Paul Tillich

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Bust of Paul Tillich in Paul Tillich Park in New Harmony , Indiana, USA

Paul Johannes Tillich (born August 20, 1886 in Starzeddel , Guben district ; † October 22, 1965 in Chicago , USA ) was a German and later American Protestant theologian ( dogmatist ) and religious philosopher .

Tillich belongs - together with Karl Barth , Dietrich Bonhoeffer , Rudolf Bultmann and Karl Rahner - to the circle of influential German-speaking theologians in the first half of the 20th century. His emigration to the USA in 1933 and his work at Harvard University and the University of Chicago established his worldwide reputation, which is also evident from the extensive international secondary literature.


Gravestone of Paul Tillich in Paul Tillich Park in New Harmony , Indiana, USA

Tillich grew up in a parsonage as the son of the Berlin-born Lutheran pastor Johannes Tillich (1857-1937) and his wife Mathilde. He studied theology and philosophy at the universities of Berlin , Tübingen and Halle . As a student he joined the wingolf associations in these cities. During his time with the Hallenser Wingolf , he was the (unsuccessful) protagonist of the conservatives against the liberal Wingolfs connections ( liberal theology ), who did not want to demand the apostolic creed from their members and therefore wanted to question the compulsory membership in the new local connection when changing universities. In 1910 he received his doctorate from the University of Breslau with a thesis on Schelling under Eugen Kühnemann . In 1911 he started his vicariate in Nauen , in May 1912 he passed the second theological exam, and on August 18, 1912 he was ordained in St. Matthew's Church in Berlin . He then worked as an assistant preacher at the Erlöserkirche in Berlin-Moabit. At the beginning of the First World War he volunteered as a military pastor and was awarded the Iron Cross, 2nd and 1st class , for his work.

After the war, which would later prove to be decisive for Tillich, he taught as a private lecturer in Berlin, then from 1924 in Marburg , from 1925 at the Technical University of Dresden and finally from 1929 to 1933 in Frankfurt am Main . In 1933, after he had published a pamphlet against National Socialism with The Socialist Decision and because he belonged to the Religious Socialists , he was dismissed from the civil service on the basis of the Professional Civil Service Act, whereupon he left Germany.

Paul Tillich taught at Union Theological Seminary in New York for almost twenty years

Friends got him a job at Union Theological Seminary in New York , where Tillich was to teach for nearly twenty years. During this time, Auf der Grenz (1936, Ger. 1962) also produced the personally shaped theological reflections that shed light on the crisis in Tillich's life that began with the First World War and explain his later theological career. With the end of the Second World War , Tillich was already well known in specialist circles and, for his part, had begun to learn the English language to the extent necessary for scientific publications. At the political level, Tillich was active in various exile organizations, such as the Council for a Democratic Germany founded in 1944 , which he chaired.

1948 ended up being no scholarly monograph, but an entitled The Shaking of the Foundations (German: In the depths of truth) published collection of sermons made known nationwide, the Tillich. Tillich began to write his systematic theology while still in New York . When he retired from the seminary in 1955 , he was an “intellectual superstar” (Kelsey) in the USA who could now choose the university. Tillich went to Harvard University as a university professor with cross-faculty teaching law, where he published the second volume of the system. In 1962 he accepted a call to the Divinity School of the University of Chicago and brought out the third volume of systematic theology .

Paul Tillich was married to the painter and author Johanna ("Hannah") Tillich , geb. Werner.

