Joe Zawinul shaped the international music scene for several decades first as a pianist and keyboardist , then also as a composer , band leader and arranger . In 1966 he wrote the hit Mercy, Mercy, Mercy for the Cannonball Adderley Quintet , which became a reference recording of soul jazz . In 1969 he composed the title track of Miles Davis' LP In a Silent Way , one of the first fusion jazz albums, in which he was just as much involved as in his "revolutionary" LP Bitches Brew (1970). At the end of 1970 he and Wayne Shorter founded the style-defining fusion group Weather Report , which has received many awards and described as "the best jazz band of the last 30 years" by Josef Woodard in Down Beat (2001).
In addition to his success as a composer, arranger and band leader, Zawinul is also considered a pioneer in the use of electronic instruments. He was one of the few musicians who developed his own tone on a synthesizer . The central feature of his later compositions is the integration of ethnic musical styles and elements into the jazz context. He developed this sound world with Weather Report and the subsequent group The Zawinul Syndicate to a championship and received further ideas on his world tours.
Live and act
Josef Erich Zawinul was the son of the worker Josef Zawinul, whose mother was a Hungarian Sintiza and whose father came from South Moravia . He came from a humble background, but throughout his life Zawinul was proud of his multicultural family and relatives; he saw them as a community of hard-working, simple, and lovable people. Zawinul's father worked as a fitter in the city gas works in Vienna; in his spare time he played the harmonica , lifted weights and boxed. Boxing should also become a lifelong passion for his son. The mother Maria, b. Hameder, was an amateur singer, she played some piano and had the perfect pitch . She initially worked as a cook for the upper-class Jewish couple Jocklich, from whom she was always taken to the opera until they emigrated to Palestine . These musical experiences made her want her son to become a musician too. Then she worked as a postal worker. Josef ("Pepe") grew up in Weinlechnergasse 1, in the working-class district of Erdberg , in Vienna's Landstraße district . In addition, he often stayed in Oberkirchbach, his mother's small home village in the middle of the Vienna Woods , who came from a family with eleven children. His twin brother Erich died of pneumonia at the age of four.
At the age of six he was given a small accordion and took lessons from a music teacher. In his family and with relatives he heard and sang Czech and Slovenian tunes, Hungarian Sinti songs, polkas and country folk from an early age ; now he could also accompany them instrumentally and set the rhythm for them. After nine months, his music teacher Zawinul's mother said: "Ms. Zawinul, I can't teach the boy anything anymore, he has so much talent for music that he should actually go to the conservatory." When it turned out that he too had perfect pitch , he received a free place (free lessons) at the then Conservatory of the City of Vienna , where he took lessons in piano, violin and clarinet. In doing so, he initially prepared himself for a career as a classical pianist, which he increasingly only performed out of duty. From 1945 he attended the secondary school in Hagenmüllergasse ( 3rd district ); his classmate and close friend became Thomas Klestil , who later became president . Later both of them spoke frankly about common pranks such as free visits to the outdoor pool and the cinema.
The musical film Stormy Weather (1943), in which the top stars of black entertainment appeared: the dancer Bill "Bojangles" Robinson , the orchestra of Cab Calloway , the pianist Fats Waller , Dooley Wilson (well-known ) left a deep impression on the young Zawinul as Sam from Casablanca , 1942) and the actress Lena Horne . Zawinul watched the film 24 times and fell in love with the leading actress Lena Horne, whom he also wanted to marry. The quality of the film was not only something that Zawinul experienced subjectively, because in 2001 the Library of Congress recognized the film as "culturally valuable" and considered it worthy of special storage in the National Film Registry . In 1977 Zawinul called a Weather Report LP Heavy Weather .
He heard jazz music for the first time when he was twelve and was captured on the spot; a classmate of his boarding school in the Sudetenland played Honeysuckle Rose on the piano . “That was good. And I thought, wow, this is something, I like it. ”At the age of seventeen, he suddenly broke off the intensive preparations for the Geneva piano competition in 1949 and turned to jazz. A college friend from those days was Friedrich Gulda , who was the same age and whom he met in 1951. From 1952 he worked as a jazz musician with other Austrian musicians.
