbe, Kirwe)
- the family garden (next to the allotment garden )
- the Fasnacht (Mardi Gras, Carnival, Mardi Gras)
- the goddess, the god, the goddess child ( godfather , godmother, godchild)
- the grandchild (grandchild)
- the passing away (death, passing away)
- the colleague (friend, acquaintance)
- the crown favorite (top candidate, top favorite)
- the sorrow circular (printed obituary that will be mailed)
- the Mesmer (also southern German, northeastern Switzerland : Küster, Messner)
- the Pfadi ( scouting )
- of Santa Claus ( Nicholas )
- der Schmutzli ( Knecht Ruprecht )
- the Sigrist (sexton)
- the emitter (crystal / mineral seeker)
- rustic, mdal./inf. (quaint)
- females (advertising, going around busy - see also: Weibel )
- the Alp (Alm), also in the entire Alemannic language area (especially Vorarlberg, Allgäu)
- to sleep (to go to night)
- die Bise , the biswind (cold, dry north-east wind in Switzerland)
- the / the Egli ( Perch )
- the foehn (wind over the alps; see also alpenföhn )
- the parks as a plurality of park (in German parks)
- the Rüfe ( Mure , Erdlawine)
- the summer bird (butterfly)
- the Tobel (gorge)
- the Trute, the turkey meat (turkey, turkey)
(Many anglicisms in football ; cf. Austrian.)
- the vamp (piercing)
- the corner (also Austrian, corner ball)
- the final (the final, the final)
- The Goal (Goal)
- the goalie (also Austrian, goalkeeper)
- the match (with male grammatical gender, also pronounced "mud", game)
- the Nati pronounced "Natzi", ie on the first syllable short stressed (National)
- the offside (offside)
- pronounced the hands : "Händs" (also Austrian, hand game)
- the penalty emphasized on the first syllable (penalty)
- Announcement of the rankings (award ceremony, awarding of prizes), only for competitions with ranking lists , not for a duel
- crawl for crawl ( crawl = crawl swimming )
- tobogganing (sledding)
- snowboarding , boarding , snöben inf. (Ride Snowboard)
- the trainer (also tracksuit ; training pants = jogging pants)
- Tschuten , schutten (playing football)
- aggressive (aggressive, daring)
- to be heard (to suggest, to pick up a topic carefully)
- to catch oneself ( to regain one's emotional balance; Austrian also to catch oneself )
- set up (in a good mood; in a good mood)
- Display (good news)
- impressive (impressive)
- fouting or foraging about something (from French se foutre ; don't care about something, don't care about something, ignore the rules)
- to be used to (to be used to)
- hearty (also southern German, Austrian, amiable, cute, "sweet")
- to plague (to brag, to show off; to bluff)
- to serbel (to wilt away , [also in a figurative sense] to die)
- expeditious (fast, brisk )
- the black cleaver (knauser, miser, penny fox)
- don't know (guess back and forth)
- central (of central, crucial importance)
- the compulsion (urgency; unyielding insistence)
- to talk to the ground (1. to discuss ( sth. ...), discuss; 2. ( to speak to sb. ...) to conscience, to take prayer; to speak plain text)
- the delivery room or the birth room ( delivery room )
- hospitalized are (to the hospital [ hospital . be admitted], for example accident victims: to be hospitalized had two, alternatively had to be spent in hospital care )
- the emergency room (emergency room)
- the medical service (medical service, rescue)
- the medical emergency call center (rescue control center)
- the hospital (also bair., austr., hospital)
- the hospital car , the ambulance, the ambulance ( ambulance , ambulance )
- the Spitex ( Spit al ex ternal care, nursing home by trained nurses)
- possibly (also in Austria, possibly)
- the extinguisher (coll .: [transferred] disappointment; something that has not found favor, e.g. a bad hotel room)
- amten (to exercise an office, to officiate)
- at the beginning, for example at the beginning of the year or at the beginning of the year (German: beginning of the year)
- die Are , plural: die Aren ( Ar ), area measure; but the Aare is a river
- the argumentarium (also in Austria, list of arguments)
- the description (description)
- ennet (beyond)
- the hectares , plural: the hectares ( hectares )
- within (within)
- der / das Jupe (French or German pronounced; bair., Austrian Joppe, skirt)
- the trick (difficult task)
- the running text ( running text )
- the space (space)
- das Nastuch, inf. (Handkerchief)
- das Natel , from N ationales A uto tel efon; Wz. (Mobile phone, cell phone)
- the economic building (economic building)
- the pelerine (rain cape )
- the on- call service (on- call service )
- the posture ( stature )
- recycle (reuse, recycle)
- finally (also South German, Austrian, in the end, in the end)
- the tatting master (organizer, spokesman)
- the phone (phone call, phone call; especially give someone a phone here = call)
- the interruption (interruption)
- advance (before)
- wholesomeness (solid; efficient, reliable; good, tidy, real; from food: strong and nutritious, filling)
- the Guidelines (description, Guide)
Other (additional) meaning
- possibly (also south German, possibly, at most)
- the abdication (funeral service)
- the offshoot (branch)
- the action (also Austrian, special offer)
- set up (sociable, happy, spontaneous)
- the foothills (messenger, errand boy)
- the enclosure (attachment of a letter or e-mail)
- the Blache (the tarp, tent, tarpaulin)
- invite (+ inf.) (ask to do something: the Federal Council has been invited to examine the proposal)
- resinous (tough, slow)
- the chicken skin ( goose bumps in the sense of the skin phenomenon)
- to turn (turn around, turn around; the meaning 'clean with a broom' is German.)