Paul Tillich died in 1965 at the age of 79. His urn was first accepted in the East Hampton Cemetery on Long Island . She was then transferred to New Harmony , Indiana , where she was buried in Paul Tillich Park at Pentecost 1966 by Jerald Brauer, Dean of the Divinity School . The grave stone made of red granite reminds in English of the 3rd verse of the 1st Psalm : “Paul Johannes Tillich 1886–1965. And it should be like a tree, planted by streams of water, which bears its fruit in its own time and whose leaves do not wither, and everything that it does is well for him. "

Theological core ideas

Tillich's central theological interests can be summarized in the following pairs of terms:

  • Reason and revelation
  • His and God
  • Existence and Christ
  • Life and spirit
  • History and Kingdom of God
Tillich's metaphors for fundamental transitions in theological teachings

These pairs of terms correspond to the structure that Tillich himself presented in his Systematic Theology. Characteristic of Tillich's theology is the talk of metaphors for various transitions: The doctrine of creation deals with the transition from the eternal to the temporal, hamartiology (doctrine of sin including the fall of man) the transition from essence to existence, soteriology (doctrine of redemption) the transition from existence to essence and eschatology (the doctrine of the end of history) the transition from the temporal to the eternal.


Tillich differentiates between the knowledge of reason and the truth of faith: Knowledge of reason is related to reality, the truth of faith opens up its meaning for us. Theology and philosophy therefore neither form a synthesis nor do they represent a contradiction. Faith refers to the revelation of "what concerns us absolutely". It is existential knowledge that grabs me. It presupposes the ontological shock, which is characterized by the awareness of the incomprehensibility of all being, of finitude. In realizing the limit, one experiences the negative side of the unconditioned as an abyss, whereby the unconditional is also the ground of being. Kleffmann speaks of a threefold rational character of Tillich's theology:

  • semantic rationality (conceptual clarity)
  • logical rationality (dialectic that presupposes revelation)
  • methodical rationality (method of correlation: answers only make sense if they relate to questions about our existence)


Formal criteria of theology

He develops two formal criteria for every theology.

“That is why this is the first formal criterion of theology: the object of theology is that which concerns us unconditionally. Only those sentences are theological which deal with an object insofar as it concerns us unconditionally.

[...] That which concerns us is that which decides whether we are or not. Only those propositions are theological which deal with an object, insofar as it decides our being or not being. That is the second formal criterion of theology. ”(Volume 1, Introduction, Section B 2.)

Method of correlation

Methodically, Tillich relates the different sciences to one another: The other sciences (e.g. philosophy) ask the questions that arise from being human in general. Through revelation, theology can give the answers to these questions:

"The method of correlation explains the content of the Christian faith through existential questions and theological answers in mutual dependence." (Volume 1, Introduction, Section D 5.)

His and God

Tillich to the doctrine of God

God is the answer to the question implied in human finitude; it is the name for that which concerns people. It is not the case that there is a being called God, which then has to concern man, but that what concerns man becomes god for him. Conversely, man can only be unconditionally addressed by that which is God for him.

Man and ideas of God are connected, which projection hypotheses refer to. These overlooked, according to Tillich, however, that projections always on projiziere something such. B. on a screen. The screen itself is not a projection. The area that absolutely concerns us is like such a screen, and therefore not a projection, but the area onto which the images of God are projected. Deities are neither subjective nor objects, but what concerns us, transcends the distinction between subjective and objective: the relationship that humans have with deities is "existential". That means that man cannot speak of deities without being involved. If he does that, he has already lost his god and treat him as one object among many, so that it is no longer anything that concerns him.

Existence and Christ

Tillich describes the fundamental human problem in his Systematic Theology as "existential estrangement". This alienation means the transition from "essence" to "existence". This transition is described in the symbol of the fall: Man falls out of his innocence and undisturbed communion with God into a foreign country. This alienation is felt in three ways

  1. Alienation from yourself
  2. Alienation from one's neighbor
  3. Alienation from God

To live under the conditions of existence means to live under the conditions of sin, which is essentially evident in these alienations. You don't understand yourself anymore, you quarrel with your fellow human beings and move away from your own original ground from which you come. It is the experience of grace when these alienations are overcome (as in his sermon “You are accepted”). Christ treads a path in which he leaves behind his intimate fellowship with God (essence) and accepts the conditions of existence, humanity and alienation in order to ultimately overcome them. Tillich would like to link the classic terms such as sin, grace and redemption with fundamentally human experiences: The description of the experience that something is wrong and that relationships do not always work out as one would like should make the idea of ​​alienation plausible. And the Christian perspective does not stop at the cracks and alienations of existentialist philosophy, but seeks a solution to the problem of alienation in the sense of the method of correlation. The solution consists in the redemption made possible by Christ from isolation by tearing down the walls that one has built up to other people, to oneself and to God.