After first experiences in the combo of Vera Auer and with Hans Koller , he co-founded the Austrian All Stars with Hans Salomon in 1954 . Their recordings also received international recognition thanks to Gulda's sponsorship. In 1955/56 he moved to the Johannes Fehring Big Band with the entire line-up of the Austrian All Stars . In 1956 he went to the then most successful Austrian jazz band, the Two Sound Band of Fatty George . After successfully applying for a scholarship at the Berklee School in Boston, he traveled to the USA by train and ship in January 1959, initially for only four months and with $ 800. He went to the USA with the firm intention of not returning to Europe permanently. In fact, he was able to join in with a nearly seamless series of engagements and move on.
On the evening of his arrival in New York City, he went to a club and met Wilbur Ware , Louis Hayes and jammed with Charlie Mariano . Two days later, the impresario called George Wein who was looking for a pianist to accompany Ella Fitzgerald . Zawinul gratefully accepted and proved himself.
A few days later (the figures vary from one to three weeks) he was hired as the pianist of the Maynard Ferguson Band. He broke off training in Boston, moved to New York and played in the Maynard Ferguson Orchestra for eight months. Ferguson obtained the residence permit ( green card ) that was required after four months and the work permit from the union. Zawinul found his way around the black musician community surprisingly quickly. His openness was not limited to teamwork, but also included traveling and living together with his black colleagues under the impositions of racial segregation in the USA at the time. Dinah Washington engaged him as a pianist and introduced him to her audience as "Joe Vienna"; Zawinul stayed with her for two years. Miles Davis became aware of him and invited him to join his band as a teammate. But Zawinul refused that it was not the right time for it - and added that when the time came, they would both write music history. Davis was not upset by his cancellation and respected his point of view. In 1962, Zawinul married Maxine, whom he had met at the famous Birdland jazz club in New York and who had been the first black Playboy bunny; her best man was Cannonball Adderley.
From 1961 to 1970 he played in the quintet of Cannonball Adderley , Zawinul spoke only with the greatest admiration of his mentor, saying that he was the most underrated musician of the 20th century. He would never have heard him play a mistake. Whenever there was criticism from blacks that a white man was playing in his group, the latter countered: “Bring me someone who can play like Joe, then I'll hire him immediately!” He composed almost sixty pieces for his band. In 1966 he had his first big hit Mercy, Mercy, Mercy , developed from a character accompanying a song for Dinah Washington. He first played for a recording on an electric piano, a Wurlitzer Electric Piano , in the LP version it is a Fender Rhodes . Over a million singles were sold and it is still the best-selling jazz recording to this day. Miles Davis was so taken with the warm sound that a week after it was released, he bought his band member Herbie Hancock an electric piano. Other hits were Country Preacher and Walk Tall (1969), which he composed at a charity service given by Reverend Jesse Jackson for Operation Breadbasket , a fellowship program founded by Martin Luther King . In the late 1960s, the Cannonball Adderley Quintet appeared several times as the opening act for English rock 'n' roll supergroups such as The Who . The so-called double billing system pioneered the emerging fusion of jazz music and rock.
Electric Jazz: Weather Report
Jazz historians describe the collaboration between Zawinul and Miles Davis in 1969/70 as a decisive phase in the development of the fusion style. The groundbreaking LP was In a Silent Way (1969). Zawinul composed the title track, Davis only changed a few chords and performed it under his own name. The album Bitches Brew (1970) built on its predecessor and expanded the space for free improvisation. In November 1970 in New York, Zawinul founded the legendary jazz rock formation Weather Report together with saxophonist Wayne Shorter . The use of percussion in addition to the drums promoted the dynamics and the playing of complex polyrhythms . Zawinul broke away from the old 32-bar system, broke with the theme – solo theme scheme and introduced new forms.
From 1976 to 1982 Jaco Pastorius took over the bass, a period that is considered the high phase of the group. Until 1985 the band Weather Report celebrated their greatest commercial successes, including 1977 with the world hit Birdland composed by Zawinul . The composition was awarded a Grammy in three versions by Weather Report, Manhattan Transfer ( Extensions , 1980) and Quincy Jones ( Back on the Block , 1989) .
Zawinul's music with Weather Report was indeed a hit around the world; African listeners in particular loved this sound. His intro to Black Market was the theme tune for Radio Dakar in Senegal for more than 20 years . Weather Report records made the rounds as pirated tapes and influenced an entire generation of African musicians. His later African band members in the Zawinul Syndicate asked him to play because of their appreciation of the music of Weather Report.
