Communist Federation of West Germany

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Communist Federation of West Germany (KBW)
Party leader Joscha Schmierer (Secretary of the Central Committee 1973–1982)
founding June 12, 1973
Place of foundation Bremen
resolution 1985
Headquarters Frankfurt am Main (from April 1977)
Alignment Maoist
Number of members 2,915 (January 1978), approx. 4,000 (including mass organizations)
Average age about 27 years
Proportion of women 41 percent (September 1980)

The Kommunistische Bund Westdeutschland (KBW) was a West German K group that existed from 1973 to early 1985. The small party emerged mainly from the Communist Group (New Red Forum) Mannheim-Heidelberg (short name: KG / NRF), a successor organization to the Heidelberg SDS , and the Communist League of Bremen and other circles ("Bünden").

In 1982 the KBW largely stopped its political work and dissolved in 1985 after lengthy negotiations about the exploitation of its million dollar fortune.

Some of its members later became active in leading positions in federal and state politics, including Reinhard Bütikofer , Winfried Kretschmann , Ursula Lötzer , Krista Sager and Ulla Schmidt .


KBW program

Foundation and first years

The KBW, which was founded relatively late in Bremen on June 12, 1973, built on a successful collaboration between various local and regional circles. He was weak in the largest cities in the Federal Republic. In West Berlin , Semler - Horlemann were stronger with the KPD / AO , in Hamburg the Communist League (KB), in Munich the Workers 'Union for the Reconstruction of the KPD and in Stuttgart the Communist Workers' Union of Germany (KABD) was more successful than the KBW. In many medium-sized cities, however, and also on a national scale, the KBW was the strongest group of the so-called ML movement until its dissolution phase. H. of the K groups .

In the KBW groups in Freiburg, Göttingen and, above all, Heidelberg, there was a large overlap with the spokesmen in the Socialist German Student Union (SDS) and a corresponding influence on numerous groups of the youth movement. In Bremen and Osnabrück, on the other hand, where there were no universities at that time, as well as in Wolfsburg, groups with a business character, including apprentice and student groups, often emerged. Important stations on the way to a nationwide organization of the initially merely local or regional circles, which eventually founded the KBW or were more or less quickly accepted into it, were initially the unit of action against the university framework law or the unit of action of communist university groups and the unit of action in the metal collective bargaining round in 1971. The latter action broke with those circles that later formed the Communist League (KB). The separation of individual groups from the young democrats , the then youth organization of the FDP , and the split of the Lower Saxony state association of young democrats, later helped the KBW to achieve a certain presence in individual cities of North Rhine-Westphalia through the "Conference of North Rhine-Westphalian and Lower Saxony School Groups" , but above all in many small towns in Lower Saxony.

In 1972, building up the party was propagated in the Bremen Communiqué (BK). The unity of action against the immigration laws with the demonstration in Dortmund on October 8, 1972 and the Vietnam demonstration in Bonn in January 1973 were also essential . Larger numbers of groups of very different ideological origins could be brought together there.

There was a journalistic collaboration on the Bremen truth , which was not only supplied with reports by many local groups in 1972 and in the first half of 1973, but was often also publicly distributed alongside the respective local 'central organs'. It reached a circulation of around 12,000 and was the central organ of the groups of the 'Bremer Kommunique' that had set up the KBW.

At the same time - above all in the columns of the Heidelberg 'New Red Forum' (NRF), but also in the numerous local theoretical organs of the circles - there was an intense debate about the 'program of the West German communists'. All of the old friends from the action units, the other structural organizations and / or competitive formations that already supported the party, some groups of the KPD / ML central office, which was collapsing at the time, and above all numerous groups that participated in the extraordinary party congress of the KPD / ML Central Committee of Ernst Aust had been excluded. Some groups could be won for the KBW, others were at least impressed by the seriousness of the dispute.

This broad public discussion of the program with the entire left movement set the KBW apart from other approaches. Because the KB had no program and the rest of the K groups presented their program as a finished platform. The KBW's program was primarily characterized by the fact that so-called “democratic demands” were intended to weaken the state apparatus on the one hand, and to strengthen the awareness and capabilities of the so-called popular masses on the other.


The KBW was probably most attractive in the area of ​​the Bundeswehr. Numerous large groups of soldiers emerged in a short time. The fact that they also liked to demonstrate in uniform seemed worrying to some. Common canteens and the same catering for officers and men and the continued payment of the previous wages were demanded, as well as the election of officers by the people in addition to the general armament of the people and the replacement of the Bundeswehr by the 'people's militia'. This is also the name of many of the KBW's first local-regional and later district soldiers' newspapers. The appeal to the people and democracy at the KBW sometimes took on self-destructive forms. As part of the Fritz Güde campaign - a student councilor who was supposed to be dismissed for selling issues of the KBW central organ, the Kommunistische Volkszeitung (KVZ) - not only hundreds of people who were active in the public service or who were trainees admitted this aspired to the right of sale of the KVZ. They even accused themselves of this "offense" in the columns of the CPC . Later, the KBW tried repeatedly not only in demands for a referendum against Paragraph 218 , but also in various cities in the overthrow of the magistrates or senates and city councils etc. by the 'masses'.

In contrast to other groups that emerged from the 1968 movement , the KBW was a cadre organization . Members paid at least 10% of their gross income to the KBW, and contributions (e.g. donations from inheritance) were also expected. Thanks to this, in addition to a number of full-time functionaries, the KBW also had an exceptionally well-developed technical infrastructure. He owned his own fleet of Saab limousines, an extremely modern EDI system (Redactron) for the time, party buildings in Frankfurt, Berlin, Bremen and Hamburg, his own printing company (Caro-Druck), a book distributor (Hager), publishers ( Kühl KG, Sendler ) as well as "sample farms", where experiments were carried out with "fast-growing protein production" methods.

Ideologically he was close to Maoism and sympathized with regimes such as the People's Republic of China , Albania and Cambodia under Pol Pot . The Ugandan dictator Idi Amin has long been described in the party's central organ, the Communist People's Daily , as a progressive head of state, but this was controversial within the party . The KBW also actively supported freedom movements such as the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa and ZANU in Zimbabwe .