- the commissioner (detective commissioner )
- the bucket (half a liter of beer in a glass pump )
- the arbor (balcony above a staircase, also used as a house entrance)
- der Mais (trouble, noise) - make corn, have = cause trouble, have
- mutate and mutation (in the sense of change, e.g. change of address)
- the national council (member of the people's chamber of parliament, people's chamber itself; Austrian only: the people's chamber itself)
- the emergency ( emergency room)
- the chat inf. (Pleasure; e.g. Veloplausch = bike tour)
- the pouf inf. (Disorder, mess; Zoff)
- Bye and Bye or Ciao in Switzerland Duzformen
- the quarter (district)
- the sack (bag, also southern German: trouser pocket)
- vertical (sincere, good, patriotic)
- speak (approve [funds, loans])
- the bar (a glass of 3 dl beer)
- to vote (to vote)
- encounter (press (on doors, also Austrian.), push (bicycle))
- offensive (offensive)
- the striation (mild stroke, med. TIA )
- the trainer (tracksuit)
- to sound (to sound)
- the turnaround (farmstead, associated land around the house)
- to thank (to thank in a formal way for something), analogously to thank
- the board of directors ( except for corporations under public law: supervisory board)
- the priority (right of way)
- in advance (adv.) (predominantly, predominantly, primarily, primarily)
- to wipe (to clean with a broom)
Out of date in the rest of the language area (or parts of it)
- the advocate (lawyer)
- so far (so far)
- the boy (boy)
- minim (insignificant, minimal)
- Recognize, not only used for military purposes (explore)
- to stand with sawed-off trousers (have lost out)
- dropped out of parting and agenda items (disregarded)
- it makes it appear ( it makes it appear)
- by eye (with the naked eye)
- go into the exit ( go out)
- hunt out (negotiate)
- to send bachab (to discard sth.)
- from the beginning (from the beginning)
- from sight (play) (play from sight, without practice)
- Take a seat (become a member of a committee)
- stand there like the donkey on the mountain (stand like the ox in front of the mountain)
- to make your fist in the sack (clench your fist in your pocket)
- neither fish nor bird (neither fish nor meat; inconsistent; ambiguous; nothing correct)
- within a reasonable time (reasonably fast)
- overloading the load (doing too much of a good thing)
- spin the fiver twice (watch out for money)
- You can't have the fiver and the Weggli . (self-explanatory: five = five-centime piece / Weggli = bread roll )
- Wrist times pi (something like ..., pi times thumb)
- handkehr (t) to inf. adv .; also hand reversal (t) (suddenly, unawares ; on the other hand, viewed differently)
- Hans was Heiri (jacket and pants)
- it has so long has (there is something while stocks last )
- Mr and Mrs Swiss (the average Swiss, average consumers in Switzerland)
- not having his hay on the same stage with (not having the same views as)
- There's enough hay down now! (That's enough!)