World Jazz: Zawinul Syndicate
From 1986 to 1989 he gave several concerts with Friedrich Gulda, for which he received the highest fees in his musical life, but which he did not enjoy doing.
Since 1988 Zawinul and his ensemble, the Zawinul Syndicate, have developed an unmistakable style that dissolves the boundaries between jazz, world and dance music . According to his own statements, he created the hip-hop beat (not to be confused with hip-hop itself); the pieces 125th Street Congress and Boogie Woogie Waltz on the Weather Report album Sweetnighter (1973) were adopted by "50 or 60 different rap groups" as the basis for their rap . In 1991 he produced, arranged and played the recordings of the concept album Amen for the Malian singer Salif Keïta . Companions included Carlos Santana and Wayne Shorter. Miles Davis, who also lived in Malibu, initially accepted Zawinul, but then insisted on a higher fee. In France, the album was voted the best world music record of all time.
Between 1992 and 1996 he recorded the album My People with 35 musicians from all over the world . Musical influences from Africa, the Caribbean, South America, Europe, the Middle East and the USA unite Zawinul into a universal musical language like never before heard.
Always on the lookout for new challenges, Zawinul has faced very different tasks in the last two decades. In 1993, on the occasion of the Bruckner Festival in Linz , he performed his first symphony Stories of the Danube in front of 80,000 spectators at the annual open-air event Linzer Klangwolke with a light and laser show .
In 1998 he asked his school friend and then Federal President Thomas Klestil for official support for voluntary work in Africa. Klestil then appointed him an Austrian cultural ambassador (Good Will Ambassador For The Southern African Countries).
The Austrian Mauthausen concentration camp was the subject of a sound collage with original sounds, combined with its own composition, which was premiered with the reciter and castle actor Frank Hoffmann on August 8, 1998 in the local quarry in front of 9,000 people. During the last piece of the performance, the audience picked up burning candles, remained silent and did not applaud when the last note had faded away.
In 2004, Zawinul opened the Birdland jazz and music club in the basement of the Hilton Hotel in his home district in Vienna . He named it after the famous New York City Birdland , which was one of the most popular jazz clubs from 1949 to 1965 and which he described as the most important place of his life. The search for a suitable location for playing jazz music took ten years. Because of the unrealistic concept, the club quickly ran into financial difficulties. With an improved offer and support from the cultural department of the City of Vienna, the club was able to overcome this first hurdle. In 2005 he founded his own label BirdJAM (BHM Music). On August 11, 2008, Birdland went into bankruptcy. Since the talks with possible investors remained fruitless, the jazz club was closed.
A week after his six-week European tour was Zawinul to Vienna on August 7, 2007 Wilhelminenspital admitted for a rare skin cancer disease, the Merkel cell carcinoma . The musician died on September 11, 2007 at 4:55 am at the age of 75. His wife Maxine had died on July 26, 2007 just weeks before him.
Vienna's mayor Michael Häupl arranged for an honorary grave of the city of Vienna to be assigned to him in the central cemetery . On September 25, 2007, the public was able to say goodbye at a memorial service, which was accompanied by music by his companions. The cremation and burial took place a few days later in the immediate family circle. The urns with the ashes of Joe Zawinul and his wife Maxine rest in grave number 39 of Group 33G .
In a conversation with Gunther Baumann (2002) the artist suggested the following inscription for his tombstone: Joe Zawinul. He was an honest person. A decent human being.
Since the late 1960s, Zawinul flew five to six times a year to Vienna to visit his parents and friends.
His family had lived in Pasadena since 1972 and later in Malibu , a house with a recording studio and a view of the Pacific . A bush fire here in the autumn of 1993 almost destroyed his house with his recordings.
Zawinul left three sons: the filmmaker and film composer Anthony, the Viennese concert promoter Erich and Ivan, a lecturer in recording techniques and equipment at the Musicians Institute in Hollywood. Ivan (* 1969) worked with him in the last 15 years as a sound engineer and co-producer of his recordings. The eldest son Anthony or Tony lived in Milan from 1993 to 2008 and worked there in the film business. Since 2015 he has been preparing the production of two documentaries about his father: Joe Zawinul: An American Dream , and the crowdfunding documentary This is This. The incredible Jazz Journey of Weather Report .