Because of this orientation, there were occasional tussles with spontaneous groups around Daniel Cohn-Bendit and Joschka Fischer within the left-wing scene in Frankfurt am Main , where the KBW had its headquarters at Mainzer Landstrasse 147 from May 1977 . The KBW also tried several times to disrupt events of other left-wing organizations in places where it was more strongly represented. The main opponent of the KBW was the “bourgeois state”. In international politics, the KBW pursued a position of anti-hegemonism and non- alignment , which in u. a. found expression in the slogan “Down with NATO and the Warsaw Pact ” at the time of the escalation of the Cold War in Europe, but also in support for the liberation movement in Afghanistan against the occupation by the Soviet Union .

In contrast to the spontaneous groups, the KBW did not belong to the extra-parliamentary opposition in the narrower sense of the word : it saw itself from the outset as a “party approach” that was ultimately to be expanded to establish a real communist party . So he officially participated in elections from 1974 to 1981 . The chemical laboratory assistant Helga Rosenbaum represented the KBW z. B. in the municipal council of Heidelberg . The later Federal Minister of Health Ulla Schmidt ran on the state list of NRW of the KBW on place 2 in the federal election 1976 and as a direct candidate in Aachen city. In addition to Ulla Schmidt, the following former KBW comrades were members of the German Bundestag in the 17th electoral term: Ursula Lötzer ( Die Linke ) and Krista Sager ( Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen ). Winfried Nachtwei , who was a member of Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen in the German Bundestag from 1994 to 2009, did not run for this election. Lötzer and Sager were no longer running for the 2013 federal election (18th electoral term).

KBW flag at a May rally in front of Kiel Town Hall (1976).

The highest number of members - around 2,600 - reached the KBW in 1976 . In addition, there were affiliated organizations such as the Society for the Support of the People's Struggles (GUV) for trained academics (approx. 800 members), the soldiers' and reservist committees for anti-militarist work and the committees and initiatives against § 218 KBW does not have a uniform nationwide student organization. The Communist Student Union (KSB), the Communist University Group (KHG) and other groups with other names (approx. 2,100 members) worked on his political line , but by no means all local associations with these names. The initially local " Communist School Groups " (KSG), " Communist High School Students League " (KOB) and " Communist Workers' Youth Association " (KAJB) were combined into a Communist Youth Association (KJB) (approx. 540 members) from 1976 onwards .

Through a key witness presented by the Schleswig-Holstein Constitutional Protection Office at the end of 1978, the public learned that the KBW expects not only high financial but also great time commitment from its members and that it does not shrink from "psychological terror". It was also mentioned that the membership structure of the KBW was not the “proletarian” organization that it wanted to be. In its ranks there were a remarkable number of doctors, teachers, around 70 lawyers, professors (and around five Protestant pastors until they left around 1974–1975). The pastors were faced with the alternative of leaving the cadre organization, i. H. the return to the sympathizer status without the right to vote in sensitive matters, or the resignation from the church and resignation from their profession. In the Hamburg area, this affected three pastors (a small minority compared to the rather KB-related competition within the North Elbe Church Working Group - NAK, which remained within denominational structures). A brochure 'Religion, Opium des Volkes', which was one of the first two dozen KBW brochures from 1973–1975, of which 30,000 to 80,000 were issued and mostly sold, was published. Especially young parts of the Protestant communities in Hamburg-Bramfeld (Pastor Edda Groth), Quickborn / Ellerau (Pastor Eckard Gallmeyer, among other things, an initiative group for community work in the interest of the population was active as the publisher of the local supplement of the KVZ) and Norderstedt (Pastor Karl -Helmut Lechner) were partially transferred to the KBW or its mass organizations.

The KBW was headed by an initially 11-member Central Committee (ZK), which was elected annually (later every two years, finally annually) by a conference of delegates. The function of the Central Committee secretary was exercised without interruption by the most important leading figure Joscha Schmierer , who also acted as the editor of the central organ of the KBW Communist People's Newspaper and the theoretical organ Communism and Class Struggle . After they were hired, as editor-in-chief from 1983 onwards, he determined the political course of the magazine Kommune , which is now considered the organ of the Realo faction of the Greens . Since 1999, Schmierer has been a member of the Foreign Office's planning team, responsible for fundamental questions of European policy. The KBW was programmatically based on a form of organization called " democratic centralism ", similar to the form of organization under Lenin or Mao. According to the program, elected cadres were given a kind of commander status, but they could also be voted out at any time with a two-thirds majority. In practice, this rarely resulted in voting out, but usually in opposition in the form of non-appearances for actions - as was the case in the oil crisis protests at the end of 1973 (see below), where often only half of the full members took part in the marches or these were canceled entirely - or for the simple non-communication of fighting base units with the line. Strikes or actions in which KBW cells themselves took the initiative were often only reported to the management when they were long over. As early as 1973, during the wild wave of strikes that took place during the establishment of the KBW, this led to displeasure in the Central Committee and malice among the competition.

The KBW did not know any official parliamentary groups as institutionalized units. In this regard, there was no communication ban between individual units, at least in the early years, but there were instructions that local units should direct criticism to the headquarters so that this could then be answered and clarified or printed in legible form, possibly forwarded to all groups.

Without prejudice to the authoritarian demeanor of individual leadership members or the willing subordination of numerous base members and the ensuing rejections, the written statements of the KBW and its individual leaders, which are democratically elected, mostly with a public show of hands at general assemblies, actually always contain demands for intensive and cohesive campaigns , Actions etc., but also requests for criticism of the management so that they can learn from their mistakes. This attitude results from the young age of most KBW cadres.

In the first few years there was a great deal of freedom of debate in the KBW, which also made it so attractive to numerous groups that the local base was often significantly broadened. In organizational practice, however, there were serious differences from place to place. Important here was z. For example, whether the members were organized in their own units rooted in their respective social structures - from these contexts the core of the KBW emerged as an organized, programmatically purified expression of the 68 revolt - or whether it was individual working members who either were subject to the instructions of an ignorant management or, in return, speculated on a post in this.

