Old Raczek fraternity in Breslau

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Old Breslau fraternity of the Raczeks in Bonn

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Basic data
University location: Bonn
University / s: University of Bonn
Founding: October 27, 1817
Corporation association : German fraternity
Cartel / District / AG: East German cartel
Abbreviation: ABB!
Color status : colored
Cap: black velvet hat
Type of Confederation: Men's association
Position to the scale : striking, 3 compulsory grades
Motto: God - honor - freedom - fatherland
Website: www.raczeks.de

The Old Breslauer Burschenschaft of Raczeks (short Raczeks ) is a 1817 "Breslauer fraternity founded" fraternity in corporation Association of German fraternity , the oldest active compound it is today. It is a mandatory academic corporation at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn and is a founding member of the fraternity . The Raczeks define themselves as a red fraternity, which stands for a down-to-earth principle. A total of four traditional Wroclaw fraternities make up today's fraternity. It is the sole bearer of the Breslau tradition within the German fraternity.

The fraternity is accused of having connections with the right-wing extremist scene.


The old Breslau fraternity of the Raczeks is a life alliance in which students become members of the old rulers of the fraternity after graduation , which supports the young students ( Aktivitas ) financially and ideally (reverse generation contract ). It is also organized according to the Convention principle , ie decisions are made in votes and elections, with the majority deciding.

The old Breslau fraternity of the Raczeks carries the motto "God honor freedom fatherland !". It requires its members to hit three approved lengths .


The raczek's color consists of a white, black, red and gold ribbon, a black student's hat based on the head color of the former Wroclaw fraternity Arminia and a charge wich that is based on the uniform of the Lützow Freikorps . In addition to the cap, the band and the Zipfelbund in the colors of the band to include batch regalia of the typical tunic of the volunteer corps in black with gold buttons and red push, a black bandana, white gloves and bells pomp bat due to the east of the Elbe Breslauer origin of the federation. Black dress pants and black dress shoes are worn underneath the tunic for the charge wich. Beret , Cerevis , Pekesche or riding boots are not available in the Raczek color - in contrast to most other student associations.

The ribbon, which is unusual in terms of its four-color design, can be clarified from the history of the Federation in Breslau. The three oldest traditional associations, the eponymous Old Breslau Burschenschaft der Raczeks, the Breslau Burschenschaft Arminia and the Breslau Burschenschaft Germania all wore the typical black, red and gold fraternity . The youngest league, the Breslau fraternity Cheruskia, wore white-red-black. In order to unite all the colors of the traditional leagues, the four-colored ribbon was introduced in 1950 when active operations resumed in Bonn. But it is not just the combination of all colors from Breslau times that make the color appear advantageous. The four colors are included in the Wroclaw city arms . In addition, the outer colors of the color, white (heraldic silver) and gold, stand for the Silesian homeland of the federal government. The two upper colors, white and black, represent the colors of Prussia in the reverse direction of reading .



In 1811, the Brandenburg University of Frankfurt was relocated to Wroclaw in order to create a full-fledged university in the new province of Silesia by merging with the local Jesuit college , the Leopoldina .

At the same time, two compatriots moved to the new university: Marchia and Silesia. Already two years after the founding of the original fraternity in Jena , i.e. in 1817, they became the first Breslau fraternity, which initially called itself Teutonia, and at times during the persecution of demagogues in the following years also called Arminia.

The early date of origin was due to the importance of Wroclaw as the starting point of the patriotic freedom movement: As early as 1813, the Prussian king had announced his famous call for the formation of armed units, of which the Lützow hunters later became best known. The Zobtenberg near Breslau, the gathering place of the troops going into battle, was a regular venue for large corporation events from then until the Second World War .

It was not until 1819 that the Breslau fraternity, headed by Gustav Adolph Haacke (1800–1878), joined the “General German fraternity” founded a year earlier - internal problems were the cause, as was the case with the non-participation in the Wartburg Festival in 1817.