- someone opens the button (also in Austria, someone lights up, someone develops)
- to swing from above (to take a top spot)
- find the rank (but still find the right way / get the curve)
- to hang on the satchel (to lick the ass)
- give something to talk about (provide something to talk about )
- standing next to the shoes (lying wrong; not feeling comfortable in one's skin; being beside oneself)
- blow in the shoes (slide down the hump)
- to be strict (to have a lot to do)
- in deed and truth (in reality)
- low prices / taxes (low prices / taxes)
- don't wank (don't move, don't make a sound)
- it will show (it will show)
- it makes someone wonder if ( someone cares if)
- To talk about money (to grant money)
- on the radio, on television (on the radio, on television)
- Take care of someone (take care of someone)
- End of week, end of month, end of year (end of week / month / year)
- up to and including (up to and including)
- there is still beer (potatoes etc.) in the cellar (there is still beer in the cellar)
- I am cold (I am cold) - is also a Belgianism
Swiss subject specifics
In the areas of cuisine, folk culture and politics there are numerous peculiarities that are not known outside of Switzerland and for which there are therefore no common German expressions.
- Cuisine: Älplermagronen (dish with sliced potatoes, macaroni (pasta), cream, onions and melted cheese), Basler Läckerli , Gnagi, coffee ready (coffee with schnapps)
- Politics: Municipal Assembly (Assembly of voters of a municipality), half-canton , initiative , rural community , the Council of States , the cantons , consultation
- Folk culture: Hamol position (sitting position when sunbathing) replaced by a cream brand .; Hornussen (a baton game, especially in the canton of Bern ), der / das Nouss (whipping disc in Hornussen), Jass (a card game), Schwingen (a kind of wrestling match), Schwinget (tournament for this wrestling match)
- Nature: Bise , a dry, cold wind that carries cold continental air from northeast Europe to Central Europe
There are several publications that make recommendations for a well-maintained pronunciation of standard German in Switzerland and that are neither too strongly based on German nor too strongly on Swiss-German patterns. The following compilation, however, follows a more descriptive (descriptive) approach.
In Switzerland, some words are stressed on different syllables than in large parts of the rest of the German-speaking area:
- usually be stressed on the first syllable about
- Hereditary words like halberd and hornet
- many foreign words, e.g. B. Asphalt, Apostrophe, Balcony, Billet, Budget, Office, Filet, Garage, Laboratory, Parrot, Penalty, Wallet , etc.
- prefixed words such as compartment, department, mess
- Derived compositions composed of particles such as excellent, unspeakable, unspeakable, indispensable, unstoppable
- Adverbs as soon, before, afterwards
- Compositions with omnipresence, for example omnipresence, all, general, yearly
- Family names with a preposition are always emphasized on the preposition, even if it is not written together with the name, e.g. B. in Michael von Grünigen
- Abbreviations ( acronyms ) spoken as letters such as CD, WC, FDP etc. are emphasized not on the last but on the first letter (i.e. CéDe, WéCe, 'effdeepee)
- In the case of fixed combinations, in which the defining word is a derivation of -er , the first accent is often used, followed by a summary (see the chapter on orthography): Génfersee (not Geneva Sée ), Schwéizerschule (abroad, versus any Swiss school in Inland), Swiss people
- On the other hand, the last syllable emphasizes New Year, Motor, Orient, Tractor
The emphasis can be dependent on the dialect: B. Kiosk emphasizes the i (Kíosk) in Bern German and the o (Kiósk) in Basel German, which often remains audible when speaking in High German.
Basically, every speaker has a strong influence of the basic Swiss German dialect, but there are strong educational-related differences. The stage German is virtually unknown; its use in everyday life outside the theater by Swiss people is rejected as being non-Swiss; this refers to the speakers on state radio and television. Basically:
- / v / is as in younger foreign words approximant [ ʋ ] pronounced. In older foreign and loan words, however, it is often realized as voiceless Lenis [ v̥ ] and thus pronounced like an f , e.g. B. in Advent, Arve, Clevner, David, Gospel, cadaver, piano, nervous, November, provisions, provisional, vagabond, vagant, vegetarian, veggie, valve, Verena, Veronika, vicar, Viktor, violet, viper, vice president, volcano , civil. The same applies to Romanesque place names that have long been Germanized, such as Davos, Untervaz, Vaduz, Valendas, Vals, Valzeina, Vatican, Veltlin, Venice, Versam, Vilters, Vinelz, Visp, Vogesen .
- Consonants written twice are often pronounced long, for example always as [ ˈɪmːər ]. A special case is [ gg ], which is not pronounced as [ gː ], but as unaspirated [kː]. Pronunciation of z. B. Egger [ 'ɛkːər ], Jäggi [ ' jækːɪ ].
- Even in the wording, <ch> is pronounced as [x], for example in local place names such as Chur and Cham or in foreign words such as China, chemistry , surgery , etc. The people of Chur say “Khur”.