Two diverging documents from Bremen and Heidelberg were already available at the founding conference. The strongest KBW local group, the Bremer, which also thanks to its roots u. a. in apprenticeship movement had a certain operational presence, was strongly paralyzed in their practice in 1973-74 before in it, probably from the beginning hostile, fractionally operating branch of the former KPD / ML - Headquarters (central organ, Red Flag ' ) left the KBW after long discussions or was excluded from the KBW and its local 'mass organizations'. In the nationwide build-up phase up to the end of 1975, other fractions that have resigned or may have been excluded or pushed out of the organization should be mentioned: A group of probably 20 comrades from the Socialist Student Group Hamburg, and from 1976 u. a. the presumed majority of the communist students in Marburg and a group of around 20 comrades in Kiel. The so-called rights of the Committee for Democracy and Socialism (KDS), d. H. Especially supporters of the Bremen theses of the founding conference, rather left the organization individually, then were the first to develop eco-socialism as a possible perspective for winning over the masses.

In the first few years there were very few noteworthy split-offs from entire groups, which could only rarely be traced back to the organizational structure. The formal rights of membership were rather high compared to other political groups. It was far more an unresolved authoritarian socialization that, through fixation on supposedly revolutionary leaders, led many KBW cadres to catapult themselves into misery or political isolation by referring to the popular masses.

One of the sharpest expressions of isolation from the outside world was the cleaning up of the German political landscape by means of computers. The KBW, which later sold its innovative Redactron computer radio messaging system to IBM, had calculated divergences between the distribution of its own members and the German population. Accordingly, he sent shipyard workers from Bremen who were deeply rooted in society. B. to Bamberg and elsewhere. The last spheres of influence that the KBW still possessed were crushed in favor of delivering fictitious factory workers who could be reached nationwide within four hours by means of computer-generated company newspapers. Thanks to the 8-bit TRS-80 machine, with which the KBW offices were soon all equipped, the perfection went so far that one member could produce a handful of company-specific or department-specific newspapers per week. Political influence alone clearly crumbled in spite of the technical and journalistic perfection of the apparatus, which was later to benefit the PDS in parts or in the form of various intelligence services.

The big split of the KBW into KBW and Bund Westdeutscher Kommunisten (BWK) included the political elimination of a narrow majority of the Central Committee by a minority, led by the secretary and members of the Central Committee, as well as a rapid chain of putsch-like actions within the regional subgroups.

The members of the KBW and its “ mass organizations ” as well as many “ sympathizers ” understood the role of the KBW as the germ of a revolutionary cadre organization. The role of the cadres was to take up the most diverse social conflicts and to propagate a revolutionary change in social conditions as a solution. This happened according to the Marxist-Leninist theory that the new society was already included in the old one, but that a conscious and trained leadership was required to find, describe and implement new forms of organization of social life. In contrast to the spontaneous and anarchist movements, which often turned against the formation of any theory and organization, but of course also against the idea of ​​the dictatorship of the proletariat as a social transition form to socialism and communism, this is the central part of the KBW's program. The rejection of the Soviet Union as “real socialism” and the turn to the Maoist cultural revolution as a model for an (often romanticized) “union of workers, peasants and intellectuals under the leadership of the proletariat” was an important part of the KBW's worldview. Sample yards, direct connection between training and work and the establishment of a powerful information structure (see EDI system and Saab vehicle fleet) were, for example, T. expression of the attempt to build the vision of a new society practically from within.

Internationally, the KBW worked closely with the Communist Federation of Austria (KBÖ) founded in 1976 . Support for the Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) and the Khmer Rouge also played an important role . In December 1978 a KBW delegation traveled under Schmierer to the " Democratic Kampuchea " at the invitation of the Khmer Rouge .

Spin-offs and dissolution

In 1979 a “right-wing” movement in the KBW formed the Committee for Democracy and Socialism (KDS), to which Willfried Maier , Ralf Fücks and Dietrich Hildebrandt belonged. The KDS published magazines for democracy and socialism , later they were largely absorbed by the Greens. This was u. a. about the advocates of the Bremen 'theses', who had not found a majority at the founding conference, but rather had been rejected as 'economist'.

In 1980 a “left” group around Martin Fochler split off , calling itself the Bund Westdeutscher Kommunisten (BWK). The BWK dissolved in 1995 as an independent party and currently exists as a working group “Concrete Democracy - Social Liberation” within the party Die Linke .

In 1985 the KBW officially dissolved after it had contributed its assets to an association called "Association", which was supposed to support the "green alternative movement". A few years later, the building at his Frankfurt headquarters (originally purchased for around DM 3 million ) was exchanged for an “eco-house” that was allegedly built for around DM 30 million to Commerzbank . Many former members (eg. As Joscha smears or Ralf Fücks and Willfried Maier) later found their political home in the realist grands of the Greens, as well as their former Sponti -Widersacher Joschka Fischer and Daniel Cohn-Bendit. Others returned to bourgeois professional life and, despite their revolutionary past, made careers in industrial companies and associations.

The former KBW member (1973–1975) Winfried Kretschmann , who was a founding member of the Baden-Württemberg Greens in 1979 and is now a member of Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen , was elected in May 2011 as the first Green Prime Minister of Baden-Württemberg . He is also the first ex-Maoist Prime Minister in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany .

Horst Blume critically examines the remarkable change of some protagonists from an "authoritarian Marxist-Leninist sect" to a "pragmatically adapted green realpolitik"


  • Program and statute of the Communist Federation of West Germany. Kühl KG, Mannheim (later Frankfurt am Main) 1973ff. (Total circulation 199,000 copies, also in English, French, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Turkish and Serbo-Croatian).
  • What do the communists want? Answer to a brochure of the IG Chemie - Paper - Ceramics . Kühl KG, Mannheim 1974.
  • Revolutionary programs. Programs of the German and Russian workers' parties and the Communist International. Sendler, Mannheim 1975.
  • The conquests of the Teutonic Order against the peoples of the East , ed. by the editorial staff of the Kommunistische Volkszeitung [under the guidance of Martin Fochler ] ( series on German history; 1 [no more published]). Sendler, Frankfurt 1977 ISBN 3-88048-042-X .
  • As long as there is imperialism, there is war , (Ed. Martin Fochler). Kühl KG, Frankfurt am Main 1977 (2nd revised edition, 5th to 8th thousand).
  • Away with the prohibition requests against KBW, KPD and KPD / ML ! Marxism-Leninism cannot be forbidden , Communist People's Newspaper special issue (documentation) 1977.
  • Foundations of scientific socialism: training , Neues Rotes Forum publishing house, Heidelberg 1973; that. 3rd edition, 9. – 11. Thousand Sendler, Heidelberg 1974, ISBN 3-88048-007-9 .
  • Struggle for the program of the revolution in Germany: the path of the KPD , ed. from the Central Committee of the Communist League of West Germany. Kühl-Verlagsgesellschaft Kommunismus und Klassenkampf, Frankfurt am Main 1977 (3rd edition, 9th – 11th thousand 1978).