Zawinul's sound world
The comments on Zawinul's music and his remarks on it keep coming back to the fact that it was Zawinul's first musical impressions that shaped his own sound. The melodies of Central European folk music, the rhythm of the human voice and the compact, flat sound of the accordion are often mentioned. Always encouraged by his parents, Zawinul wanted to learn a little more every day and did this in addition to boxing, especially in jazz music. By 1965, his learning workload covered the entire spectrum of the leading styles and playing techniques of jazz. At first he was most impressed by the refined and elegant light music of the Duke Ellington Big Band . For him, good music has always been a skilful mixture of simplicity and sophistication. The piano playing of his idol George Shearing and Miles Davis' cool jazz recording Birth of the Cool fulfilled and demonstrated this quality feature in an ideal way for him . He soon realized that thanks to his talent he could no longer learn anything in the Austrian jazz scene. The move to the USA, to the sources of jazz, was due not only to his very strong will (“stubbornness”) but also to his radical curiosity and determination to continue learning.
In 1965 he suddenly realized that he had “finished learning” when one of the previous pianists of Cannonball Adderley's quintet, Barry Harris , congratulated him on sounding just like himself. Zawinul knew that he was playing exactly like Bud Powell . “I copied perfectly the one who copied Bud Powell most perfectly!” “I realized I was the third copier on the list. I went home, put all my records together and they're still the same way. That was 1965. " From that day on he put his records away and stopped listening to any other music (with the exception of demo tapes from applicants for his bands and projects). Zawinul became thoughtful, he still had no sound of his own and from then on only researched within himself for new sound ideas. When he realized that he was faster in composing than in noting, he first recorded his improvisations and only then wrote them down. He could think of up to 20 pieces a day and in one of his last interviews he stated that he had composed material for twenty years or 13 records.
At first his compositions changed from hard bop to soul jazz , the best-known testimony to this reorientation was the piece Mercy, Mercy, Mercy (1966), which became a reference recording of soul jazz. He thus articulated his search for catchy, singable melodies that are not easy to play. Zawinul's compositions were now based strictly on the song song in terms of melody. He was previously praised for the rhythm of his bass lines, which were intuitively modeled on the speaking rhythm of the human voice: “Our Viennese dialect is very close to a walking bass line. Miles also said: Nobody can write bass lines like you. ”Later he explained:“ I get the spirit of foreign countries from listening, speaking, from the dialects. ”Also in the tone of various electric pianos and synthesizers and in the phrasing of the For melodic runs or riffs , he preferred a natural, human sound. “Play electrically, sound acoustically” was one of the paraphrases of this sound concept. Despite the electrification of his instruments, his music became more human and at the same time more multicultural: “I wanted music that I could play for my parents, but possibly also in Harlem . Through this research, I found the human element in myself. ”The large number of his keyboards enabled him to always have several registers at hand. The turn to ethnic music at Weather Report and especially at the Zawinul Syndicate was also an expansion of the folk music melody repertoire. In addition, there was a steadily increasing complexity in the rhythm and sophistication in the timbres and textures. Zawinul's “Global Music” was therefore recognized as an intelligent extension and synthesis of folk music and rhythms from around the world at the highest level.
In an obituary in the Austrian magazine Jazzzeit entitled “The Boxer” , the author and music critic Robert Fischer described Zawinul as a “musical heavyweight” and concluded with the words: “What remains is an astonishing work, incredibly inspiring in all its different facets, that always new discoveries are worthwhile. "
“But there were always so many people at the table that there was never enough. On Saturdays everyone was in the kitchen, grandfather was making schnapps and everyone was singing Gstanzln . I developed a strong rhythm very early on. When all the people sing together, everyone has the urge to go a little faster. They had terrible timing , and I had to keep everything together [on the accordion], the whole rabble, musically speaking. Somehow that's probably one of the reasons that I should become a leader one day. "
“For me, the groove comes first. Without him I won't even play. "
“It ain't white, it ain't black, but it grooves harder than anything. [...] Nobody can write bass lines like you. "
“My impression was that Joe is the ultimate serious musician. If you look at the recordings on the Weather Report albums, he is always staring into the camera. His attitude gives you to understand, 'I am a serious musician, composer and person.' And that's true, but it's a paradox because he's one of the funniest people I've ever worked with. He is very carefree, enjoys sports, card games and a good sip of plum brandy . He has a very youthful spirit, although he is also an astute, wise old man. "
“I still played during the racial segregation, I was always the only white person with blacks, I always lived with black families and really got to know the reality, humanity, intelligence and sophistication of blacks, I have Learned tons and tons from these people, and I've always lived by the principle of getting into a band and being the weakest and coming out the strongest. "
“Jazz is no longer entertainment. The boys come from the academies, from the schools. The new boys can play very well, but they have forgotten that music has to be entertainment. That's why jazz is going downhill. "
“My music is complicated to play but easy to hear. That is the secret. Cannonball Adderley once told me: 'You write such difficult music, but when you play it - it's clear.' "
More quotes here:
Awards and honors
- Over decades, Zawinul has received countless awards for his artistic work, including several Grammys and 16 Grammy nominations, a total of 28 down-beat readers' poll wins as best electric keyboard player (25 times in a row), Hans-Koller- Prize (2000), Ring of Honor of the City of Vienna (2002) and the Miles Davis Award of the Montreal Jazz Festival (2003).
