List of boat classes
A boat class within the meaning of the umbrella organization of sailing , the International Sailing Federation (ISAF) , includes boats that are suitable due to their design to compete competitively against each other in a sporting competition ( regatta ) according to the Racing Rules of Sailing developed and published by the ISAF to be able to.
The ISAF generally differentiates between boat classes with uniform, with limiting and with developable building regulations, whereby these delimitations are not to be understood as rigid, but rather fluid.
The building regulations are laid down in class rules, which contain the specifications about the boat and its use as well as information about the associated boat certificates (e.g. the measurement certificate), but also about the crew, their personal equipment and its use.
Class rules and their application differ depending on whether they are open or closed . In the case of open class rules, everything that is not forbidden within the rules is generally allowed; if they are closed , everything that is not allowed is forbidden in return.
Classes with uniform rules (unit classes) tend to be closed rules, those with restrictive or developable rules (construction classes ) tend to be based on open rules. How much a class is limited can be seen in the level of detail with which the class rules are drawn up.
For example, the Flying Dutchman and the Int.-FJ (Flying Junior) are boats with open class rules. However, these rules are very restrictive for a long time. For the Int.-FJ (Flying Junior) , for example, until 2004, the millimeter tolerances that were granted when building the hull were only intended to compensate for construction-related inaccuracies in the processing of wood. With the introduction of newer, more precise processing techniques, for example in plastic construction, these tolerances could have been used to optimize the hull. But this was prohibited. Only a change in the class rules settled the emerging uncertainties in this question. On the other hand, for example, the type and position of the fittings is largely not prescribed in both boat classes.
Boat classes that are subject to the regulations of the ISAF must meet conditions in order to be recognized by it. To do this, you need an active class or owner association, which must have a statute that has to be approved by both the Equipment Committee and the Constitution Committee of the ISAF . In addition, they need the class rules already described, which also have to meet ISAF criteria, and proof must be provided every year that regattas are actively being sailed.
A sufficient number of boats must also take part in regattas in different countries and continents. To be listed as a recognized class , there must be active national class / owner associations with a sufficient number of active members in at least four countries or in three countries from two continents.
If at least six national class / owner associations from at least three continents meet all the necessary criteria, the status of an international class can be applied for and approved. International classes have the right to host world championships under ISAF regulations.
The Olympic boat classes occupy a special position . Sailing has been an Olympic discipline since the second modern Olympics in 1900, although holding Olympic sailing competitions confronts the organizers with significant organizational and financial tasks, as these competitions cannot usually be held in close proximity to other sporting competitions.
Whether and with how many medal competitions the sport of sailing will be represented at the following Olympiad is decided by the International Olympic Committee in a meeting immediately after the previous Olympic Games. Subsequently, the ISAF names the boat classes with which Olympic competitions are carried out. The status of an Olympic boat class is often fiercely contested and there are regular surprising results in the nomination. When the ISAF makes a decision , it does not matter whether the nominated boat class has international status. Sometimes the Olympic disciplines are awarded in elimination competitions and new designs can apply if only a concept for spreading the boat class can be presented with sufficient plausibility.
For the 2016 Olympic Games, the ISAF set the 49erFX as the women's skiff on May 3, 2012 . The Skiff dinghy has the hull of the men's Olympic 49er, but has a smaller rig. The ship won the first ballot with over 50 percent of the vote. The 29er XX and the RS900 failed.
In order to do justice to regional characteristics, national sailing associations as members of the ISAF can recognize boat classes as national classes . In Germany this task is performed by the German Sailing Association . The German Sailing Day or the Sailing Council shall issue this recognition on the proposal of the relevant specialist committees. A national class usually also has a national association ( class association ).
The DSV also determines in a championship rules the criteria that boat classes must meet in order to be able to host national championships. Currently, the criteria of the DSV for the championship of a boat class, based on national conditions, are stricter than the criteria of the ISAF for obtaining the status of an international boat class . So it can happen that boat classes can host world championships under ISAF regulations, but not German championships under DSV regulations. One example of this is the Topcat .
Lists of boat classes
The following lists summarize boat classes according to their status. Some of the lists can change from time to time, as boats can lose or acquire a status, and new boat classes are constantly being developed that need to be grouped. The individual lists are therefore only intended as a guide; binding information can be found on the homepages of the regulating associations.
Olympic boat classes 2016
Olympic boat classes and related disciplines • Finn dinghy Single-handed dinghy • Laser One-handed dinghy, gentlemen • Laser Radial One-handed dinghy, ladies • 49er Dinghy, 2 people, gentlemen • 49erFX Dinghy, 2 people, ladies • 470s Dinghy, 2 people, ladies and gentlemen class • Nacra 17 Catamaran, 2 people, mixed • RS: X Surfboard, women and men class
- As a Paralympic class, the Sonar as a three-person keelboat, the SKUD18 as a two-handed boat and the 2.4mR class (see construction classes with compensation formula ) as a Paralympic single-handed boat is recognized by the ISAF .