Tillich's understanding of alienation

The key term " alienation ", which is decisive for existence, can not replace the term " sin ". The added value in the term "sin" lies in the fact that it describes the personal act of turning away from what one belongs to. While "alienation" emphasized the tragic nature of guilt, "sin" emphasized the role of personal freedom. The dominant use of "sins" in the Catholic and Protestant churches in the plural mean sins as deviations from the moral law. Tillich points out that "sins" are only expressions of "sin". It is not disobedience that makes an act sinful, but the fact that it is an expression of alienation. The opposite of alienation is love because it seeks the reunification of what is alienated from one another. In faith and love, alienation will be overcome and thus sin conquered.

Tillich's understanding of Christ as a mediator

The Christology is to be considered taking into account the traditions from which it springs. From Jewish piety and the Old Testament, the anointed one is understood against the background of royal ideologies (e.g. that he rules in peace and justice). Here the historical function is emphasized with political consequences and reference to a certain, particular group (horizontal dimension). The vertical dimension, on the other hand, comes from Hellenism and emphasizes the non-historical or transhistorical character, which takes on more universal traits and z. B. come to expression in the Johannine Logos Christology. Christian theology combines these horizontal and vertical aspects in the idea of ​​Christ as mediator. There is an infinite gap between God and man, that is, between the unconditioned, infinite and essence on the one hand and the conditioned, finite and existence on the other. This infinite gap will be bridged by Christ as mediator. Christ is God and therefore essence in his essence, but become man and thus take on the circumstances of existence. He represents God for man by showing himself how man should be essential.

The new being in Christ is the power of redemption . Redemption was accentuated differently in the various currents than redemption from

  • Death and wrongdoing (Greek Orthodox),
  • Guilt and its consequences (catholic),
  • the law (classic Protestant),
  • Godlessness which is overcome by conversion (pietistic),
  • and moral imperfection (liberal Protestant).

Tillich himself fundamentally understands salvation as the healing and saving power through the new being. Healing means the reunion of the alienated. It is not about the alternative of total redemption or absolute damnation (which is also countered by universal reconciliation), but redemption is always only fragmentary. Redemption has a threefold character: First, redemption is participation, which has to do with the classic expression of rebirth. Second, stress the justification that man cannot redeem himself, but only has to accept that he is accepted. The transformation of personality and society, ecclesiastical and secular, is sanctification wrought by the Spirit.

Life and spirit

Trinity with its correlations in Tillich

If you look in Tillich's Systematic Theology for the most detailed treatise on the Trinity, you will find it at the end of the fourth part (Life and Spirit): "The Trinitarian Symbols". Tillich translates the traditional terms for the Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit) into his own words: creative power, redeeming love, ecstatic transformation. In accordance with the method of correlation, Tillich seeks the reasons for the development of Trinitarian symbolism in questions of the human situation. The correspondences in the doctrine of the Trinity try to answer this. The question of human finitude with regard to his essential being as a creature correlates with the doctrine of God. The question of alienation in the existential existence of man in time and space correlates with the teaching of Christ. The question of the ambiguity with regard to the participation of man in universal life correlates with the teaching of the Holy Spirit.