In the same year 1819, as everywhere in Germany, the fraternities in Breslau had to go underground, as a result of Metternich'sKarlsbader Resolutions ” . For more than twenty years the corporation went on in secret. After 1830 people met most often for secret meetings at the innkeeper Raczek (Polish diminutive for “cancer”) on Klosterstrasse; The oldest Wroclaw fraternity added his name to theirs in 1872.

The division of the fraternity movement, which began as early as the 1920s, into the "Germanistic", politically professing and active to the outside world, and the " Arministic ", inward-facing direction led to the emergence of the (new) Arminia in the revolutionary year of 1848 - Documentation of a conflict that took the fraternity's overall political breath away.

The most prominent member of the Raczeks: Ferdinand Lassalle around 1860

A patriotically motivated attempt to unite all Breslau corporations in 1859 for the 100th birthday of Friedrich Schiller was unsuccessful: Soon afterwards, the two Breslau fraternities as well as other associations left again; the rest continued to exist as a free association, which was transformed into the Germania fraternity in 1860.

On the occasion of the 50th foundation festival of the Old Breslau Burschenschaft (later Raczeks), the Carolina Academy in Prague , which had been founded seven years earlier, visited in 1867 . Through a spontaneous exchange of ribbons between the active members of the two fraternities, an almost 140-year-old brotherhood with the Carolen was created, which has endured to the present day. Just like the Raczeks for Wroclaw, the Carolen are the oldest still existing student association in Prague.

With the emergence of the Little German Empire, the fraternities became "settled". Up to 1930 three Wroclaw fraternities had their own houses, none of which are any more. So had the Raczeks their fraternity house in the Duke Street 2. For the fourth had probably the time not served until the dissolution of Fraternities 1935 to house purchase. This was formed in 1876 as the Cheruskia fraternity from a general corporation, subsequently temporarily dissolved and re-established in 1910 at the Technical University of Breslau . The emergence of several fraternities at a university location after 1860 was probably more the result of the persistence of the individual associations to remain independent when changing the statutes, rather than the result of fundamental differences.

With other like-minded fraternities, the Raczeks founded the Red Direction on January 10, 1920 , a cartel within the German fraternity. After the great casualties of the First World War , the fraternities experienced a strong boom in the 1920s, although (or because) especially the Breslauer fought for years in the defense of Silesia against Polish insurgents . The 1920s were also marked by the political polarization in Germany, which, Aktivitas here, old men there, continued into the fraternities. With their national character, which has always been emphasized, they were susceptible to slogans from the extreme right and were increasingly involved in daily political events. The inexorable penetration of fraternity life by totalitarianism after 1933 finally led to the end of its members in Breslau in 1935 with the dissolution of the German fraternity.

The former fraternities almost everywhere founded new " comradeships " under the umbrella of the National Socialist German Student Union (NSDStB), which had as a basic principle the promotion of the community of the members and maintained the old traditions. But fraternity-political activities and also court fencing were no longer possible for them.


After the Second World War, the old Breslau fraternities merged in 1950 in West Germany. The new federal capital Bonn was chosen as the seat, on the one hand because the local Rheinische and the former Silesian Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in Wroclaw could be regarded as sister institutions in terms of the history and conception and also because of the proximity to the Wroclaw sponsor city of Cologne , where other Breslau corporations had already come together.

The new union of the old gentlemen of the Breslau Cheruscans, Teutons and Raczeks, the Bund Alter Breslauer Burschenschafter (BABB e.V.), started an activity again , initially together with the Marchia Bonn fraternity , which, as agreed, became independent after one year initially the name Alte Breslauer Burschenschaft led to Bonn in order not to have to commit to a traditional Breslau name.

It has been a member of the German fraternity again as a founding fraternity since 1951, the only one accepted unanimously. The old gentlemen's association of Arminia, having moved from Hamburg , was only merged into the BABB in 1954, which concluded the unification of all former Wroclaw DB fraternities.