- In Switzerland (except Basel-City as well as parts of eastern Switzerland) outweighs the rolled tongue tips-R ([r]) as opposed to the default language of Germany, where the rubbing R ( [ ʁ ] ) or suppositories-R ( [ ʀ ] ) predominates.
- The <r> is not vocalized. In Switzerland, father is called [ faːter ] (correspondingly dialectal [ fatːər ]) and not [ faːtɐ ].
- In German-speaking Switzerland (as well as in southern Germany and Austria), voiced [ z ] is unusual; instead, unvoiced [ s ] applies : [ siː siŋt ], not [ ziː ziŋt ].
- Often the glottal beat is missing ([ʔ]); all words are pronounced “ legato ” (connected), e.g. B. in every evening [ jeːdən‿ aːbənd ]. If two syllables are separated by vowels, the glottal beat is always missing.
- z. T. is <ch> as not differ in dialect in "I-" or "oh-sound", but exclusively as velares [x] or even uvulares [ χ ] articulated such. B. in not = [ nɪxt ] or [ nɪχt ].
- z. In part, <k> is pronounced as a velar affricate [ k͡x ] or even as a uvular affricate [ q͡χ ] as in the dialect , e.g. B. Art = [ k͡xʊnst ].
- <st> and <sp> are seldom pronounced as [ ʃt ] or [ ʃp ] in the interior of the word, as in dialect , e.g. B. Branch as [ aʃt ].
- The unstressed, weak <e> is often not as Schwa pronounced in dialect, but as [ e ] or [ ɛ ] , z. B. Thought = [ g̊eˈd̥anke ] or [ g̊ɛˈd̥ankɛ ].
- Depending on the dialect, it may be that / a / very dark (as [ ɑ ] ) is pronounced.
- Depending on the dialect, short / ɛ /, / ɔ / and / œ / may be articulated in closed form, cf. Bed = [bet], open = [ 'ofːɘn ], hell = [ hølːe ].
- Depending on the dialect, long / eː /, / oː / and / øː / are easily articulated openly, cf. goes = [ gɛːt ], already = [ ʃɔːn ], beautiful = [ ʃœːn ].
- Preservation of old length in the root of the word can be found in devotion, brought, brought, thought / thought, neighbor, revenge (each with / aː /), memory, revenge (each with / ɛː /), caught, walked, hung, quarter, fourteen , forty (each with / iː /), wedding, laurel, rust [in the sense of a grid-like device] (each with / oː /), roasting (with / øː /), cheering (with / uː /).
- Secondary vowel expansion is often found in an (also in prefixes such as memory ) and in ur-, ur- (about cause ).
A “singing” tone is characteristic of Swiss High German; d. H. In every word, the stressed syllable is not only characterized by a higher volume, but also by a clear change in the pitch of the voice: normally the pitch of the stressed syllable drops . Examples:
- With merci (“thank you!”) The first syllable is pronounced louder and lower or significantly higher than the second.
- Benefit at the command ! In department store announcements the pitch drops from pro to -fi- until it has reached the lowest point at -tie- ; at -ren and you will approximately reach the starting height again.
The orthography differs most clearly from the rest of the language area in the absence of the Eszett . So even after a long vowel or diphthong, double s are always written, for example except, merely, tear or mass (both for “mass” and for “measure”). This development began in the 19th century with the conversion from Fraktur to Antiqua , because the latter initially had no "ß". In the Canton of Zurich , the Education Council abolished the “ß” for schools in the Canton of Zurich in 1935, and all other cantons followed this decision. In letterpress printing, however, the “ß” has in some cases remained in place to this day, with a view to the German market, and individual newspapers used it for a long time, for example the Neue Zürcher Zeitung until 1974.
In Switzerland, French and Italian loanwords are also written in the French and Italian forms after the spelling reform, e.g. B. Spaghetti . The NZZ has chosen the case placieren decided not recently placing the need to write.