History and Kingdom of God

The churches as representatives of the kingdom of God in history

Ecclesiological points of view can be found in Tillich's Systematic Theology, among other things, in the context of reflections on the history and kingdom of God. He assumes

"that the churches are the representatives of the kingdom of God." (Volume 3, Part 5 B 1., The Kingdom of God and the Churches)

The kingdom of God encompasses not only the "spirit community", but all elements of reality, i.e. all "areas of being under the aspect of their goal". The churches' representation of the kingdom of God is ambiguous and paradoxical because they both reveal and conceal it. But even if the churches veil the kingdom of God and reveal the demonic kingdom instead of the divine, they remain churches.

This representation entails a twofold task. The Church participates in two processes:

  1. Movement of time towards the goal of history
  2. Inner historical struggle of the kingdom of God against the forces of demonization and profanization

In other words, the task of the church is "to bear witness to the kingdom of God and to prepare for its coming. The reason why the churches can be instruments of the kingdom of God is that they are founded in the new being in which the Powers of alienation have been overcome The prerequisite for representation by the manifest church is the preparatory work of the latent church.

The kingdom of God is more than a social symbol: it encompasses all of reality. The sacramental sanctification of elements illustrates the presence of the unconditionally real in all things. This aspect is neglected in the "Churches of the 'Word'".

The problem is that the churches themselves are subject to the demonization and profanization that they are fighting against. In a paradoxical unity they are profane and sacred, demonic and divine.

The kingdom of God and the history of the churches

Tillich defines the history of the churches as follows:

"The history of the churches is the history in which one church is actualized in space and time." (Volume 3, Part 5 II. B 2)

The history of the churches is at no point identical with the kingdom of God, but also never without manifestations of the kingdom of God. There are several questions that reveal the paradoxical nature of the Church:

  • Why are the churches - contrary to their universal claim - culturally shaped and limited phenomena?
  • Why have secular tendencies developed on the soil of the churches that successfully turn against the churches?
  • Why are there divisions within the churches?

It is noticeable that the churches are subject to different profanization tendencies: the Catholic Church has the problem of profanization in the form of ritualization, Protestantism in the form of secularization, i.e. secularization of the church (lay people become priests, sacraments mere words).

Obviously, the point of the history of the churches is not that it is a “sacred story,” for not everything in their history is sacred, and there are sacred stories outside the church. The unique thing about the history of the churches is that they have one criterion - the new being in Christ. This does not make them better than other religious groups, but this gives them a criterion against themselves and, implicitly, against others.

The kingdom of God as the goal of history

Tillich on creation and eschatology

Here Tillich deals with what is classically called " eschatology " and what he himself calls the "end of history". The themes of creation and the end of history are represented in temporal metaphors, even if they are not temporal events. The metaphor of the transition from the eternal to the temporal is said in the mode of the past, that of the transition from the temporal to the eternal in the mode of the future. Creation deals with the dependence of creature existence, eschatology with its fulfillment. The key point of the eschatological consideration lies in the coincidence of the temporal modes:

"Past and future meet in the present, and both are present in the 'Eternal Now'." (Volume 3, Part 5 III.A 1)

What is Eternal Life? There are three answers to this question:

  1. It is an unattainable mystery. An answer is refused.
  2. Popular ideas and supernaturalism think of an idealized image of life without the negative traits and without any direct relationship to history. The danger here lies in the consequence that churches degenerate into institutions of salvation that focus on the otherworldly redemption of individuals, but not the social and universal realization of the new being in the present.
  3. A dynamic, creative interpretation of the kingdom of God is based on the ever present end and goal of history. In elevating history into eternity, the positive manifests as unequivocally positive and the negative as unambiguously negative.

This third answer also shapes Tillich's interpretation of the symbol of the Last Judgment, which is about separating good and bad, true and false, etc. Examples of the negatives that should be overcome are illness, death, lies, destruction and murder.