Also in 1954, the house on what was then Schiller-Strasse, now Johannes-Henry-Strasse, which is still inhabited, was acquired, which then experienced a flourishing federal operation until the end of the 1960s, revitalized not least by the inclusion of seven active members of the former Wilhelmshaven fraternity Frisia.

In the early 1960s, members of the Raczeks were actively involved in the South Tyrolean battle . According to Günther Schweinberger, a member of the Olympia Vienna fraternity, members of the Raczek fraternity also made a contribution “in the underground struggle against the Italian occupiers” in South Tyrol. Some members of the Raczeks were arrested and sentenced. In fact, Heinrich Bünger, a member of the Raczeks, was imprisoned for 7 months in Austria and sentenced in absentia to over 20 years imprisonment.

For the 150th anniversary in 1967, the federal government changed its name to that of its oldest predecessor in Wroclaw, which it still uses today. In return, the previously worn (raczek) red hat was exchanged for a black one, which was modeled on the Breslau armored hat.

The old Breslau fraternity of the Raczeks sees its task even more strongly today than in previous years, not least due to the inexorable loss of its older members, who were still born in Silesia, not only in the active commitment to the goals of the original fraternity of 1815, embodied by the motto " God-Ehre-Freiheit-Vaterland ”, but also in preserving the memory of the former German eastern territories .

In the 2006/2007 and 2010/2011 financial years, the Old Breslau Burschenschaft der Raczeks chaired the fraternity .

Relationships with other connections

The old Breslau fraternity of the Raczeks belongs to the fraternity within the DB. It forms the East German cartel with the Vienna academic fraternity Teutonia and the Danubia Munich fraternity .


In mid-June 2011 it was announced that the Raczek fraternity wanted to submit a motion to expel the Hansea fraternity in Mannheim, which was also organized there, on the day of the German fraternity. This connection had previously accepted a student into Aktivitas who was born and raised in Germany, but has Chinese parents. In their justification for this application, the Raczeks said: "Especially in times of increasing foreign infiltration, it is unacceptable that people who are not of the German tribe are accepted into the German fraternity". In a further motion to interpret the constitution of the German fraternity, she demanded recourse to German ancestry as a prerequisite for admission to a fraternity. In the following media coverage, the Raczek fraternity was accused of being close to racist ideologies from the Third Reich. She withdrew the applications before the boys' day.

In a printed in the newspaper members of the fraternity 2011 letter to the editor of Raczek called Norbert Weidner resistance fighter Dietrich Bonhoeffer as " traitors " and his condemnation to death by an SS - court martial as "purely legal grounds". The letter to the editor was a response to the letter from another Raczek, who Bonhoeffer had described as a "role model for today's fraternity". The public prosecutor's office in Bonn has initiated an investigation into suspicion of disparaging the memory of the deceased , and the FDP district association in Bonn decided to initiate a party expulsion process. In a further reaction, several hundred fraternity members, some of whom were respected, signed a letter of protest in which they condemned Weidner's statement and demanded his resignation as editor of the fraternity leaves . The member Christian Joachim Becker, who founded the initiative “Fraternities against neo-Nazis”, was excluded in September 2012.