Derivatives on -er are often written together with the following noun if there is a semantic unit, regardless of whether the defining word means the inhabitants or the region (unlike in German German). This applies to geographical names such as Flumserberge, Lake Geneva, Mattertal, Stanserhorn, Zugerberg , etc., street names such as Baslerstrasse , etc., terms such as Swiss flag , Swiss franc , Swiss border, Swiss cross, Swiss psalm, Swiss school (abroad), Swiss people , etc., dialect names such as Schaffhausen German , Urner German, Valais German , etc. (but also Basel, Bern, Lucerne, Zurich German ), culinary terms such as Bernerplatte, Bündnerfleisch, Linzertorte, Wienerschnitzel and historical terms such as the Burgundian Wars, Kappeler Wars, Milan Wars or trains, Näfelserfahrt, Neuchâtel trade, Pavierzug, Sarnerbund, Savoy trade, Stäfner trade, Villmergerkrieg . With this composition - apart from certain place names - there is always a stress on the first syllable; in Switzerland one speaks Génfersee with an emphasis on Geneva-, not like in the Federal German Genfer Sée with an emphasis on sea (but: Flumserbérge, Zollikerbérg ).
old in the sense of "former or retired" is often used as an unflexed adjective in front of official and professional titles, for example old National Councilor Hubacher . In other national varieties, old plus functional designation is written as a compound: Alt [federal] chancellor etc.
Finally, there are also individual features such as B. pretzels instead pretzel; Muesli instead of cereal; Ziger instead of Zieger .
Decimal and thousand separators
In Switzerland, the comma is generally used as the decimal separator . An exception are amounts of money where there is a point between the currency unit and the sub-unit. Since the Swiss keyboard has a decimal point in the numeric keypad (in contrast to the comma on the German keyboard), the point is often used generally (and not only for amounts of money) as a decimal separator. This is particularly true for spreadsheet programs, since there it is hardly possible to differentiate between monetary amounts and other numbers and the settings only allow one character as a decimal separator. In oral usage, however, “comma” is said.
Single quotation marks or fixed spaces are used as separators for thousands: “8,419,550 people live in Switzerland” or “8,419,550 people live in Switzerland”.
Deviations exist e.g. B. in gender (male: the third, quarter (in the sense of third, fourth part) instead of the quarter, female: the asparagus instead of the asparagus, the photo next to the photo, neutral: the e-mail, the SMS, the tram instead of the e-mail, the SMS, the tram, then the radio next to the radio ).
Other genus in conjunction with another form have approximately the Are, the hectare, the labels (in the sense of Label), the limit, the omelette instead of Ar, per hectare, the label, the limit, the omelette, conversely, the Trassee instead of the route .
Different case usage after verbs and prepositions
The verb valence can also be different, for example asking someone instead of asking someone . The prepositional connection can also differ: Discount with the preposition auf is used with the dative ; in Germany with accusative . Example: "20% discount on all n items n ".
Thanks and despite are usually used in the written language with the dative: "thanks to his good knowledge", "despite the bad weather". In Germany, despite mostly and thanks , the genitive is often associated with: “thanks to his good knowledge”, “despite the bad weather”. The dative after despite is actually historically correct (cf. to this day: “anyway”) and was consistently common in Middle High German. Also because of , people like to use the dative case instead of the genitive case, which is not generally accepted as standard language: "because of the bad weather".
For some words, the plural is formed differently, e.g. E.g .: Gurt - Gurten, Asparagus - Asparagus, Department - Departments, Park - Parks, Account - Accounts .
There is a partially different use of the fugue , e.g. B. "Zugsverkehr" (instead of "Zugverkehr" as in Germany). However, there are also examples to the contrary, e.g. B. "Bahnhofordnung" (instead of "Bahnhofsordnung").
The verb weave , unlike in Germany and Austria, is also strongly bent in its general meaning: it wove a patterned fabric, has woven a patterned fabric, not only in the figurative sense (some sagas wove around its shape) . Especially in the transferred meaning is also dine strongly inflected: The lake is fed by four streams.
Certain landscape names that are articleless in German and Austrian German appear in Swiss High German only with an article: that / in Burgundy, that / in Piedmont, that / in Friuli, that / in Tyrol, often also that / in Vorarlberg . Article usage is particularly pronounced for names of Swiss landscapes and valleys such as the Avers, the Bergell, the Gaster, the Goms, the Misox, the Ticino, the Toggenburg, the Valais .
The relative pronoun which (r) , which is otherwise considered old-fashioned and cumbersome in the German-speaking world , is used without this connotation , e.g. B. in This has created a competence center for climate issues in Switzerland, which increasingly places the needs of the population at the center of its research.
Conspicuous in the sentence structure are constructions with a shortened main clause and the following subordinate clause, which is only indicated by the initial position of the verb, for example:
- Well, there are Swiss farmers. instead of (It is) good that there are Swiss farmers.
- Well, you have time today. instead of (It's) nice that you have time today.