"Here and now, in the constant transition from the temporal to the eternal, the negative is annihilated with its claim to be positive, a claim that it asserts by making use of the positive." (Volume 3, Part 5 III. A 3)


  • Tillich to the wrath of God


Helmut Thielicke called Tillich a “wanderer between the worlds”, Horst Bürkle as a “mediating theologian”; Friedrich Mildenberger spoke of the “thinker on the border”. With his method of correlating question and answer, situation and message, he succeeded like hardly anyone else in taking up the existential questions of his time and formulating them as religious questions, as well as showing that the symbols of the Christian message are still attractive and still Current answers to these questions are.

His thinking shaped the early phase of the later so-called " critical theory of society " of the Frankfurt School around Horkheimer and Adorno . Tillich's thinking became important beyond Europe. The Anglican Bishop John Shelby Spong and the Japanese religious philosopher Takamaro Shigaraki are significantly influenced by Tillich.

The definition of the relationship between belief and myth is of particular importance for theology, religious education and the discussion of Christianity with other religions. “Myths are symbols that are connected to stories in which encounters between gods and humans are told. The myths are present in every act of belief, because the language of belief is the symbol. ”Tillich introduces the concept of broken myth as a decisive criterion for dealing critically with myth. He defines it as follows: “A myth that is understood as a myth but not eliminated can be called a broken myth.” - “A belief that understands its symbols literally becomes a belief in idols. He unconditionally names something that is less than unconditional. Faith, however, which knows about the symbolic character of its symbols, gives God the honor he deserves. ”-“ Christianity, by its very nature, excludes any unbroken myth, because its basis is the content of the first and highest commandment, the To recognize the unconditionality of the unconditional and to reject any kind of idolatry ”(P. Tillich, Wesen und Wandel des Glaubens , 1961) But for Tillich this does not mean that Christianity has always remained faithful to this being in its history and that other religions to it Often did not meet the criterion better.

Tillich also dealt with the projection theory of Marx and Freud, so z. B. in a review of Erich Fromm's book on psychoanalysis and religion .


Paul Tillich had been an American citizen since 1940. With his teaching activities, his lectures and his interdisciplinary discussions, he finally reached not only theologians, but above all psychiatrists, psychologists and artists among American intellectuals. In 1950 he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences . In 1963, on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the American news magazine Time , he gave the celebratory lecture in the Waldorf-Astoria- Hotel. In Germany he received the Goethe plaque from the city of Frankfurt am Main in 1956 and the Hanseatic Goethe Prize in 1958 . 1961 the Great Cross of Merit with a star .

In 1962 he was awarded the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade in the Paulskirche in Frankfurt ; Otto Dibelius gave the laudation .

The German Paul-Tillich-Gesellschaft eV organizes, among other things, annual conferences on Tillich's work.


In addition to the extensive primary literature that has appeared in German thanks to the German Paul Tillich Society and the editor Renate Albrecht, there are also numerous tapes, cassettes and CDs with Tillich's lectures, lectures and interviews. The Tillich archives and collections are located in the University Library of Marburg , the Andover-Harvard Theological Library and the Union Theological Seminary in Virginia .

Individual issues (selection)

  • The Socialist Decision, Alfred Protte, Potsdam 1933
    • New edition with a preliminary remark by Klaus Heinrich : Medusa, Berlin 1980
  • Religious speeches, in three episodes: “In the depth is truth”, “The new being”, “The eternal in the now”; Evangelisches Verlagswerk, Stuttgart 1952–1964
  • The Jewish question . A Christian and a German problem. Four lectures. Series of publications by the German University of Politics , no., Weiß-Verlag, Berlin 1953 (48 pages)
  • The courage to be, Steingrüben, Stuttgart 1953
  • Systematic Theology, 3 volumes, Evangelisches Verlagswerk, Stuttgart 1955/58/66
  • Systematic Theology I – II, ed. v. Christian Danz, de Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 9th edition 2017, ISBN 978-3-11-046011-7 (weighty the editor's introduction to the text history of the German translation, pp. XV – LXV)
  • Systematic Theology III , ed. v. Christian Danz, de Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 5th edition 2017, ISBN 978-3-11-053689-8
  • Nature and change of faith. Ullstein, Berlin 1961
  • On the border. From the life's work of Paul Tillich, Evangelisches Verlagswerk, Stuttgart 1962
  • Shaping the idea of ​​salvation in Judaism and Protestantism. Supplementary volume to the Eranos yearbook 1936 (with Heinz Westman), Eranos Foundation, Ascona 1986, ISBN 3-85630-032-5 .
  • Love - Power - Justice , de Gruyter, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-11-013383-0 .
  • Art and society. Three lectures (1952), ed. v. Werner Schüßler , LIT, Münster 2004, ISBN 3-8258-5262-8 .