Known members

  • Bruno Ablaß (1866–1942), politician (progress, DDP)
  • Hugo Alexander-Katz (1846–1928), Arminia, lawyer and writer
  • Wilhelm Alter (1843–1918), Raczeks, psychiatrist
  • Gustav von Amstetter (1800–1875), Arminia, lawyer and member of the Frankfurt National Assembly from 1848
  • William Anders (1820–1873), Raczek, lawyer and politician, Mayor of Houston
  • Alwin Aschenborn (1816–1865), Raczek, lawyer and district administrator, as well as explorer and plant collector in Mexico
  • Richard Assmann (1845–1918), Arminia Breslau, meteorologist
  • Reinhard Karl Julius Badenhoop (1903–1973), Raczeks, Mayor of Gleiwitz, board member of the communal community center for administrative management
  • Heinrich Bäthig (1809–1871), old Breslau fraternity Arminia, preacher, photographer and doctor
  • Carl Friedrich Eduard Bartsch (1802–1882), old Breslau fraternity Arminia, honorary citizen of Breslau, member of the state parliament
  • Ottomar Behnsch (1813–1869), Old Breslau Burschenschaft Arminia, theologian, member of the Prussian National Assembly and the Prussian House of Representatives
  • Robert Beisert (1833–1893), Raczek, lawyer and member of the German Reichstag
  • Julius Bernstein (1839–1917), Raczek, physiologist
  • Georg Bessau (1884–1944), Arminia, pediatrician and university professor
  • Herbert Billib (1904–2001), Raczeks, hydraulic engineer and university professor for water management
  • Hans Werner Bracht (1927-2005), Raczeks Bonn, Professor of Law
  • Georg Buschan (1863–1942), Raczek, physician, anthropologist and ethnographer
  • Rudolf Eckert (1859–1913), Arminia Breslau, journalist, historian and poet
  • Bruno Ehrlich (1868–1945), Germania Breslau, archeology, early historian and museum director in Elbing
  • Adalbert Enders (1856–1925), Raczeks, politician (FVp, FVP, DDP)
  • Hermann Engler (1821–1896), old Breslau fraternity of the Raczeks; District Administrator, member of the Prussian Provincial Parliament and the Prussian House of Representatives
  • Walter Erbe (1890–1963), Arminia Breslau, district administrator in the Norderdithmarschen district and district mayor of Berlin-Mitte
  • Hans Carl Federath (1848–1914), Arminia fraternity in Breslau; Prussian district administrator and owner of several ironworks
  • Ludwig Feyerabend (1855–1927), Raczek's Breslau, prehistorian, director of the Kaiser Friedrich Museum in Görlitz
  • Gotthard Fliegel (1873–1947), Germania Breslau, geologist
  • Heinrich Förster (1799–1881), Arminia, clergyman, bishop of Breslau
  • Ferdinand Friedensburg (1824–1891), Wroclaw fraternity (later Raczeks), Lord Mayor of Wroclaw
  • Max Friedländer (1829–1872), Breslau fraternity (later Raczeks), journalist
  • Max Friedlaender (1853–1915), Raczeks, judge and editor at Kladderadatsch
  • Carl Fuchs (1801–1855), Arminia fraternity in Breslau; Lawyer and member of the Frankfurt National Assembly from 1848
  • Georg Garbotz (1891–1976), Germania Breslau, Raczeks Bonn, economist, “Nestor des Baubetriebs” and head of the chair for construction machinery and construction operations at RWTH Aachen University
  • Heinrich Ludwig Robert Giseke (1827–1890), Arminia Breslau, journalist and writer
  • Herbert Glaeser (1899–1958), Arminia Breslau fraternity, later the Old Breslau fraternity in Bonn; Member of the Lower Saxony State Parliament
  • Gustav Glubrecht (1809–1891), Arminia Breslau fraternity, Lord Mayor and honorary citizen of Schweidnitz
  • Heinrich Göppert (1800–1884), Breslau fraternity (later Raczeks); Botanist and paleontologist
  • Rudolf Gottschall (1823–1909), Breslau fraternity (later Raczeks); writer
  • Adolf Gottstein (1857–1941), Raczek's Breslau; Hygienist
  • Bernhard Gringmuth (1823-1884), Raczek's Breslau; Protestant theologian and politician, member of the Prussian House of Representatives
  • Otto Grotefend (1873–1945), Raczek's Breslau, historian and archivist
  • Robert Härtel (1831-1894), sculptor (honorary member)
  • Johannes Hellmann (1840–1924), Raczek, lawyer, administrative officer and chairman of the Provincial Association of Fire Brigades in Silesia