- What a shame you weren't here yesterday. instead of (It's) a shame that you weren't here yesterday.
The pragmatics of Swiss German, i.e. the way in which something is expressed, differs in some cases from German and Austrian.
More often than in the rest of the language area, negations are used instead of the opposite, e.g. B .:
- not big enough - instead of too small
- too little far - instead of too short or insufficient .
Swiss expressions that have been adopted into standard German
Unsurprisingly, most of the expressions refer to peculiarities from fauna , flora , cuisine and politics , which, along with the previously unknown matter, became known elsewhere in the German-speaking area.
- Glacier (common in the Western Alps ; in the Eastern Alps it is also known as Ferner or Kees )
- Avalanche (re-Romanization of the Láui, Láuine, used in the Swiss Alps)
- Putsch (derived from putsch 'push'; in the 19th century there were uprisings against the government in several cantons; in Germany the word became known primarily through the Kapp Putsch ; as early as the 19th century the word spread in other languages, namely in English (the putsch) and in French (le putsch ))
- Imperial Germans (shaped by German-speaking Swiss after 1871)
- Debt brake (introduced in Switzerland 2001/2003, see debt brake (Switzerland) , also adopted in Germany in 2009/2011, see debt brake (Germany) )
- Foreign infiltration (common in Swiss xenophobic discourse since the 1920s)
- Vignette (sticker that proves that a fee has been paid; vignettes were initially introduced for use on Swiss motorways)
- Cordon Bleu
- Muesli (Germanized form for easier pronunciation; in Switzerland it is called muesli [myəsli]; in Swiss German muesli [myːsli] means little mouse)
- Hash browns
- Homesickness (a psychosomatic illness that was first described as "Swiss disease" - morbus helveticus - among Swiss mercenaries; the word " nostalgia " originated in the 17th century as a translation of "homesickness" into Greek)
- incessantly (continuously; continuously)
- Ulrich Ammon : The German language in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The problem of national varieties. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1995, ISBN 3-11-014753-X .
- Ulrich Ammon, Hans Bickel , Jakob Ebner a. a .: German variant dictionary . The standard language in Austria, Switzerland and Germany as well as in Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, East Belgium and South Tyrol . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-11-016575-9 (hardback, ISBN 3-11-016574-0 paperback). - Ulrich Ammon, Hans Bickel, Alexandra N. Lenz (eds.): German dictionary of variants. The standard language in Austria, Switzerland, Germany, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, East Belgium and South Tyrol as well as Romania, Namibia and Mennonite settlements. 2nd, completely revised and expanded edition. De Gruyter, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-11-024543-1 .
- Hans Bickel, Christoph Landolt : Swiss High German. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. 2nd, completely revised and expanded edition. Edited by the Swiss Association for the German Language . Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-411-70418-7 .
- Christa Dürscheid , Martin Businger (Hrsg.): Swiss Standard German: Contributions to variety linguistics. Narr, Tübingen 2006, ISBN 978-3-8233-6225-8 .
- Hannelore Fenske: Swiss and Austrian features in German dictionaries (= Institute for the German language. Research reports. Volume 10). Mannheim 1973, ISBN 3-87808-610-5 .
- Stephan Kaiser: The special features of the written German language in Switzerland. Volume 1: Words and Word Usage. Volume 2: Word formation and sentence formation (= Duden contributions. Booklets 30a and 30b). Dudenverlag / Bibliographical Institute, Mannheim / Vienna / Zurich 1969. 1970.
- Kurt Meyer : Swiss Dictionary. That's what we say in Switzerland. Huber, Frauenfeld 2006, ISBN 978-3-7193-1382-1 .
- László Ódor: Helvetisms. German cultural dictionary of the Swiss Confederation. Martin Meidenbauer, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-89975-177-2 .
- Rudolf Schilling: Romance elements in Swiss High German (= Duden contributions. Issue 38). Dudenverlag / Bibliographical Institute, Mannheim / Vienna / Zurich 1970.
- August Steiger: Swiss vocabulary in the Duden. In: Annual review of the German-speaking Swiss Language Association 37, 1941, pp. 62–88 ( digitized version ).
- Helvetisms in the German universal dictionary: “The Swiss vocabulary of German” by Maria Grazia Chiaro .
- Collection of Helvetisms: "Written German"
- Page no longer available , search in web archives: Guide to German Spelling 2008 , published by the Federal Chancellery. The official spellings.