  • Communist People's Newspaper (KVZ): Central organ of the KBW. 1st year 1973-10. Born in 1982
  • Communism and class struggle (KuK): Theoretical organ of the KBW. 1st year 1973-10. Born in 1982,
  • Kommune (1st year 1983ff, discontinued at the end of 2012) as a continuation of the KVZ and KuK
  • Communism and class struggle: 9 workbooks for the 1976 federal election
  • National Liberation: 9 brochures on liberation movements , [No.] 1. 1972 (Committee Southern Africa / Heidelberg), The Struggle for Guinea-Bissau , New Red Forum 1972 to 9.1976 Zimbabwe Chimurenga , Sendler-Verlag; sometimes several editions, e.g. B. Winfried Nachtwei, Namibia . From the anti-colonial revolt to the national liberation struggle; History of the former German colony of South West Africa , no.7.1976 (2nd edition)
  • Revolutionary popular education: Organ of the “Society for the Support of the People's Struggles” (GUV) and the Soldiers and Reservists Committees (SRK), changed its name to “Umbruch”, its concept and focus with issue No. 4 of March 26, 1982 were concentrated on "art" (1st year 1982–7th year 1988)
  • Rote Robe , 1st year 1970 - 7th year 1976, 1981–1984, publisher: Südwestdeutscher Referendarverband (until 5.1974, issue 3), thereafter: Society for the support of people's struggles. Rote Robe Verlags-Gesellschaft (until 1976), later Sendler-Verlag (Mannheim; from 1977 Frankfurt am Main); from vol. 5/1974, issue 3 a KBW-related legal journal
  • Upheaval (see above)