Work editions

Paul Tillich Main Works.
  • Collected works, 14 volumes + 6 supplementary and estate volumes, edited by Renate Albrecht, Evangelisches Verlagswerk, Stuttgart 1958–1983 (reissued by Verlag Walter de Gruyter , Berlin)
  • Main Works, published by Carl-Heinz Ratschow, de Gruyter 1988ff
    • Volume 1: Philosophical Writings / Philosophical Writings
    • Volume 2: Writings in the Philosophy of Culture / Kulturphilosophische Schriften
    • Volume 3: Writings in Social Philosophy and Ethics / Social Philosophical and Ethical Writings
    • Volume 4: Writings in the Philosophy of Religion / Religionsphilosophische Schriften
    • Volume 5: Writings on Religion / Religious Writings
    • Volume 6: Theological Writings / Theological Writings


Overall representations

Individual representations

  • Katja Bruns: Anthropology between theology and natural science with Paul Tillich and Kurt Goldstein . Historical bases and systematic perspectives. (= Contexts. New contributions to historical and systematic theology, 41). Edition Ruprecht , Göttingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-7675-7143-3
  • Alf Christophersen, Claudia Schulze: Hannah Arendt - Paul Tillich correspondence. Edition, Source Document. In: Journal for Modern History of Theology. Vol. 9, 2002, ISSN  0943-7592 , pp. 13-156.
  • Christian Danz : Religion as an awareness of freedom. A study on theology as a theory of the constitutional conditions of individual subjectivity by Paul Tillich (= Theological Library Töpelmann, 110). de Gruyter, Berlin et al. 2000, ISBN 3-11-016943-6 (At the same time: Jena, University, habilitation paper, 1999: Religion as self-consciousness of finite freedom. ).
  • Christian Danz, Werner Schüßler (ed.): Paul Tillichs Theologie der Kultur. Aspects - Problems - Perspectives (= Tillich Research. Vol. 1). de Gruyter, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-11-026236-0 .
  • Christian Danz, Werner Schüßler (eds.): Paul Tillich in Exile (= Tillich Research Vol. 12), de Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2017, ISBN 978-3-11-050064-6
  • Christian Danz (Ed.): Paul Tillich's "Systematic Theology". A commentary on the history of works and problems, de Gruyter, Berlin Boston 2017, ISBN 978-3-11-045223-5 .
  • Detlef Dieckmann (Ed.): Tillich-Lexikon. On the basic concepts of Paul Tillich's systematic theology, Pullach 2 2014.
  • Petr Gallus: Man between heaven and earth. The concept of faith in Paul Tillich and Karl Barth. Evangelische Verlags-Anstalt, Leipzig 2007, ISBN 978-3-374-02520-6 (Also: Prague, University, dissertation, 2005).
  • Hans-Joachim Gerhards: Utopia as a historical aspect of eschatology. Ernst Bloch's concrete utopia under the eschatological reservation of Paul Tillich's theology . Gütersloher publishing house Mohn 1973.
  • Klaus Kreppel : Kairos and Socialism. Questions to Paul Tillich's theology of history. In: Richard Faber (Ed.): Socialism in past and present. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1994, ISBN 3-88479-731-X , pp. 199-214.
  • Klaus Kreppel: Expectation is the symbol of socialism. Reflections on Paul Tillich's “The Socialist Decision”. In: Richard Faber, Eveline Goodman-Thau , Thomas Macho (eds.): Occidental eschatology. Ad Jacob Taubes. Königshausen & Neumann , Würzburg 2001, ISBN 3-8260-2123-1 , pp. 355-364.
  • Matthias von Kriegstein: Paul Tillich's method of correlation and the concept of symbols (= Studia Irenica. Vol. 17). Gerstenberg, Hildesheim 1975, ISBN 3-8067-0217-9 (At the same time: Hamburg, University, dissertation, 1972: Paul Tillich's method of correlation and concept of symbols - their meaning and problems for the necessary development of action-oriented theological knowledge.).