- Onion fish column on the topic at Spiegel.de
- Blog on the topic of Helvetisms / Swiss High German
- Swiss Federal Chancellery (Ed.): Writing instructions. Instructions from the Federal Chancellery on the writing and formulation of the German-language official federal texts . February 11, 2008, Helvetismen 3.6, p. 61 ff . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives: online [accessed on May 27, 2008]). Online ( Memento of the original from January 22, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Ulrich Ammon: The German language in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The problem of national varieties. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1995; for terminology, see pp. 61–73. The examples come from the German dictionary of variants. The standard language in Austria, Switzerland, Germany, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, East Belgium and South Tyrol as well as Romania, Namibia and Mennonite settlements. Edited by Ulrich Ammon, Hans Bickel, Alexandra N. Lenz. 2nd, completely revised and expanded edition. De Gruyter, Berlin 2016.
- Ulrich Ammon: The German language in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The problem of national varieties. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1995; here regarding Switzerland 251–282. Most of the Helvetism collections mentioned in the bibliography below do not only cover vocabulary, but also pronunciation, grammar and spelling.
- Urs Bühler: Advantages of local language food: A praise to the Helvetisms In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung of February 28, 2017
- The linguist Christa Dürscheid, for example, uses the term exclusively to denote lexical peculiarities; see. Christa Dürscheid: Is standard German a marginal phenomenon in Switzerland? In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung , January 16, 2007.
- Hans Bickel, Christoph Landolt: Swiss High German. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. 2nd, completely revised and expanded edition, published by the Swiss Association for the German Language. Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, p. 7.
- See variant dictionary of German. The standard language in Austria, Switzerland, Germany, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, East Belgium and South Tyrol as well as Romania, Namibia and Mennonite settlements. Edited by Ulrich Ammon, Hans Bickel, Alexandra N. Lenz. 2nd, completely revised and expanded edition. De Gruyter, Berlin 2016 pp. XII – XVII; in great detail then Hans Bickel, Lorenz Hofer, Sandra Suter: Variant Dictionary of German (VWB) - NEW. Dynamics of the German standard variation from a lexicographical point of view. In: Roland Kehrein, Alfred Lameli, Stefan Rabanus (eds.): Regional variation of German. Projects and Perspectives. De Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2015, pp. 541–562.
- The foreign word - something worth reading and interesting. (PDF) Nine articles on the history, function and use of the foreign word from the book Duden - The Foreign Dictionary; 10th edition. (No longer available online.) In: Duden - The foreign dictionary. Archived from the original on July 12, 2017 ; Retrieved on August 6, 2014 (see above all the chapter Foreign words as a mirror of cultural history on pp. 32–33). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Duden | Self-accident | Spelling, meaning, definition. Retrieved February 11, 2018 .
- Duden, 24th ed., P. 674
- Hans Bickel, Christoph Landolt: Swiss High German. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. Edited by the Swiss Association for the German Language. 2., completely revised and exp. Edition Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, pp. 99–104; Bruno Boesch : The pronunciation of standard German in Switzerland. A guide. On behalf of the Swiss Siebs Commission. Schweizer Spiegel Verlag, Zurich 1957; Walter Haas, Ingrid Hove: The standard pronunciation in German-speaking Switzerland. In: Eva-Maria Krech u. a .: German pronunciation dictionary. De Gruyter, Berlin 2009, pp. 259-277; Ingrid Hove: The pronunciation of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland (= Phonai. Volume 47). Tübingen 2002; Kurt Meyer: Swiss Dictionary. That's what we say in Switzerland. Huber, Frauenfeld / Stuttgart / Vienna 2006, pp. 25–33.
- More detailed on the stress ratios Kurt Meyer: Swiss dictionary. That's what we say in Switzerland. Huber, Frauenfeld / Stuttgart / Vienna 2006, p. 27 f .; Hans Bickel, Christoph Landolt: Swiss High German. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. 2nd, completely revised and expanded edition, published by the Swiss Association for the German Language. Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, p. 103 f.
- Kurt Meyer: Swiss dictionary. That's what we say in Switzerland. Huber, Frauenfeld / Stuttgart / Vienna 2006, p. 27.
- Kurt Meyer: Swiss dictionary. That's what we say in Switzerland. Huber, Frauenfeld / Stuttgart / Vienna 2006, p. 30; Hans Bickel, Christoph Landolt: Swiss High German. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. 2nd, completely revised and expanded edition, published by the Swiss Association for the German Language. Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, p. 102.