  • 1973, December 8th. The KBW organized demonstrations in several cities against the "emergency measures of the bourgeoisie and their state" (which meant, inter alia, the temporary Sunday driving ban during the first oil crisis ). It was "the first action for which the KBW took the initiative under central guidance in order to combine its forces on a uniform line and at the same time throughout the FRG and West Berlin and to focus on one task" The KBW is on demonstrations over the next eight years mostly because of the slogan he carried with him: “Forward in the struggle for the rights of the working class and the people! "Forward in the fight for the victory of socialism to recognize
  • 1974 is marked by a large solidarity campaign for the grammar school teacher Fritz Güde , who is affected by the radical decree because of his then KBW membership
  • 1974, September 14th. Participation in the demonstration in Frankfurt am Main on the 1st anniversary of the junta's seizure of power in Chile
  • 1975, June. Ndabaningi Sithole , one of the leaders of the ZANU, visits the Federal Republic of Germany at the invitation of the KBW to take part in solidarity events
  • 1975. Demonstrations against fare increases in local public transport in Heidelberg (June), Frankfurt am Main (July) and Mannheim (September)
  • 1975, September 21. 20,000 people demonstrate in Bonn for the abolition of § 218 StGB ("abortion paragraph"). The slogan of the KBW to § 218 "The people should decide for themselves - referendum !" Was considered unworldly, reactionary by the women's movement as well as by other left organizations such as the GIM and the KB , which focused on the right of women to self-determination or criticized misogynist. The KBW held on to its demand for a referendum for several years. In 1976 the KBW and its committees increase their campaign against § 218 with militant actions against Pro Familia advice centers
  • 1976, May 1st. 17,800 people take part in the rallies and demonstrations of the KBW (1979 only 4,335 participants are registered in its May events)
  • 1976, August. "6,500 workers, employees, pupils and students" demonstrate in forty cities against the KPD ban of 1956
  • In 1976, as the climax of the campaign to support the ZANU (Zimbabwe-African National Union) struggle for independence by the KBW and its sub-organizations , Robert Mugabe, head of ZANU and later Prime Minister of Zimbabwe , visited the KBW headquarters and concluded an event with around 5,000 participants collecting money for the liberation struggle of the ZANU. Around 700,000 DM had been collected. The money was confiscated on the initiative of the then Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher ( FDP ) by blocking the collective account. Robert Mugabe demands immediate surrender in Frankfurt: The money is the property of the people of Zimbabwe. The money is only released after independence has been achieved. In the following years, ZANU functionary Edgar Tekere appeared several times at KBW events
  • 1977, February 19. Demonstration against the construction of the Brokdorf nuclear power plant , in which KBW members are also involved.
  • 1977, March 19. After supporters of various K groups tried to storm the construction site of the Grohnde nuclear power plant during the protests against the construction of the Grohnde nuclear power plant , Lower Saxony's Prime Minister Ernst Albrecht called for a ban on the KBW, which he wrongly identified as the main responsible. After the violent actions, national newspapers deal intensively with the KBW
  • 1977, May 28. The soldiers and reservists committees of the KBW organize soldiers and reservists days in Hanover , Cologne and Munich with around 5,000 participants. The Communist Youth Association holds youth camps with shooting and field exercises. Football tournaments are held and plays are performed to “support the fighting youth of Zimbabwe ”. These events will also take place in different locations over the next few years
  • 1977, October 8th. Joint demonstration by KBW, KPD and KPD / ML in Bonn against the planned ban on their organizations, in which around 16,000 supporters and sympathizers take part. The originally intended further cooperation between the three organizations did not take place, however, only KBW and KPD worked together in the last quarter and held a joint discussion event in Frankfurt am Main in February 1978
  • 1977, October 21. The KBW headquarters in Frankfurt am Main is searched by the police and copies of the KBW poster, one way or the other - these are concentration camp methods , on which the Prime Minister of Baden-Württemberg Hans Filbinger depicted a prisoner in Nazi uniform with the obvious Andreas Baader means holding a pistol in the neck or pushing a pistol under a cell door
  • 1977-1988. Due to the open demeanor demanded by their party (sale of the central body of the KVZ in the teachers' room and in the city, the refusal to give fives and sixes, and the propagation of the armed liberation struggle in Zimbabwe in the classroom), numerous KBW teachers lose their jobs
  • 1977, end of December. At the turn of the year, the soldiers' and reservists' committees in Hanover, Cologne and Munich hold music days at which the "demands of the soldiers' movement for continued wages and the right to terminate , their union with the labor movement and with the struggle of the peoples are to be supported" . In the near future, the SRK will accompany the quarterly recruits with parades. B. be represented at train stations. The SRK choir and marching band are also used successfully
  • 1978, Nov. 16 - Dec. 13, after a first visit in 1977 a delegation of the KBW travels to the People's Republic of China for the second time and also pays a visit to the Democratic Kampuchea , during which they meet with Nuon Chea , Deputy Secretary of the The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kampuchea (KPK), Ieng Sary, member of the Standing Committee of the KPK, and Pol Pot, Secretary of the KPK, meet. Another trip to the PRC followed in 1979
  • In 1979, after the fall of the Pol Pot regime in January, KBW focused on “solidarity with the democratic Kampuchea” . There are also numerous campaigns throughout the year. In June a delegation of the “Committee of Patriots Kampuchea” comes to nine events in the Federal Republic, on August 28, further events with the title “Down with the Soviet-Vietnamese aggression against Democratic Kampuchea” will take place in all districts . Signatures and donations are collected. On November 2nd and 3rd, several organizations, including the KBW and the Maoist KPD, are holding a “Congress in Support of the War of Resistance of the Kampuchean People in Frankfurt” . By the end of the congress, 23,000 signatures and 238,650 DM had been collected. KBW delegates take part on 17./18. November took part in an international solidarity conference in support of the Pol Pot regime in Stockholm . The music days of the Association of Revolutionary People's Education - Soldiers and Reservists (formerly SRK), in which 9,200 people take part, are also dedicated to "supporting the just war of resistance"
  • 1979, early August. At the invitation of the ZANU Central Committee, a delegation from the KBW Central Committee visits the ZANU headquarters in Maputo . Hans-Gerhart Schmierer and Jürgen Klocke hold talks with Comrades Mugabe and Tekere
  • 1979 (December). The KBW is only noticed in the media, if at all, because of its financial conduct and some of its quirks
  • At the end of 1979, the KBW sample farm in Oster-Ohrstedt , Schleswig-Holstein , where members of the party help out as “voluntary helpers” without pay and also pay “food allowance” of 8 DM per day, caused a particular stir in the media . The holiday home, which was built without a permit, is later taken over by a demolition company against surrender of the material
  • 1979/1980. Some of the teachers at the Frankfurt Evening High School who at least sympathize with the KBW . a. refusing to give bad grades have been attracting national newspaper attention for some time
  • 1980, April. At the invitation of ZANU (PF) and on behalf of KBW, Lutz Plümer took part in the celebrations for the independence of Zimbabwe
  • 1980, May 6th. A public vow of recruits in the Bremen Weser Stadium leads to serious riots, for which the KBW is initially falsely blamed in the media
  • 1980, September. After the BWK split off , the KBW ceased one activity after the other until 1982
  • 1981 Discussions about the dissolution of the KBW and the distribution of its assets begin. A majority wants to continue for the time being, whereupon the proponents of self-dissolution in droves
  • 1981, 14.-18. November. At the (public) 6th Conference of Delegates, all programmatic declarations valid up to then and the program adopted in 1973 will be repealed
  • 1982, June. Numerous newspaper articles mainly dealing with KBW assets annoy KBW leaders
  • 1983, 21./22. May. In its new statute (adopted at the 7th ordinary delegates' conference in Frankfurt am Main), the KBW gives up its claim to be a Marxist-Leninist cadre organization and describes itself only as an association
  • 1985, February 16. The KBW dissolves at a general meeting in Frankfurt am Main. The administration of the KBW assets is taken over by a newly founded association

Election results

Known members

Former members of the KBW or its subsidiary organizations are:

On the other hand, the Green Federal Environment Minister Jürgen Trittin ( Kommunistischer Bund (KB)), the journalist Helga Hirsch ( Communist Party of Germany / structural organization (KPD / AO) and Communist Party of Germany (Maoists)) and Antje did not belong to the KBW - as was sometimes erroneously claimed Vollmer , Vice President of the Bundestag, theologian and member of the KPD / AO “mass organization” “ League against Imperialism ”.


  • KBW . In: Frank D. Karl: The K groups. Communist Bund West Germany, Communist Party of Germany, Communist Party of Germany / Marxist-Leninists: Development, ideology, programs. Neue Gesellschaft, Bonn-Bad Godesberg 1976, pp. 31–54 (series Practical Democracy).
  • Helmut Bilstein u. a .: Organized communism in the Federal Republic of Germany. Fourth, completely revised and expanded edition. State Center for Political Education, Hamburg 1977, chapter The KBW , pp. 97-105.
  • (anonymous): Decision-making democracy, assembly communism and a bath in the frozen Grunewaldsee - report by a group from the KHG . In: We warn the strongest of the parties ...: Experience reports from the world of the K groups. Rotbuch, Berlin 1978, ISBN 3-88022-177-4 , pp. 50-63; .
  • Heiner Karuscheit: On the history of the West German ML movement. 2nd, shortened edition. VTK, Frankfurt am Main 1983, ISBN 3-88599-023-7 .
  • Jürgen Bacia: The Communist League of West Germany. In: Richard Stöss : Party Handbook. The parties of the Federal Republic of Germany 1945–1980. Volume 2. Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen 1983–1984, pp. 1648–1662.
  • Gerd Koenen : The Red Decade. Our little German cultural revolution 1967–1977. Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 2001 ISBN 3-462-02985-1 .
  • Andreas Kühn: Stalin's grandsons, Mao's sons. The living environment of the K groups in the Federal Republic of the 1970s. Campus, Frankfurt am Main / New York 2005, ISBN 3-593-37865-5 (the policies of the KPD / ML, the KPD / AO and the KBW in the representation of their central organs).