  • Karl Heinrich Hermes (1800–1856), Arminia, journalist and publicist
  • Karl von Holtei (1798–1880), Breslau fraternity (later Raczeks); Writer, actor, reciter, theater director and theater director
  • Hermann Hoogeweg (1857–1930), Arminia, archivist and historian
  • Heinrich Joseph Horwitz (1824–1899), Raczek, lawyer and member of the German Reichstag
  • Hermann Irgahn (1820–1906), Raczek, member of the Prussian House of Representatives, senior public prosecutor and honorary citizen of Hamm
  • Emil Jacobsen (1836–1911), Germania Breslau, chemist and writer
  • Karl Franz Jaeckel (1844–1898), Arminia, District Administrator in the Strasburg District in West Prussia, member of the Provincial Parliament of West Prussia, member of the Prussian House of Representatives, Governor of the Province of West Prussia
  • Max Kalbeck (1850–1921), Arminia, music writer
  • Augustin Keller (1805–1883), Old Breslau Burschenschaft Arminia; Swiss politician
  • Friedrich Julius Kieschke (1819–1895), Raczek's Breslau, Lord Mayor of Königsberg, member of the Prussian House of Representatives
  • Martin Kirschner (1842–1912), Germania, Lord Mayor and Honorary Citizen of Berlin
  • Paul Kleinert (1839–1920), Arminia Breslau, Protestant theologian
  • Carl Koch (1826–1862), Raczek's Breslau, lawyer and politician, member of the Prussian House of Representatives
  • Max Kolbe (1859–1925), Raczek, teacher and member of the Reichstag
  • Heinz Krug ("rocket jug"; * around 1912; lost 1962), Raczeks, lawyer and dealer in rocket technology
  • Georg Heinrich Kruhl (1798–1870), Old Breslau Burschenschaft Arminia, teacher, member of the Prussian National Assembly and the Erfurt Union Parliament
  • Otto Kübler (1827–1912), Arminia Breslau, educator, grammar school director
  • Hans Kuhlendahl (1910–1992), Wroclaw fraternity Cheruskia, neurosurgeon and university professor
  • Paul von Kulmiz (1836–1895), Raczeks, MdR
  • Joseph Kutzen (1800–1877), Arminia fraternity in Breslau; Historian, geographer, philologist, educator, politician and member of the Frankfurt National Assembly from 1848
  • Paul Laband (1838–1918), Arminia Breslau, constitutional law teacher, member of the Council of State for Alsace-Lorraine
  • Ferdinand Lassalle (1825–1864), Breslau fraternity (later Raczeks); Founding father of German social democracy
  • Kurd Laßwitz (1848–1910), Arminia Breslau, writer and scientist
  • Heinrich Laube (1806–1884), Arminia fraternity in Breslau; Writer, playwright and theater director and member of the Frankfurt National Assembly from 1848
  • Herbert Leinkauf (1903–1960), Germania Breslau, District Administrator of the District of Celle
  • Ludwig Lichtheim (1845–1928), Raczek's Breslau, internist and neurologist
  • Felix Lindner (1849–1917), Arminia Breslau, English studies
  • Rudolf Löwenstein (1819–1891), Raczek, writer
  • Otto Lüning (1818–1868), Raczek, journalist, politician and doctor
  • Franz Mader (1912–1988), Arminia, Raczek Bonn, lawyer and politician (FDP, CDU), bearer of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
  • Oskar Maretzky (1881–1945), Arminia fraternity in Breslau; Lord Mayor of Berlin
  • Ludwig Matthäi (1813–1897), Arminia Breslau, Mayor of Lauban, revolutionary, member of the Prussian Second Chamber, deputy to the Prussian National Assembly
  • Emanuel Mendel (1839–1907), Raczek, neurologist, psychiatrist and politician
  • Wilhelm Meydam (1821–1907), Raczeks, Mayor of Landsberg an der Warthe and member of the Provincial Parliament
  • Heinrich von Mühler (1813–1874), Raczek, Prussian statesman
  • Franz Adolf Namszanowski (1820–1900), Breslau fraternity (later Raczeks), army bishop in Prussia
  • Theodor Oelsner (1822–1875), Raczek, editor and writer
  • Karl Robert Pabst (1809–1873), Alte Arminia, philologist
  • Karl Friedrich Passow (1798–1860), co-founder of Alte Arminia, philologist and teacher
  • Joachim Paul (* 1970), Raczek Bonn, teacher, politician ( AfD ), member of the state parliament (Rhineland-Palatinate)