- In 2001 and 2003 he won the Amadeus Austrian Music Award for “Best Jazz / Blues / Folk Album of the Year”.
- Several musicians dedicated or named compositions after Zawinul: Brian Eno with Zawinul / Lava , John McLaughlin with Jozy and Biréli Lagrène with Josef . Prince described the two pieces Lillie (1962) and Birdland as two of 55 songs that have inspired him musically.
- On November 24, 2003, the Gumpoldskirchen Music School was renamed Joe Zawinul Music School.
- On May 24, 2004 the Austrian Post honored him with a special stamp (0.55 euros).
- In 2006 Zawinul was awarded the honorary certificate of the “ Preis der deutschen Schallplattenkritik e. V. “excellent.
- On May 11, 2007, Federal Chancellor Alfred Gusenbauer awarded him the Great Silver Medal of Honor for Services to the Republic of Austria on the occasion of the opening of the Wiener Festwochen .
- 2007 honorary citizenship of the market town of St. Andrä Wierter (the town in which Oberkirchbach is located, the hometown of his family) on his 75th birthday
- 2009: Joe-Zawinul-Park in Vienna
- On November 2, 2009: “Requiem for Joe Zawinul.” Premiered by and with Rudi Wilfer for jazz band, choir and soloists as part of the jazz autumn in the Christ Church (Salzburg) on All Souls Day .
- 2010: Posthumously the Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Jazz Album for his album 75
As a band leader (including Weather Report and The Zawinul Syndicate )
- Joe Zawinul and The Austrian All Stars 1954–57 (RST, 2004)
- Ben Webster and Joe Zawinul: Soulmates (Riverside, 1963)
- The Rise and Fall of the Third Stream (Vortex, 1965)
- Money in the Pocket (Atco, 1966)
- Zawinul (Warner, 1971)
- Weather Report: Sweetnighter (1973)
- Weather Report: Black Market (Columbia, 1976)
- Weather Report: Heavy Weather (Columbia, 1977)
- Weather Report: 8:30 am (Columbia, 1979)
- Weather Report: Night Passage (Columbia, 1980)
- Di-a-lects (Columbia, 1986)
- The Zawinul Syndicate: Black Water (Columbia, 1989)
- The Zawinul Syndicate: Lost Tribes (Columbia, 1992)
- My People (ESC, 1996)
- Stories of the Danube (Polygram, 1996)
- Mauthausen - Hear about the great dying (ESC, 2000)
- Faces and Places (ESC, 2002)
- Brown Street (Intuition, 2006)
- Joe Zawinul and The Zawinul Syndicate: 75th (BHM, 2007)
As a companion
- Dinah Washington: What a Difference a Day Makes (Mercury, 1960)
- Yusef Lateef : The Centaur and the Phoenix (Riverside, 1961)
- Nancy Wilson and Cannonball Adderley (Capitol, 1961)
- Cannonball Adderley: Nippon Soul (Riverside, 1963)
- Cannonball Adderley: Mercy, Mercy, Mercy! Live at the Club (Capitol, 1966)
- Cannonball Adderley Quintet: Country Preacher (Capitol, 1969)
- Miles Davis: In a Silent Way (Columbia, 1969)
- Miles Davis: Bitches Brew (Columbia, 1970)
- Weather Report - Live at Montreux 1976. Concert recording from the Montreux Jazz Festival , 2007, 84 min., Production: Montreux Sounds, DVD no. EREDV629, review:
- Rockpalast : Weather Report. Concert recording in the Offenbach city hall , production: WDR , first broadcast: September 29, 1978.