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. See Constitutional Protection Report 1981, p. 105
  2. The protection of the constitution described the KBW from 1974 to 1981 as the organization of the "New Left" with the largest number of members, see Verfassungsschutzbericht 1974, p. 84, that. 1982, p. 80 (since then it has been the MLPD )
  3. Communist Intelligence Service No. 48, Bochum November 7, 1970, p. 5; Red Province No. 9/10, Bad Gandersheim Aug./Sept. 1970, p. 14 f.
  4. Forward to Rebuilding the Communist Party! In: Truth (Zeitung des Kommunistische Bund Bremen ) No. 5/6 (June / July) 1972, pp. 16–17 and Joint Communiqué , p. 17. The BK and other statements by the six groups directly involved in building the party were also published in the Reprinted with the New Red Forum and other organs
  5. ↑ First edition of the truth 1972: 6000, last 12,000 (No. 5/6 1973), cf. One year of “truth” . In: Truth 2. Vol., No. 2 (February) 1973, pp. 14–15. The New Red Forum initially had a circulation of 5,000 and lastly of 12,000
  6. ^ The program of the West German communists. Statements of the program commission of the Federation of Communist Workers Freiburg, the Communist Federation of Bremen, the Communist Federation of Göttingen, the Communist Federation of Osnabrück, the Communist Federation of Wolfsburg and the Communist Group (NRF) MA / HD , New Red Forum special issue November 1972; Results of the founding conference of the Communist League of West Germany. Declaration of foundation, program, statute, resolutions , Mannheim: Ehlert 1973 (and later editions)
  7. ^ Son of the former Federal Public Prosecutor Max Güde
  8. Inner Security No. 38/1977, p. 8, finances of the “Communist Federation of West Germany” (KBW) ; that. No. 45/1978, p. 9, The financing of the “Communist Federal West Germany” (KBW) ; to reply by Hans-Gerhart greasers in. No 46/1978, p. 15
  9. taz-Druckerei Caro: The fight is over . In: the daily newspaper , December 31, 2012.
  10. the party published z. B. Writings such as The Great Victories of the Kampuchean Revolution under the correct and clear leadership of the Kampuchea Communist Party (September 27, 1977); Let us continue resolutely to hold up the banner of victory of the glorious Communist Party of Kampuchea to defend Democratic Kampuchea, continue the socialist revolution and build socialism (September 27, 1978); Declaration of January 5, 1979 ; Frankfurt am Main: Central Committee of the KBW, Verlag Kühl KG, Publishing Society Communism and Class Struggle, 1979; Communism and Class Struggle / Documentation, January 22, 1979.
  11. (court), “In the center of the financial bourgeoisie”. The Communist League of West Germany now in Frankfurt , in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of April 16, 1977; until the move in 1977 the organization was based in Mannheim, Sandhofer Strasse
  12. Fish meal for the KBW , in: Berliner Extra-Dienst No. 85 / X of October 29, 1976, p. 7
  13. (FAZ), your task: decomposition work in the municipal council. The Heidelberg KBW delegate Helga Rosenbaum / “Reason for joy for all dispossessed” , in: FAZ No. 208, September 17, 1976, p. 4; K and K . In: Der Spiegel . No. 46 , 1976 ( online ).
  14. The SPD's top candidate there was Dieter Schinzel , with whom they later ran a joint office.
  15. ^ For the membership development 1973 to September 1980 cf. Table development of the mass organizations and the general association (mass organizations each including KBW members, general association without double members) , in: Communism and class struggle. Special issue October 1981 , p. 11; reprinted in: Constitutional Protection Report 1981
  16. E.g. Red cells Kiel , Socialist Student Group (SSG) Hamburg, Communist University Initiative u. a.
  17. al. "You can die from the KBW, the main thing is that politics are made". A former reports hysteria and psychological terror . In: FAZ , November 25, 1978. Birgit Laprell: The KBW - violence and psychological terror . In: Rheinischer Merkur , December 1, 1978, p. 4; see. also the experience report in: "We warn the strongest of the parties ..."
  18. Hellmut Brunn , Thomas Kirn : Lawyers Linksanwälte. Eichborn, Frankfurt am Main 2004, p. 354.
  19. A case: Mao's praise from the pulpit . In: Der Spiegel . No. 28 , 1974, p. 14 ( online - Edda Groth , later Lechner, who then worked as a locksmith ). ; Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon - Jahrbuch 1975 p. 94 ([Two pastors resigned in Schleswig-Holstein during the reporting period 1974])
  20. ^ Karl-Helmut Lechner , Edda Groth. Religion, opium of the people . 11-15 Th. Sendler, Mannheim 1976, ISBN 3-88048-023-0
  21. The number of members of the Central Committee was continuously increased: 13, 15; at the split there were 49, after the Fifth Conference of Delegates in September 1980 45
  22. ^ Willfried Maier (with Erik Kühl): Theses on the tactics of the West German communists , Supplement to Truth No. 5/6 (May / June) 1973
  23. Willfried Maier (Ed.): Class struggle and program. The dispute with the right liquidator faction in the Bremen local branch of the KBW. Kühl, Mannheim 1973.
  24. The parliamentary group around Martin Fochler did not have a majority in the organization
  25. Internal Security No. 50/1979, p. 7 Foundation of “Committees for Democracy and Socialism” ; that. No. 58/1981, p. 4 Theoretical reorientation within the dogmatic "New Left"
  26. Inner Security No. 56/1981, pp. 3–4: "Split of the 'Communist Federal West Germany' (KBW)".
    Increased exploitation . In: Der Spiegel . No. 40 , 1980, pp. 129-134 ( online ).
  28. Board of Directors 1985: Franz Dick , Georg Duffner , Ralf Fücks, Willfried Maier, Willi Preßmar , Jürgen Walla and Thomas Siegner , (-hei): The KBW died - the "Association Association" was born. The funeral was "rather cheerful" , in: Die Tageszeitung from February 18, 1985