- Hans Bickel, Christoph Landolt: Swiss High German. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. 2nd, completely revised and expanded edition, published by the Swiss Association for the German Language. Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, p. 101.
- Kurt Meyer: Swiss dictionary. That's what we say in Switzerland. Huber, Frauenfeld / Stuttgart / Vienna 2006, p. 29.
- Kurt Meyer: Swiss dictionary. That's what we say in Switzerland. Huber, Frauenfeld / Stuttgart / Vienna 2006, p. 27; Hans Bickel, Christoph Landolt: Swiss High German. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. 2nd, completely revised and expanded edition, published by the Swiss Association for the German Language. Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, p. 103.
- Kurt Meyer: Swiss dictionary. That's what we say in Switzerland. Huber, Frauenfeld / Stuttgart / Vienna 2006, p. 27; Hans Bickel, Christoph Landolt: Swiss High German. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. 2nd, completely revised and expanded edition, published by the Swiss Association for the German Language. Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, p. 102.
- Hans Bickel, Christoph Landolt: Swiss High German. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. 2nd, completely revised and expanded edition, published by the Swiss Association for the German Language. Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, p. 103.
- Kurt Meyer: Swiss dictionary. That's what we say in Switzerland. Huber, Frauenfeld / Stuttgart / Vienna 2006, p. 26; Hans Bickel, Christoph Landolt: Swiss High German. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. 2nd, completely revised and expanded edition, published by the Swiss Association for the German Language. Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, p. 100.
- For this in detail Kurt Meyer: Swiss dictionary. That's what we say in Switzerland. Huber, Frauenfeld 2006, pp. 51–53, also Hans Bickel, Christoph Landolt: Schweizerhochdeutsch. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. Edited by the Swiss Association for the German Language. 2., completely revised and exp. Edition Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, p. 98.
- Duden, keyword old, meaning 8 , accessed on August 21, 2020.
- Swiss Federal Chancellery (Ed.): Writing instructions. Instructions from the Federal Chancellery on the writing and formulation of the German-language official federal texts . February 11, 2008, Section 5.1.3, § 514 - Writing decimal numbers, p. 80 ( online [accessed May 27, 2008]).
- The spelling instructions of the Swiss Federal Chancellery, page 79, section 5.1.2, section 512.
- Kurt Meyer: Swiss dictionary. That's what we say in Switzerland. Huber, Frauenfeld / Stuttgart / Vienna 2006, p. 36 f .; Hans Bickel, Christoph Landolt: Swiss High German. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. Edited by the Swiss Association for the German Language. 2., completely revised and exp. Edition Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, p. 104.
- Kurt Meyer: Swiss dictionary. That's what we say in Switzerland. Huber, Frauenfeld / Stuttgart / Vienna 2006, p. 34; Hans Bickel, Christoph Landolt: Swiss High German. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. Edited by the Swiss Association for the German Language. 2., completely revised and exp. Edition Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, p. 105.
- Kurt Meyer: Swiss dictionary. That's what we say in Switzerland. Huber, Frauenfeld / Stuttgart / Vienna 2006, p. 39 f .; Hans Bickel, Christoph Landolt: Swiss High German. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. Edited by the Swiss Association for the German Language. 2., completely revised and exp. Edition Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, p. 105 f.
- Kurt Meyer: Swiss dictionary. That's what we say in Switzerland. Huber, Frauenfeld / Stuttgart / Vienna 2006, p. 36; Hans Bickel, Christoph Landolt: Swiss High German. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. Edited by the Swiss Association for the German Language. 2., completely revised and exp. Edition Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, p. 105.
- Kurt Meyer: Swiss dictionary. That's what we say in Switzerland. Huber, Frauenfeld / Stuttgart / Vienna 2006, p. 34; Hans Bickel, Christoph Landolt: Swiss High German. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. Edited by the Swiss Association for the German Language. 2., completely revised and exp. Edition Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, p. 105.
- Kurt Meyer: Swiss dictionary. That's what we say in Switzerland. Huber, Frauenfeld / Stuttgart / Vienna 2006, p. 38; Hans Bickel, Christoph Landolt: Swiss High German. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. Edited by the Swiss Association for the German Language. 2., completely revised and exp. Edition Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, p. 105.
- Hans Bickel, Christoph Landolt: Swiss High German. Dictionary of the standard language in German-speaking Switzerland. Edited by the Swiss Association for the German Language. 2., completely revised and exp. Edition Dudenverlag, Berlin 2018, p. 105.
- From the 2001 annual report of ETH Zurich