|State :||Czech Republic|
|Region :||Královéhradecký kraj|
|District :||Hradec Králové|
|Area :||1065 ha|
|Geographic location :|
|Residents :||2,899 (Jan 1, 2019)|
|Postal code :||503 03|
|Mayor :||Luboš Tuzar (as of 2007)|
503 03 Smiřice
Smiřice (German Smirschitz ) is a town with 2874 inhabitants in the Czech Republic .
Smiřice is eleven kilometers northeast of Hradec Králové at 240 m above sea level. M. on the right bank of the Elbe and belongs to the Okres Hradec Králové . The European route 67 runs west of the city, halfway between Hradec Králové and Jaroměř .
Smiřice arose on the Elbe, which at the time the town was founded consisted of three large branches of the river. Surrounded by two arms of the river there was a medieval fortress, which was first mentioned in 1392 and converted into a castle in the 15th century. The associated settlement Smiřic was elevated to a town in 1659. The village of Smiřice also existed in the 16th and 17th centuries, which then merged with the town. Another village was Smiřičky, which was a kilometer further west on the site of today's train station.
The Smiřický family from Smiřice is connected with the history of the town . The first evidence of this comes from 1405, when Václav (Wenceslas) Smiřický ze Smiřic bought the village of Smiřice and the neighboring Číbuz. This first verifiable Smiřický ze Smiřic is said to be buried in the nearby Holohlavy. After Jan (Johann) Smiřický was executed on September 7, 1453, Smiřice passed to his nephews, the brothers Jan and Hynek Smiřický. After Jan and Hynek died in 1476 without offspring, different owners followed.
In 1498 Nicholas the Younger bought Trčka from Lípa Smiřice. When Adam Erdmann Count Trčka was murdered in Eger together with his brother-in-law Albrecht von Waldstein , Adam Erdmann's father Jan Rudolf Trčka von Lípa inherited the property. After his death, also in 1634, his possessions were confiscated by the emperor after a court case. 1636 General loyal to the emperor was Johann Matthias Gallas the manorial Smiřice with the town and the castle Smiřice including goods Žiželeves, Rodov, Hořiněves and Sadova and the associated 40 villages. After his death, his four sons inherited the property and gave Smiřice town rights in 1659. In 1661 Anton Pankratius Count Gallas had the baroque palace built.
On October 1, 1685, Gallas sold the manor to Isabella Magdalena von Sternberg . In 1747, through the marriage between Maria Theresia von Sternberg and Johann Leopold von Paar, ownership passed to the Prince von Paar . After her death in 1761 her son, the Imperial and Royal Hereditary Land Postmaster Johann Wenzel Fürst von Paar took over the property, who sold it to Emperor Joseph II for 500,000 guilders in 1780 . The rulership remained crown property until 1848 and after the replacement of the landlords it became an imperial domain, the administration of which was transferred to the kk privileged Credit Institution .
In 1856 the city received a railway connection with the construction of the south-north German connecting line from Josefstadt to Pardubitz . On May 20, 1858 the first train ran and the city received a station building that resembled a small castle.
After the end of his inheritance , the Reichenberg textile manufacturer Baron Johann von Liebieg bought the domain for 2,505,000 guilders in 1863. In 1864 a steam mill was built in the city and in 1867 Liebieg founded the sugar factory. Liebieg's son Franz von Liebieg signed the Swiet estate over to his daughter Gabriele in 1868 . When, after a crisis, the company developed into one of the largest textile companies in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and later in Czechoslovakia , it sold parts of the land and company property in Smirschitz in 1882 because it was unprofitable. Including the estate in Mesletsch , which the princes of Schaumburg-Lippe acquired, who already owned the neighboring Nachod rulership .
In the 19th century the population grew strongly. In 1849 there were 1234 people living in Smiřice, their number increased to 2247 in 1890. With the proclamation of Czechoslovakia in 1918, the rule was expropriated in a land reform and declared state property. Until 1950 the castle served as an agricultural school and was then the seat of the State Property Directorate and then the Prague industrial mast. The current owner of the chateau is the town of Smiřice, which has no usage plans for the building and only carries out emergency repairs on the dilapidated building.
Legends about the name of the city
There are three different versions of the origin of the name Smiřice. On the one hand, two knights are said to have got into a dispute over the ownership of the village Hněvčeves, which after the settlement (Smír) between the two was named Smiřice.
Another interpretation derives the place name from the old Czech samé říce (the same river). At the time of its establishment, Smiřice was surrounded by several branches of the Elbe, which the viewer perceived as several rivers.
According to a legend of the Záruba z Hustiřan family, also Zaruba von Hustirzan and Rodovský z Hustiřan on Hustirzan near Smirzicz, a ruler named Budivoj is said to have lived on the site of the town. In a border feud with the Count of Červený Hradec over the Elbe, which runs in many branches of the river, in 839 before Prince Boleslav a settlement was concluded over the river ( smír o říce ), after which the ruler then called himself Budivoj Smír ze Smírřice. This source names Svatobor ze Smiřic for 1330 and for 1359 the five brothers Myslibor, Mikuláš, Soběslav, Ješek and Břetislav Smiřický of Smiřice as the owners of the Smiřice Fortress, whose written form can be found in the documents from Smirschitz, Schmirsitz, Smirticz u. Ä. changes.
The first historically verifiable person of this name is Eliška ze Smiřic, who can be documented from 1361. It remains to be seen whether it can be assigned to this gender. The derivation of the place name from the family name Smír is considered certain .
The town of Smiřice includes the localities Rodov ( Rodow ) and Trotina.
- Adolf Ignaz Mautner von Markhof (1801–1889), Austrian-Bohemian industrialist
- The palace chapel of the Revelation of the Lord was built by Christoph Dientzenhofer in 1699–1713 . The previous assumption that the master builder might have been Johann Blasius Santini-Aichl has not been confirmed by recent research on art history.
- Loutkové divadlo (Smiřice Puppet Theater)
- Smiřické svátky hudby (Smirschitz Music Festival), classical music festival
- Smiřický hrnec (“Smirschitzer Saucepan”), a folk music festival that has been held since 1980
- Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
- (cf. Roman von Procházka : Ancestry of the Zaruba von Hustirzan, Genealogical Handbook of extinct Bohemian gentry families, 1973, pages 357 to 362)
- see pages 81 and 84 in Milada Vilímková, Johannes Brucker: Dientzenhofer. A Bavarian master builder family in the baroque era . Rosenheimer Verlagshaus, 1989, ISBN 3-475-52610-7 and a follow-up under Christoph Dientzenhofer .