  29. Salt in the green soup . In: Der Spiegel . No. 5 , 2001, p. 78 ( online ).
  30. One functionary's fear that “(a) owing to their biographies (...) the functionaries would no longer have a chance of a decent job, let alone a position with the power of the leading cadre” was not always true. See: Functionaries try to stop the political end of the KBW . dpa article in the Frankfurter Rundschau, June 8, 1982, on this: Volker Lehmann , managing director: “Nobody lives in the house at Mainzer Landstrasse 147”. A reply from the Communist Federation of West Germany to a report on the party's situation . In: Frankfurter Rundschau, June 16, 1982.
  31. Horst Blume: The “Commune” is dead - long live the Commune! , in Grass Roots Revolution , Feb. 1, 2013
  32. Jürgen Schröder: Red robe. Materials for analyzing opposition. Red robe
  33. KVZ No. 9 of December 19, 1973, p. 9; Demonstration against the Sunday driving ban , in: Rhein-Neckar-Zeitung (RNZ, Heidelberger Nachrichten) No. 284 of December 10, 1973, p. 3: At the final rally in the town hall, Edmund Riethmüller , a member of the Central Committee of the KBW , spoke . He opposed what he said was attempts to use the current situation to create an emergency community between workers and employers. That is only a means of the capitalists to further exploit the working class. "
  34. ^ Fritz Güde: School struggle and professional ban in Baden-Württemberg. In: Hellmut G. Haasis (Ed.): Traces of the vanquished . Volume 3: Freedom movements from the democratic underground after 1848 to the opponents of nuclear power. Reinbek 1984, pp. 1067-1084.
  35. Jürgen Busche , Klaus Viedebantt : An army show of the German ultra-left. The “National Chile Demonstration” in Frankfurt . In: FAZ , September 16, 1974, p. 3.
  36. “Welcome Comrade Sithole!” In: KVZ , No. 23, June 12, 1975, p. 1; a few years later he will be called “puppet leader”: (Z-Red.) The armed people's war will smash the “ internal solution ”, the agreement of the imperialists with a handful of puppets . In: KVZ , No. 8, February 20, 1978, p. 13.
  37. "d. h. “(= Dieter Haas): Street battle in Heidelberg. KBW demonstrators blocking transport, in:. Rhein-Neckar-Zeitung (RNZ) No 140 of 23 June 1975, p 1 and ibid .: continued illegal demonstration and blockade . In: RNZ (Heidelberger Nachrichten) from the same day, p. 3.
  38. KVZ , No. 38, September 25, 1975, p. 3
  39. (PDF) p. 40.
  40. ^ Stories from the Truffle Pig - Politics and Organization of the Communist League 1971 to 1991 ( Memento from June 1, 2013 in the Internet Archive ; PDF), p. 158.
  41. ^ Constitutional Protection Report 1976, p. 115.
  42. KVZ No. 18 of May 6, 1976, p. 2; KVZ No. 19 of May 7, 1979, p. 20.
  43. (gs) : In the fight against the reaction we are building the Communist Party . In: KVZ , No. 34, August 26, 1976, p. 3.
  44. (Reu) : Sharp maneuver criticism of the militant left. After the non-violent Brokdorf demonstration, the KBW attacks the rest of the left. In: FAZ of February 24, 1977.
  45. (ke.), Albrecht thinks about a ban on the KBW. "First general staff-prepared attack against the police". In: FAZ, No. 68 of March 22, 1977, p. 5.
  46. Helmut Lölhöffel : "With armed force to political power" - Kommunistischer Bund Westdeutschland (KBW) , in: SZ No. 70 of March 25, 1977, p. 11 and Jürgen Busche: Waffen für das Proletariat. The Communist League of West Germany does not want to be a student party , in: FAZ No. 75 of March 30, 1977, p. 12.
  47. Volkmar Hoffmann: K groups want to continue work underground if necessary. 14,000 participants demonstrated against the threat of a ban by the CDU / “Action Unit to Fight the Bourgeoisie”. In: Frankfurter Rundschau of October 9, 1977
  48. Helmut Lölhöffel: K groups still disagree. KPD / ML rejects cooperation / protest demonstration with 16,000 participants , in: Süddeutsche Zeitung of October 10, 1977; Unity of action of the Maoists in the Federal Republic of Germany? in: Innere Sicherheit No. 42 (March 8) 1978, pp. 6-7.
  49. ^ Jürgen Busche: Left-wing extremism that takes place in the Saale. Friends and enemies at a Frankfurt meeting of the K groups. In: FAZ No. 37 of February 15, 1978, p. 10.
  50. ^ KBW headquarters in Frankfurt searched , in: FAZ of October 22, 1977; KBW headquarters with modern electronics. Blitzaktion in Frankfurt - Super news device secured , in: picture taken on Sunday 23 October 1977
  51. Wolfgang Terstegen: "In the hands of the state the school will always rot". Teachers in the service of the KBW, in: FAZ No. 168 of July 23, 1977, p. 3; Against musical terror . In: Der Spiegel . No. 2 , 1978, p. 64 f . ( online ).
  52. KVZ No. 52 of December 26, 1977, p. 11
  53. Recruitment , in: KVZ No. 2 of January 9, 1978, p. 2
  54. Peking Rundschau , No. 26, June 28, 1977, p. 7–8 delegation of the KBW and in No. 51 of December 26, 1978, p. 7 (short messages)
  55. "KVZ leaflet 1/15/79", p. 8
  56. KVZ No. 52 of December 24, 1979, p. 3: z.kbw.zk At the invitation of the Communist Party of China, a delegation from the Central Committee of the KBW, Comrade HG Schmierer, Secretary of the Central Committee and Comrade Jürgen Klocke , member of the Secretariat of the ZK, visited the People's Republic of China from 12/6/79 to 12/20/79
  57. KVZ No. 45 of November 5, 1979, p. 1
  58. A. Kühn, p. 119
  59. z.ges [Joscha Schmierer]: The plan of the British imperialists has been carefully worked out . In: KVZ , No. 36, September 3, 1979, pp. 16–17 (with 2 photos on p. 16).
  60. ↑ The principle of money . In: Der Spiegel . No. 50 , 1979, pp. 28-29 ( online ). already before: Alexander Hoffmann: cashing for the revolution. Communist Federation of West Germany . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , February 2, 1979, p. 9.