- On the route with Joe Zawinul. Documentary, France, 2000, 50 min., Realization: Daniel Farhi, director: Brice Meslem, production: New Morning Vision.
- WDR Big Band and Joe Zawinul / Joe Zawinul and Syndicate. Concert from the 23rd Leverkusen Jazz Days 2002. Live recording, 60 min., Director: Peter Sommer, broadcast: 3sat , September 14, 2007.
- Joe Zawinul - A musical portrait. (OT: Joe Zawinul - A Musical Portrait. ) Documentation, USA, 60 min., 2004, director: Mark Kidel, German-language first broadcast: SF 1 , December 18, 2005, series: Sternstunden , DVD distribution: Arthaus Musik , 2007.
- "Night Passage" with the WDR Big Band de Cologne at the Jazz à Vienne Festival 2006. Concert recording, France, 2006, 52 min., Realization: Emmanuel Pampuri, Production: CLC Productions.
- Absolute Zawinul - A fragment. Documentation, Austria, 30 min., Production: ORF 2 , first broadcast: September 16, 2007.
- Joe Zawinul's Earth Time. Documentary film, Austria, 2008, 56:50 min., Book, director, camera: Robert Neumüller , production: Felix Breisach Medienwerkstatt, ORF , SF , first broadcast: August 28, 2008 on ORF 2 , film images with quotations from Felix Breisach, synopsis by SRF . With Wayne Shorter, Miles Davis (archive), Friedrich Gulda (archive), Paul Gulda , Sabine Kabongo , Kristjan Järvi , Erich Zawinul, among others .
- Peter Stachel: Zawinul, Joe. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon . Online edition, Vienna 2002 ff., ISBN 3-7001-3077-5 ; Print edition: Volume 5, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-7001-3067-8 .
- Martin Reither: The pentatonic in jazz. On Joe Zawinul's improvisation technique. University of Vienna, dissertation 1996, 309 p., Graph. Darst., Numer. Sheet music samples.
- Gunther Baumann : Zawinul. A life of jazz. Residenz Verlag , Salzburg 2002, 240 pp., Numerous illustrations, ISBN 978-3-7017-1291-5 .
- Kunihiko Yamashita: Joe Zawinul. On the creative process. Rittor Music, Tokyo 2006, ISBN 4-8456-1337-9 .
- Robert Neumüller : Joe Zawinul's Earth Time. Provincial Library, Weitra 2009, ISBN 978-3-85252-945-5 .
- Brian Glasser: In a Silent Way. A Portrait of Joe Zawinul. As Long As It's Hot, London 2009, 2nd edition, 350 pages, ISBN 978-0-9562311-0-9 .
- Peter Erskine : No Beethoven: Autobiography and Chronicle of Weather Report. Alfred Music Publishing 2014, ISBN 978-3-943638-91-2 .
- joezawinul.com - Official site, with extensive biography (Engl.)
- zawinulonline.org - Curt Bianchi's fan page
- Joe Zawinul at Discogs (English)
- Joe Zawinul at Allmusic (English)
- Joe Zawinul in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Joe Zawinul in the online archive of the Austrian Media Library
Trade and press articles
- Joe Zawinul: Still Stirring Up The Weather. In: All About Jazz , April 2, 2007, portrait
- Zawinul's instruments and production techniques. In: Sound on Sound Magazine (English)
- Press review from ESC Records
- “Sing the body electrically.” In: Die Zeit , September 11, 2007, obituary
- Mourning for Joe Zawinul: "He lives on". In: ORF , September 11, 2007
- “I g'spia di ned!” ( Memento from January 23, 2017 in the Internet Archive ). In: Die Presse , September 5, 2008, 6 votes on the first anniversary of death
- Herbie Hancock in Remembering Joe Zawinul : "He was a force as a composer and an amazing conceptualizer. He opened up a doorway between jazz and rock 'n' roll and was a major influence on Miles Davis, Wayne Shorter and me. The world has never been the same since he made his contribution to our society. “September 11, 2007, quoted by E." Doc "Smith, original source, ( Memento of October 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ).
- Thom Jurek: Miles Davis Bitches Brew. In: Allmusic , 2015, accessed on August 29, 2017.
- Karl Lippegaus : Rock Jazz. In: Joachim-Ernst Berendt , Die Story des Jazz , Reinbek 1991 (1975), pp. 223–246.