  • Martin Peltasohn (1849–1912), Arminia, member of the Prussian House of Representatives
  • Gustav Pinzger (1800–1838), Alte Arminia, classical philologist and high school director
  • Hans Georg Pohl (1852–1928), Raczek, lawyer and member of the German Reichstag
  • Theodor Qual (1818–1892), Raczek, lawyer and politician (DFP)
  • Felix Rachfahl (1867–1925), old Breslau fraternity of the Raczeks; historian
  • Eduard Rahn (1827–1863), old Breslau fraternity of the Raczeks; Lawyer and politician, member of the Prussian House of Representatives
  • Robert von Reder (around 1800–1869), Old Breslau Burschenschaft Arminia; Lawyer and politician, district administrator of the Sprottau district and member of the Prussian House of Representatives
  • Eduard von Reichenbach (1812–1869), Arminia, Prussian landowner and politician
  • Friedrich Rieger (1811–1885), singer and theater director
  • Robert Rößler (1838–1883), Silesian dialect poet
  • Johannes Ronge (1813–1887), Breslauer Burschenschaft Teutonia (later Raczeks), Catholic priest, who contributed significantly to the establishment of the Federation of Free Religious Congregations
  • Otto Rossbach (1858–1931), classical philologist and archaeologist
  • Hans Rukop (1883–1958), Arminia, Raczeks Bonn, high-frequency technician
  • Gustav von Schaubert (1801–1876), Alte Arminia, lawyer and politician, district administrator of the Neumarkt district
  • Franz Schmidt (1818–1853), Raczek, Catholic preacher and member of the Frankfurt National Assembly
  • Philipp Schmieder (1830–1914), Raczek, lawyer and member of the German Reichstag
  • August Schneider (1851–1929), Germania, Mayor of the City of Katowice
  • Fritz Schneider (1838–1921), Raczek, writer and politician (DFP, FVp)
  • Eduard Schnitzer (1840–1892), Arminia fraternity in Breslau, doctor and Africa researcher in the service of the Ottoman sultan
  • Gerhard Schorsch (1900–1992), Arminia fraternity in Breslau, neurologist and psychiatrist
  • Theodor Schube (1860–1934), Raczek, natural scientist, botanist and high school professor
  • Eugen Seidelmann (1806–1864), Arminia Breslau, Kapellmeister and composer
  • August Semrau (1816–1893), Raczek, journalist and revolutionary
  • Hugo Seydel (1840–1932), Raczek, Prussian politician
  • Oscar Ferdinand Siegfried (1825–1902), Raczek, landowner and politician. Member of the Prussian House of Representatives
  • August Heinrich Simon (1805–1860), Breslau fraternity (later Raczeks); Politician
  • Julius Stein (1813–1889), Raczek, left-liberal and democratic journalist and politician
  • Moritz Graf von Strachwitz (1822–1847), Breslau fraternity (later Raczeks); Ballad poet
  • Karl Adolf Suckow (1802–1847), Arminia Breslau, theologian and writer
  • Eduard Teuchert (1805–1883), Arminia fraternity in Breslau, First Mayor of Gleiwitz, member of the Prussian House of Representatives
  • Heinrich August Ferdinand Thilo (1807–1882), Arminia, lawyer and politician, member of the Prussian Constituent Assembly
  • Karl Türk (1800–1887), Arminia, legal historian and politician
  • Anton Viertel (1841–1912), Raczek, classical philologist
  • Heinemann Vogelstein (1841–1911), Breslauer Burschenschaft Arminia, Germania; liberal rabbi
  • Gerhard Werner (1912–1988), Raczek, lawyer and politician, district administrator, mayor and city director in Hannoversch Münden
  • Norbert Weidner (* 1972), Raczeks Bonn, editor of the Burschenschaftliche Blätter
  • Robert Weigelt (1815–1879), Raczek, photographer and autograph collector
  • Karl Weinhold (1823–1901), Raczeks, Medievalist
  • Max Westram (1856–1922), Germania, Mayor of Ratibor
  • Otto Willmann (1839–1920), Raczek, Catholic philosopher and educator
  • Georg Winter (1895–1961), Germania, archivist and historian
  • Carl Gustav Wocke (1808–1879), Arminia, district administrator for the Adelnau and Posen districts
  • Wilhelm Wolff (1809-1864); Breslauer Fraternity (later Raczeks); Companion of Karl Marx , to whom the first volume of Capital is dedicated
  • Oswald Zimmermann (1859–1910), Raczek, journalist and politician (DSRP)

