|Community association||Terres de Bresse|
|surface||22.79 km 2|
|Residents||1,728 (January 1, 2017)|
|Population density||76 inhabitants / km 2|
Simandre is a French commune in the department of Saone-et-Loire in the region of Bourgogne Franche-Comté . It belongs to the Arrondissement Louhans and the Canton of Cuiseaux . The community has 1,728 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2017), they are Simandrins , resp. Called Simandrines .
The community is located in the countryside Bresse in the extreme southwest of the district Louhans and in north-south direction from the department of road D933 ( Saint-Germain-du-Plain - Cuisery crossed). The Saône forms the western boundary of the municipality for almost three kilometers. The northern municipal area drains the Bief du Moulin Bernard . It drains a chain of Étangs that lie in the north of the municipality. The Bief du Moulin Richy drains the southern part . There are around thirty étangs in the municipality . Only the eastern municipal area is forested, the areas of deciduous forest stretch along the border with Loisy , Huilly-sur-Seille and La Frette . The commune is highly sprawled and has the following hamlets and meadows : Amont, Bordes, Brûlés, Bruyères-d'Arcy, Bruyères-de-Châtenay, Bruyères-des-Cours, Cathenière, Châtenay, Cours Paintols, Pautets, Croses, Fontaine- Basin, Fosses, Genetière, Gouilles, Grande-Chaux, Létrey, Levrats, Mare-Michelet, Mares-Joly, Molard, Moulin-de-la-Croix, Moulin-du-Roi, Rimboz, Rippes, Serrée, Taillet, Teppe, Trésoire, Uchamps, Vanoise, Vernois.
The climate in Simandre is warm and temperate. There is significant rainfall throughout the year, even the driest month still has high rainfall. The effective climate classification according to Köppen and Geiger is Cfb . The annual average temperature is 11.1 ° C. Within one year there is 790 mm of precipitation.
Simandre is first mentioned in connection with a Poncianus de Cimandris in 1136. The question remains as to the origin of the name of this Poncianus. The shape does not suggest a Gallo-Roman property, as we often know it in the Bresse. Littré, on the other hand, mentions Simandre , the name for a wooden disc that, instead of a bell, called the believers to worship by hitting it with an object, similar to a gong. The name goes back to the Greek word for signal and to give a sign . This device was widely used in Arab countries, where Christians were prohibited from ringing bells. It is speculative whether this term came to Europe in connection with the First Crusade and became a name for a crusade participant.
A Roman road runs through Simard , connecting Chalon with Cuisery and Louhans . Later the pilgrimage to Rome led through the municipality, it is still called Route du Moulard today . In the 15th and 16th centuries, Simandre was owned by the de Lugny family , along with Ormes . Part of the parish of Simandre belonged to Ormes , and a second part to the castellany Cuisery . La Vanoise belonged to the Potet family in 1688 and passed to the de Perrigny . Trésoire belonged to the Lords of Loisy . La Serrée belonged to the parish of Ormes , but to the parish of Simandre. There was a castle on a hill, surrounded by three moats, which belonged to the Lords of Serrée in the 14th century . The castle was in ruins early on, the rule belonged to the families de Lugny , de Ténarre , de la Palud , de Busseroles , de Drée , de Brancion , de Ganay , de Foix-Canolle , de Sennecey , as well as the castellans of Cuisery , the last of which was the Duke of Biron in 1783 .
The bell tower dates from the 12th century, the apse from the 16th century. The church was enlarged in 1870. the collature lay with the bishop. The mill has been mentioned since 1350 and received its name Moulin du Roi after the death of Charles the Bold . It supplied the fish to the castellan of Cuisery and was in operation until 1970. There used to be a number of sawmills and chair factories, three mills and, in 1988, 54 farms along the D933.
|From 1962 official figures excluding residents with a second residence|
Economy and Infrastructure
In the community there are 15 farms, two bakeries, a butcher's, a kiosk, a grocery store, three restaurants, one of which is a hotel, an electronics store, two sanitary facilities, a carpentry, and six construction companies. As AOC products are in Simandre crème beurre de Bresse et admitted further Volaille de Bresse and Dinde de Bresse
There is an École primaire ( École maternelle and École élémentaire ) in the municipality , which is subordinate to the Académie de Dijon and attended by 195 children. The vacation schedule for zone A applies to the school.
- Claude Courtépée (1721–1781): Description historique et topographique du Duché de Bourgogne . tape 5 . Chez Causse, Dijon 1780 (French, Google Books ).
- Lucien Guillemaut (1842-1917): Histoire de la Bresse Louhannaise. Vol. 1, Louhans 1897.
- Lucien Guillemaut (1842–1917): Armoiries et familles nobles de la Bresse louhannaise: armoiries ouvrières, armoiries particulières et de familles . Vve L. Romand, Louhans 1909 (French, gallica ).
- Simandre. on INSEE. Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques , accessed on January 18, 2015 (French).
- Simandre. in the register of communes in France. Retrieved January 18, 2015 (French).
- Simandre. in the Base Mérimée . Ministère de la Culture, accessed January 18, 2015 (French).
- Simandre. in Archives départementales. Saône-et-Loire department, accessed on January 21, 2016 (French).
- Simandre. on habitants.fr. Retrieved January 23, 2015 (French).
- Department road D933. on WikiSara. Retrieved January 25, 2015 (French).
- La Saône , length 473.4 km, tributary to the Rhone , source at in Vioménil at approx. 401 m, mouth at in Lyon at approx. 161 m, La Saône on sandre.eaufrance.fr
- Bief du Moulin Bernard , length 7.3 km, tributary to the Saône , source at in Simandre at approx. 202 m, mouth at in Boyer at approx. 169 m, Bief du Moulin Bernard on sandre.eaufrance.fr
- Bief du Moulin Richy , length 8.3 km, tributary to Bief du Moulin Bernard, source at Cuisery at approx. 193 m, mouth at in at approx. M, Bief du Moulin Richy on sandre.eaufrance.fr in
- Simandre. (PDF) on Dictionnaire topographique du département de la Saône-et-Loire. In: Dictionnaire topographique de la France. Comité des Travaux Historiques et Scientifiques, accessed on January 23, 2015 (French, search term: Ctrl+ FSimandre).
- Littré, Émile (1801-1881): Dictionnaire de la langue française: supplément. (PDF) Dictionnaire étymologique de tous les mots d'origine orientale. Hachette (Paris), 1886, p. 313, top middle column , accessed on January 25, 2015 (French, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Littérature et art, FOL-X-197 (SUPPLEMENT)).
- Simandre. on cassini.ehess.fr. In: Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui. École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, accessed January 25, 2015 (French).
- Crème de Bresse. to INAO L'Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité. Retrieved July 3, 2015 (French).
- Beurre de Bresse. to INAO L'Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité. Retrieved July 3, 2015 (French).
- Chicken de Bresse. to INAO, L'Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité. Retrieved June 26, 2015 (French).
- Dinde de Bresse. to INAO, L'Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité. Retrieved June 26, 2015 (French).
- Homepage of the Académie de Dijon. Retrieved January 10, 2016 (French).
- Vacation and holiday schedule for Zone A. Simandre. Retrieved January 10, 2016 (French).