- Awards for Weather Report in: Weather Report # Discography , English Wikipedia.
- Josef Woodard: Weather Report: Storm Surge. In: Down Beat , January 2001, pp. 22–28, cover story; quoted in: Weather Report on the Cover of Down Beat . In: zawinulonline.org (= Curt Bianchi), December 21, 2000.
- Peter Niklas Wilson : An encounter with the jazz legend Joe Zawinul. When i rinse, then i rinse. In: NZZ , September 19, 2002: "Few people like Zawinul understood how to humanize synthetic sound, to make it breathe."
- Peter Rüedi : That is the art. In: Weltwoche , 2006, No. 12, interview.
- "... I loved all of these people. They were simple people, tough but warm. I was particularly impressed by my father: a farmer and schnapps distiller who made the best Slivovitz . ”In: 5 questions to Mr. Zawinul. In: Me / Sounds , February 25, 1998.
- Andrian Pertout: Jazz Icon ( Memento of 29 September 2007 at the Internet Archive ). In: Mixdown Monthly , October 4, 2000, No. 78, Interview (English).
- Ralf Dombrowski : Local appointment in Manhattan. In: Jazz Thing , May 25, 2001, interview.
- Wiener Wohnen - community. Retrieved August 13, 2019 .
- Manfred Horak: Dead & Gone: Joe Zawinul (1932-2007). ( Memento from September 19, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) In: Kulturwoche.at , September 2007.
- Jazz legend and world musician Joe Zawinul about his dear friend Thomas Klestil. In: profil , July 10, 2004, interview with Zawinul.
- Matthias Kaufmann: “I couldn't trust anyone anymore.” ( Memento from June 10, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) In: cineastentreff.de , April 2005, interview.
- Matt Schudel: Joe Zawinul, 75; Keyboardist Was a Pioneer of Jazz Fusion. In: Washington Post , September 12, 2007.
- Stephan Hentz: The legendary European. On the death of jazz musician Joe Zawinul. In: NZZ , September 12, 2007.
- Interview , Der Neue Tag, December 7, 1996.
- Max Dax : "Miles played like a slingshot." In: die tageszeitung , August 15, 2005, interview with Zawinul.
- End of an Era. ( Memento of September 16, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) In: Jazzecho , September 12, 2007.
- Residence and work permit: Excerpt from "Absolute Zawinul - A Fragment" , ORF 2 , September 16, 2007
- Max Dax : Joe Zawinul. Interview. In: alert , November 1, 2002.
- Anil Prasad: Joe Zawinul. Man of the people. In: innerviews.org , August 30 and September 18, 1997, interviews with Zawinul.
- Clemens Panagl: A "Wödmasta" from Vienna. ( Memento of November 29, 2014 in the Internet Archive ). In: Salzburger Nachrichten , September 13, 2007.
- Christian Broecking : The way to Birdland. In: the daily newspaper , October 25, 2002.
- Mike Zwerin : A Cocky, Eclectic Jazzman, Recalling Zawinul. In: Bloomberg.com , September 13, 2007.
- Gunther Baumann: Zawinul. A life of jazz. Residenz Verlag, Salzburg 2002, p. 129.
- Kai Kopp: Joe Zawinul: “I invented the hip hop beat!” In: laut.de , December 12, 2003, interview.
- Peter Keepnews: By Any Name, Music That Still Finds a Groove. In: New York Times , October 26, 2006.
- Gunther Baumann : Encounters with Gulda (II). "I don't play music like that!" In: ders., Zawinul. A life from jazz , ISBN 978-3-7017-1291-5 , pp. 157-160.
- Gulda and Zawinul concert. Retrieved May 16, 2020 .
- Jürgen Plank: Senegal in Birdland. In: skug , November 21, 2006.
- Michael Möhring: Hear from the great dying. In: music manual - Das Musikmagazin , June 25, 2001, interview.
- The Bird has landed! Joe Zawinul's Birdland before opening. In: Rathauskorrespondenz from May 25, 2004, accessed on November 5, 2014.
- Joe Zawinul's Birdland. ( Memento from March 23, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) In: eventszene.at , around 2006.
- Ljubiša Tošić: Gleanings: Jazz with Paprika Chicken (2004). In: Der Standard , September 12, 2007.
- New concept for the "Birdland". In: ORF , August 25, 2005.
- Out for Zawinul's "Birdland". In: vienna.at , August 28, 2008.