Membership directory :

  • Willy Nolte (Ed.): Burschenschafter Stammrolle. List of members of the German Burschenschaft according to the status of the summer semester 1934. Berlin 1934. P. 1018.


  • Felix Rachfahl : The origin of the old Breslau fraternity. Wroclaw 1917.
  • Hans-Georg Balder: The German (n) Burschenschaft (en) - Your representation in individual chronicles. Hilden 2005, pp. 68-69, 87-88.
  • Björn Thomann: "The political conscience of the German fraternity" - history and faces of the Breslau Raczeks in Vormärz and Revolution . In: Helma Brunck, Harald Lönnecker , Klaus Oldenhage (eds.): "... a big whole ... even if different in its parts". Contributions to the history of the fraternity (representations and sources on the history of the German unity movement in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, volume 19). Winter, Heidelberg 2012. ISBN 978-3-8253-5961-4 . Pp. 147-428.

Web links


  1. Meyers Konversationslexikon . 5th edition, Leipzig 1896, supplement to the article student associations .
  2. ^ Ex-member in custody: Nazi charge against Raczek fraternity. In: Spiegel Online . July 20, 2012, accessed June 9, 2018 .
  3. http://www.mbr-koeln.de/vor-ort/bonn/
  4. ^ Fraternity teaches at Bonn vocational college. In: sueddeutsche.de. March 25, 2015, accessed March 18, 2018 .
  5. http://www.netz-gegen-nazis.de/artikel/die-%E2%80%9Edeutsche-burschenschaft%E2%80%9C-9731
  6. Walter Schmidt : Life fates. Persecuted Silesian fraternities from the early 19th century. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Bans 22, 2003, pp. 449-521, here: pp. 451 f. and 490.
  7. ^ EH Eberhard: Handbook of the student liaison system. Leipzig, 1924/25, p. 29.
  8. Günther Schweinberger: South Tyrol is not Italy. In: 150 years of fraternities in Austria. Yesterday - today - tomorrow , Ares Verlag 2009, pp. 119f
  9. Schlesischer Kulturspiegel , issue 40, 2005, p. 56
  10. Sepp Mitterhofer, Günther Obwegs: There was no other way. Contemporary witnesses and documents from the South Tyrolean struggle for freedom , Arkadia Edition 2000, p. 304
  11. ^ Rolf Steininger: South Tyrol between diplomacy and terror: 1947-1969 , Athesia 1999, p. 433
  12. Patrick Fink, Christian Unge: The boys and the "German tribe" ; Hamburger Abendblatt, June 20, 2011.
  13. ^ Fraternities: How right is right? , The time Nº 30/2011, July 23, 2011
  14. ^ Spiegel Online from April 11, 2012
  15. ^ Spiegel Online from April 19, 2012
  16. www.spiegel.de
  17. ^ Antonie Rietzschel: Burschenschaft excludes critics . In the Süddeutsche Zeitung www.sueddeutsche.de