  61. ↑ The principle of money . In: Der Spiegel . No. 50 , 1979, pp. 28-29 ( online ). Associated Press , forced labor in the rural commune. KBW goes to the villages - exploitation under concentration camp conditions . In: RNZ , No. 278, 1./2. December 1979, p. 13; al., refuges in Schleswig-Holstein? The self-sufficiency efforts of the KBW / election campaign preparations . In: FAZ , December 3, 1979; Constitutional Protection Report Schleswig-Holstein 1979 (1980)
  62. Michael Schwelien: The KBW calls the high school students to "strike". The conflict at the Frankfurt evening high school takes on bizarre forms . In: Stuttgarter Zeitung , December 16, 1978, p. 2. Like Jews . In: Der Spiegel . No. 52 , 1979, pp. 63-64 ( online ). Alfred Behr: How a schoolhouse became a madhouse. Strange things at the Frankfurt evening high school . In: FAZ , March 7, 1980. On the right: Frankfurt evening high school: a long struggle for adequate material conditions, against competition, sifting out and political oppression . In: KVZ , No. 7 of February 11, 1980, p. 20.
  63. ^ Independence of Zimbabwe - A great victory in the struggle against imperialism and colonialism , [Report by Lutz Plümer.] In: Kommunismus und Klassenkampf , No. 6 (June) 1980, p. 22 f.
  64. The source . In: Der Spiegel . No. 32 , 1980, pp. 21 ( online ). (dpa / AP / Reuter) If a wrong Juso meets a "KBW man" ... V-people are said to have made grotesque mishaps in Bremen . In: Rhein-Neckar Zeitung , August 1, 1980, p. 15. The last battle. Riots in Bremen and Berlin: Spontaneous violence plays a revolution - the Communist League of West Germany believes it is at war (Zeit-Dossier, various authors). In: Die Zeit , No. 22/1980, pp. 9–11
  65. The KBW apparently before the split . In: FAZ , September 17, 1980, with a comment by JB (Jürgen Busche): End of a movement in the same issue. KBW has split, in: FR of September 17, 1980; Split of the “Communist League of West Germany” (KBW), in: Innere Security No. 56 of February 6, 1981, pp. 3-4.
  66. Functionaries try to stop the political end of the KBW. Members run away, only the wealth remains / delegates are supposed to vote on the dissolution of the party this week . In: Frankfurter Rundschau , June 8th, 1981. (AP): The last cadres are in the millions. The fight for possession of the KBW has already begun / In the Frankfurt ghetto . In: FAZ , September 18, 1981; on reports of this kind: Off to the last stand? Diverse interests in the "KBW treasure" . In: KVZ , No. 39, September 25, 1981, p. 2.
  67. Karl Grobe : The word “working class” was most often used. Representatives of the media were invited to the 6th delegates' conference of the KBW in Frankfurt , in: FR No. 267 of November 17, 1981, p. 3; Peter Schilder: Only one thing is not up for debate at KBW - self-dissolution. The Frankfurt delegates' conference . In: FAZ , November 21, 1981, p. 5. Discussion of the program of the “Communist Federation of West Germany” (KBW) at the 6th ordinary delegates' conference . In: Innere Sicherheit , No. 61, February 17, 1982, pp. 14-15.
  68. Lazlo Trankovits: The last fight is all about money. "Communist League West Germany" is at the end . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , June 12, 1982, p. 7. on such articles: The KBW, dpa and money . In: KVZ , No. 23, June 11, 1982, p. 2.
  69. Constitutional Protection Report 1983, p. 83
  70. Just scrap . In: Der Spiegel . No. 6 , 1985, pp. 56-57 ( online ). "ML 147" - ML as in Mainzer Landstrasse. The “Kommunistische Bund Westdeutschland” (KBW) dissolves / The old avant-gardes are leaving, the new ones are rubbing their hands . In: taz , February 16, 1985, p. 3. Jürgen Busche: A farewell that should not mean separation. "Association" inherits the Communist League of West Germany / family celebration . In: FAZ , February 18, 1985; Heinrich Halbig: Millions in possession despite political bankruptcy. The KBW gave up - "Abolition of capitalism not achievable". In: Der Tagesspiegel , February 19, 1985.
  71. ^ Constitutional Protection Report 1974, p. 96
  72. The KBW commented on this problem several times, cf. z. BHJ Hager: The composition of the state list in Hessen. In: KVZ No. 19 of September 18, 1974, p. 9.
  73. ^ The result of the election in West Berlin , in: KVZ No. 9 of March 6, 1975, p. 3.
  74. ^ The result of the state election campaign in Bremen , in: KVZ No. 39 of October 2, 1975, p. 3; Constitutional Protection Report 1975, p. 95
  75. ^ Constitutional Protection Report 1975, p. 76.
  76. ^ Elections in Baden-Württemberg: There is nothing to cheer for the bourgeoisie , in: KVZ No. 14 of April 8, 1976, p. 3; Constitutional Protection Report 1976, p. 111.
  77. Materials on the dispute in the Marxist-Leninist movement in West Germany: Documents on the talks between KBW, KABD, Rote Fahne (KPD) and Roter Morgen (KPD / ML) group in Mannheim on February 14, 1976 about participation in the federal elections , Kühl, Mannheim 1976.
  78. ^ Call of the KBW for the Bundestag election. Down with imperialism and reaction! Long live the proletarian world revolution! In: KVZ No. 17 of April 29, 1976, pp. 15/16.
  79. ^ Right slide in Hessen? In: KVZ No. 12 of March 24, 1977, p. 2.
  80. Constitutional Protection Report 1977, p. 99
  81. In its election analysis, the KBW states that "almost all of the votes of schoolchildren, students and younger teachers ... have been lost" , Tactical Resolution , in: KVZ No. 24 of June 12, 1978
  82. z.ges [J. Schmierer]: The election results in Bavaria , in: KVZ No. 43 of October 23, 1978, p. 4
  83. r.bep [B. Peters]: State elections in North Rhine-Westphalia: A relatively favorable result , in: KVZ No. 21 of May 19, 1980, p. 5