- Peter Keepnews: Joe Zawinul, 75, Jazz Fusion Pioneer, Dies. In: New York Times , September 12, 2007.
- Farewell to Joe Zawinul. In: Austria (newspaper) , September 25, 2007.
- Friends said goodbye to Joe Zawinul. In: ORF , September 25, 2007.
- Hedwig Abraham: Ehrengräber Gruppe 33 G. In: viennatouristguide.at , accessed on November 5, 2014.
- In: Gunther Baumann : Zawinul. A life of jazz. Residenz Verlag, Salzburg 2002, p. 192.
- Photo: Weather Report visited Mama & Papa Zawinul in Austria. In: Robert Thomas Jr. , website . .
- The Zawinul Story. By: Mitch Robertson (sound engineer), eyewitness to the fires and savior of the Zawinul recordings
- Ivan Zawinul. In: Musicians Institute , 2017, accessed August 30, 2017.
- Anthony Zawinul: Bio. In: Zawinul Media , 2017, accessed August 30, 2017.
- Anthony Zawinul: This is This. In: thisisthisfilm.com , 2015, accessed August 30, 2017.
- “I am a learner. My parents told me on my way: Learn a little every day. ”In: Joe Zawinul. Interview. In: alert , November 1, 2002.
- Christoph Merki: "The Americans have stopped." ( Memento from September 20, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) In: Tages-Anzeiger , October 23, 2003, interview with Zawinul.
- RJ Deluke: Joe Zawinul: Still Stirring Up The Weather. In: All About Jazz , April 2, 2007.
- Matthias Wagner: "Joe Zawinul: Do you hear the space?" In: mattwagner.de , September 11, 2007, interview.
- Absolute Zawinul - A fragment. In: ORF 2 , first broadcast: September 16, 2007.
- In: “From Vienna to Malibu in 70 Years”, Jazzthetik , No. 9, September 1, 2002, cover story, p. 33.
- for example in Kai Schwirzke: Joe Zawinul with a new CD. In: tools4music , October 24, 2002.
- Robert Fischer : Joe Zawinul (1932-2007). The boxer. In: Jazzzeit , November / December 2007, No. 69, pp. 6–8.
- Kai Kopp: Review: Joe Zawinul, Brown Street. In: laut.de , November 10, 2006.
- Stefan Wagner: Keyboard king of jazz-rock. On the death of the pianist and world musician Joe Zawinul. In: Deutschlandfunk , September 11, 2007.
- My People. In: Focus , September 25, 1996.
- Mourning for Joe Zawinul: "He lives on." ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: ORF , September 11, 2007.
- Curt Bianchi: Joe Zawinul Biography. ( Memento from March 31, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) In: joe-zawinul.at , 2010.
- Julia Köhler: Ö1 broadcasts on the 75th birthday of Joe Zawinul. ( Memento of November 29, 2014 in the Internet Archive ). In: musikmarkt.de , June 29, 2007.
- Joe Zawinul special stamp ( Memento from September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), Austrian Post, 2004.
- List of all decorations awarded by the Federal President for services to the Republic of Austria from 1952 (PDF; 6.9 MB)
- Joe-Zawinul-Park opens at Klopsteinplatz in the 3rd district. In: City of Vienna , RK June 3, 2009.
- Clemens Panagl: Jazz fair for a world star. ( Memento of November 29, 2014 in the Internet Archive ). In: Salzburger Nachrichten , November 3, 2009.
- Apa : Grammy for jazz star Joe Zawinul. In: OÖ Nachrichten , February 1, 2010.
- Hermann Mennenga: Joe Zawinul - Brown Street . ( Memento from January 26, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) In: Jazzdimensions , 2007, review.
- John Fordham : Jazz review: Joe Zawinul and The Zawinul Syndicate: 75th. In: The Guardian , October 24, 2008.
- John Kelman: Review of "Weather Report - Live At Montreux 1976". In: All About Jazz , April 24, 2007, (English).
- Concert from the 23rd Leverkusener Jazz Days 2002: Zawinul 70th Birthday Gala Set for Leverkusener Jazz Festival by zawinulonline.org .
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Zawinul, Josef Erich (real name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Austrian jazz pianist, keyboard player, composer, arranger and co-founder of jazz rock|
|DATE OF BIRTH||July 7, 1932|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Vienna|
|DATE OF DEATH||September 11, 2007|
|Place of death||Vienna|