International boat classes
Keel boats Dinghies 2 pers. Single-handed dinghies Multihulls • 11m one design • 29er • Contender • Darts 18 • Platu 25 • 420s • Europe • Hobie Cat • H-boat • 505 • Splash • Topcat • Soling • Cadet • OK dinghy • Nacra • Tempest • Fireball • Toppers • Prindle • Melges 24 • Flying Dutchman • Optimist • Tornado • J / 22 • Flying Junior • Zoom 8 • J / 24 • Laser II • Sunfish • X-99 • Mirror • Byte CII • Dragons • Snipe • B14 • Etchells • Vaurien • International Moth Class • 5.5m • GP14 • Musto Skiff • 6m • International 14 • RS Tera • 8m • Lightning • O'pen BIC • 12m • RS500 • International Access 2.3 • RS Feva • Access 303 • Tasar • Access Liberty • International One Design • Flying Fifteen • J / 80 • Melges 32 • SB3 / SB20 laser • shark • Star • Yngling • Microcupper • J / 70 • Longtze Premier Shark24
Full lists of international classes on the ISAF website
National boat classes (DSV)
Keel boats Dinghy cruiser Dinghies 2 pers. Single-handed dinghies Multihulls • Keel-migrating bird • Fam • Hansa dinghy • O-dinghy • Topcat • Monas • Teeny • Dyas • Ixylon • Triassic • Token • Varianta • Corsair • Conger • pirate • Sword draft bird
Other boat classes recognized by the DSV
There are other boat classes recognized by the German Sailing Association that have not achieved (or lost again) any of the above status. They are classified as follows:
Recognized foreign classes Association classes Registered classes • Nordic folk boat • International 806 • X-79 • Fighter • Albin Vega • IF boat • Laser 5000 • Javelin • EFSIX 2000 • Lis • Albin Express • Monarch • FUN • Sailhorse • Microcupper • Sprinta Sport • Neptune 22 • Sunbeam • Seggerling • Tempo Scow • Shark 24 • Windy • Sharpie • Trainas • VB dinghy
Regional classes are often recognized as a class by a foreign national sailing association or have an active class life that is limited to a region.
Regional classes • Aphrodite IOI (Danish National Class) • BM dinghy (Keelboat, Dutch 16 m² "dinghy") • Eikplast (Class in the early. GDR) • Flash (Dutch National Class) • Folke Junior (Danish youth boat) • Force 5 (American one-handed unit class) • Heart dinghy (Danish National Class) • Knarr boat (Scandinavian keelboat) • Rügen dinghy (Class in the early. GDR) • Spaekhugger (Danish standard class) • Stjärnboot (Swedish youth boat) • Valk (Dutch keelboat, bigger sister of the BM dinghy) • Yoxy (Class in the early. GDR) • Centaur (Dutch open keelboat)
- (List incomplete)
A shipyard class is a unit class whose building regulations are controlled by a shipyard that also owns all rights to this class. Shipyard classes now make up the lion's share of newbuildings and often no longer have the goal of forming a uniform class, as they are pure cruising or charter yachts. The DSV can elevate a shipyard class to the status of national class , as was the case with the Varianta .
Keel boats Dinghies • Acros • Argo 680 • Asso99 • Aquila • Atlantic 23 S. • Avance 36 • Bavaria 35 Match • dolphin • B / One • Bavaria 42 Match • BB10m • Cometino 701 • Diabolo (dinghy cruiser) • Contention 33 • Contessa 35 • Diamond 2000/3000 • Flying Sailor • Duetta 94 • Dynamic 35 • Forge 850 • coral • J80 • Lacustre • Laser Vago • Laser 4000 • Rommel 33 • Streamline • Swan 48 • Musto Skiff • Toucan • Ufo 28 oD • UFO 22 • Piaf • Quartas • Blu26 • RS K6 • Trainer • Glen • Flying Cruiser S • Lower Saxony dinghy • Megin
- (List incomplete)
In the construction classes, the designer of a boat contributes just as much to victory in a regatta as the crew . For example, the America's Cup is contested by teams who design and build their own ship and then sail it themselves. In contrast to the compensation yachts, only the order of the finish is decisive for construction classes.
Construction classes without compensation formula
Construction classes without compensation formula (also referred to as limit dimension class ) allow the designer freedom within the framework of certain specifications depending on the nature of the regulations. Relevant factors (e.g. length, width, weight, sail area, draft, ...) can be varied within specified limits.
Keel boats Dinghy cruiser Dinghies Multihulls • 30 m² inland keeler • 15 dinghy cruiser • Z-dinghy (3 pers.) • Formula 18 • Open 60 • 16-seater dinghy cruiser • H-dinghy (2 pers.) • A-Cat • Libera Class • 20-person dinghy cruiser • 14 footers (2 pers.) • Transpac 52 • 30 dinghy cruiser • 18-footer (3 people) • Moth (1 pers.)
- In the classes Open 60, 14-footer, Moth and Formula 18 is International classes that Jollenkreuzer and the H-dinghy belonging to the National class , the 30er internal Kiel and the 20-m-Rennjolle are of the DSV registered classes .