  • Johannes Kubik: Paul Tillich and religious education. Religion, Correlation, Symbol and Protestant Principle. V&R unipress, Göttingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-89971-901-7 .
  • Reinhold Mokrosch: Theological philosophy of freedom. Metaphysics, freedom and ethics in the philosophical development of Schelling and in the beginnings of Tillich. (= Studies on Philosophy and Literature of the Nineteenth Century. Vol. 29). Klostermann, Frankfurt 1976, ISBN 3-465-01141-4 (At the same time: Tübingen, Universität, Dissertation, 1975: Schelling and Tillich, on the relationship between metaphysics, freedom and ethics in the philosophical development of Schelling and in the beginnings of P. Tillich.) .
  • Roland Mugerauer: Reconciliation as Overcoming Alienation. Paul Tillich's conception of alienation and its overcoming in dealing with other conceptions. Tectum, Marburg 1996, ISBN 3-89608-931-5 .
  • Roland Mugerauer: Symbol theory and criticism of religion. Paul Tillich and the symbolic speech of God from theological, religious-philosophical and psychoanalytical perspective, concretized in the symbol "Father" for God. Tectum, Marburg 2003, ISBN 3-8288-8506-3 .
  • Georg Neugebauer: Tillich's early Christology. A study of revelation and history in Tillich against the background of his Schelling reception (= Theological Library Töpelmann. Vol. 141). de Gruyter, Berlin et al. 2007, ISBN 978-3-11-019446-3 (also: Halle-Wittenberg, University, dissertation, 2006).
  • Ilona Nord, Yorick Spiegel (Ed.): Search for traces. Paths of life and thought of Paul Tillich (= Tillich studies. Vol. 5). Lit, Münster et al. 2001, ISBN 3-8258-5043-9 .
  • Ulrich Reetz: The sacramental in the theology of Paul Tillich (= Calwer theological monographs. Series B: Systematic Theology and Church History. Vol. 2). Calwer, Stuttgart 1974, ISBN 3-7668-0453-7 .
  • Rüdiger Reitz: Paul Tillich and New Harmony. Evangelisches Verlagswerk, Stuttgart 1970, ISBN 3-7715-0108-3
  • Hans Joachim Schliep: Believer Realism. The ethical at Paul Tillich. In: Luth. Monthly booklets, 25th year (1986), pp. 414-418, ISSN  0024-7618
  • Werner Schüßler: The philosophical idea of ​​God in the early work of Paul Tillich (1910-1933). Presentation and interpretation of his thoughts and sources (= Epistemata. Series: Philosophy. Vol. 22). Königshausen and Neumann, Würzburg 1986, ISBN 3-88479-199-0 (also: Trier, University, dissertation, 1983).
  • Werner Schüßler: Beyond religion and non-religion. The concept of religion in Paul Tillich's work (= Athenaeum Monographs. Theology. Vol. 4). Athenaeum, Frankfurt 1989, ISBN 3-610-09122-3 (also: Québec, Université Laval, dissertation, 1988).
  • Werner Schüßler:  Tillich, Paul. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 12, Bautz, Herzberg 1997, ISBN 3-88309-068-9 , Sp. 85-123.
  • Dirk Chr. Siedler: Paul Tillich's contributions to a theology of religions. An examination of his religious-philosophical, religious-scientific and theological contribution (= Theology. Vol. 21). Lit, Münster 1999, ISBN 3-88425-074-4 (also dissertation: Duisburg 1998).
  • Matthias Wolbold: Talking about Germany. The radio speeches of Thomas Mann , Paul Tillich and Sir Robert Vansittart from the Second World War. Lit, Münster 2005, ISBN 3-8258-9024-4 .
  • Joseph Kitsuo Kitagawa: Paul Tillich - Mircea Eliade , in: Hans Peter Dürr (Ed.): The middle of the world. Essays on Mircea Eliade . ISBN 9783518374818 . Suhrkamp Verlag.