Construction classes with compensation formula
Boat classes have a special position among the construction classes, the relevant factors of which are offset against each other: a longer boat, for example, has to get by with less sail area. Similar to the compensation classes, a race value is determined; different boats with the same racing value then sail 1: 1 against each other without compensation. See also meter class and meter formula .
Meter classes Tonner classes America's Cupper • 2.4mR • Mini tonner / micro tonner • J-class • 5.5mR • 1/8 ton truck • IACC - yachts • 6mR • 1/4 ton truck • 8mR • 1/2 ton truck • 12mR • 3/4 ton truck • One-ton truck • Two-ton truck
- While listed here Meter classes the status of international class enjoy, this is no longer doing the ton classes. The 2.4mR class is the current Paralympic single-handed boat . Strictly speaking, the 2.4mR class is a construction class, but it is handled like a unit class.
The skerry cruisers occupy another special position . Originally only the maximum sail area was stipulated for these yachts, everything else was optional. (The formula consisted of only one term : racing value = sail area). This approach comes from Scandinavia (see archipelago ) and represents an alternative to the meter classes preferred in Central European countries .
Archipelago cruiser • 15 m² archipelago cruiser (Traditional class) • 22 m² archipelago cruiser (Swedish National Class) • 30 m² archipelago cruiser ( class registered by DSV ) • 30 m² tour version (known as "Tourendreissiger") • 40 m² archipelago cruiser (Traditional class) • 75 m² archipelago cruiser (Traditional class)
- Due to the fact that only the sail area was measured as a decisive factor, the extreme shape of the archipelago cruiser resulted: little sail area, very slim, long hull, little wetted area, very light (see graphic).
- In the meantime, however, the set of rules for archipelago cruisers has become very complex, as it was always important to avoid extreme constructions. In addition, they wanted to keep the traditional and elegant appearance to the seaman's eye. The class regulations of the archipelago cruisers thus have nothing to do with their simple original idea. a. Dimensions, plank thickness, freeboard, sail area definition and minimum displacement. Therefore, today the archipelago cruisers could also be assigned to the construction classes without a compensation formula. The 30 m² skerry cruiser is now also available in a GRP form as a one-size-fits-all.
Different types of boats sail against each other within compensation classes. Faster boats evacuate slower classified opponents one time fee one. Disadvantage of equalization classes: Whoever crosses the finish line first is far from winning. This fact is rather unsatisfactory for both the participants and the audience.
Modern compensation classes
- The best known and most popular of the balancing formulas is the yardstick rating. It is very simple, based on empirical values and is therefore often used by cruising sailors who race.
- IMS (International Measurement System) is a complex scientific measurement system and the compensation formula currently used in ocean sailing.
- ORC Club is a simplified IMS and is primarily intended for club regattas.
Historical compensation classes
- CR yachts, (International Cruiser Racer Formula) from 1950/51
- KR yachts, until the 1970s in Germany the widespread compensation formula (for example 7KR cruisers) was replaced by the
- IOR ( International Offshore Rule ) formula. The much more complex IMS formula used today was developed on the basis of the IOR Formal.
Traditional classes (age groups)
Older boat classes that are generally no longer recognized by the DSV , or are recognized as traditional classes , and also no longer have a nationwide active class life. As a rule, these are construction classes .
|Meter classes||National cruisers||Nordic u. Seafarers||further traditional classes|
|• 5mR class||• 35 national cruisers||• J-class|
|• 6.5mR class||• 45 Nat. cruiser||(similar classification as||• Special class|
|• 7mR class||• 60s Nat. cruiser||National cruisers||• Vertens cruiser|
|• 10mR class||• 75 Nat. cruiser||and archipelago cruiser )||• Maltese cruiser|
|• 15mR class||• 125 Nat. cruiser||• 12-foot dinghy|
|• 19mR class||• 10 m² racing dinghy (N-dinghy)|
|• 23mR class||• 10 m² traveling dinghy (z-dinghy)|
|• 15 m² racing dinghy ( M dinghy )|
|• 20 m² traveling dinghy (E-dinghy)|
|• 20 m² racing dinghy (Z-dinghy)|
|• 22 m² racing dinghy (J-dinghy)|
|Traditional sailing boats from all over the world, even without class units|
|• Jangada||(Traditional sailing raft in northeastern Brazil)|
|• Marine cutter||(Traditional training boat common in Northern Germany)|
|• Youth hiking cutter||(Traditional youth boat common in Northern Germany)|
|• Cutter ZK10||(Sports equipment of the former Society for Sport and Technology, Section Sea Sports)|
|• Lagatoi||(Traditional sailing boat in Papua New Guinea)|
|• Paranzella||(Traditional fishing boat in Italy)|
|• Vela Latina||(Traditional regatta boat with latin sail in the Canary Islands)|
|• Lädine||(Traditional glider on Lake Constance)|
|• Gulet||(Traditional Turkish glider)|
|• Junk||(Traditional Chinese glider)|
- ISAF Regulations
- ISAF Racing Rules of Sailing
- ISAF Equipment Rules of Sailing
- Championship regulations of the DSV