To the biography

  • Renate Albrecht, Werner Schüßler (ed.): Paul Tillich. His life. Peter Lang, Frankfurt 1993, ISBN 3-631-46487-8
  • Alf Christophersen:  Tillich, Paul Johannes Oskar. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 26, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-428-11207-5 , pp. 281-283 ( digitized version ).
  • Friedrich Wilhelm Graf: February 1932, party at the Tillichs. Real dialectics in Frankfurt . In: Journal for the History of Ideas, Issue IX / 4 Winter 2015, pp. 111–120,
  • Gerhard Schreiber, Heiko Schulz (ed.): Critical Theology: Paul Tillich in Frankfurt (1929-1933) , Walter de Gruyter, Berlin and Boston 2015 (= Tillich Research. Vol. 8), ISBN 978-3-11-044126 -0
  • Erdmann Sturm: "Paul Tillich's affiliation to Judaism as an established fact ..." About Paul Tillich's "Spirit of Judaism" and an anti-Semitic polemic (1933–1935). In: Folker Siegert (Ed.): Grenzzüge. People and fates between Jewish, Christian and German identity. Festschrift for Diethard Aschoff (= Münster Judaic Studies. Vol. 11). Lit-Verlag: Münster et al. 2002, ISBN 3-8258-5856-1 , pp. 255–269 (letter from Fritz Otto Hermann Schulz to Joh. Oskar Tillich from 1935: Schulz could prove that Tillich was a Jew.)
  • Hannah Tillich: I am alone. My life. Gütersloher Verlagshaus Mohn, Gütersloh 1993, ISBN 3-579-02197-4
  • Gerhard Wehr: Paul Tillich. Represented in personal reports and photo documents (= Rowohlt's monographs. Vol. 274, ISSN  0485-5256 ). Rowohlt, Reinbek 1979

Web links

Commons : Paul Tillich  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Friedrich Wilhelm Graf : Double Gospel. Tillich and Troeltsch 1914 . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of December 20, 2017, p. N3.
  2. Hannah Tillich on, accessed on September 22, 2018
    10,000 girls legs , in: Der Spiegel from October 22, 1973, accessed on September 22, 2018
  3. ^ Gunther Wenz: Paul Tillich. Questionability and meaningfulness . In: Peter Neuner (ed.): Theologians of the 20th century. An introduction . 2002, Darmstadt, p. 109-123 .
  4. Paul Tillich: Systematic Theology Volume 3 . S. Part 5. III. A 1 The end and goal of the story .
  5. a b Tom Kleffmann: Outline of the systematic theology . Mohr Siebeck, 2013, p. 37-38 .
  6. ^ Tillich: Systematic Theology. Volume 1 . S. Part 2, Being and God, II .
  7. ^ Paul Tillich: Systematic Theology. Ed .: Christian Danz. 9th edition. tape 1 . De Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2017, ISBN 978-3-11-046011-7 , pp. 248 .
  8. Peace Prize of the German Book Trade 1962: Paul Tillich laudation and acceptance speech (PDF)
  9. ^ Friedrich Wilhelm Graf: February 1932, party at the Tillichs. Real dialectics in Frankfurt ( Memento from September 22, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) as PDF on