Lipník nad Bečvou
|Lipník nad Bečvou|
|State :||Czech Republic|
|Historical part of the country :||Moravia|
|Region :||Olomoucký kraj|
|Area :||3057 hectares|
|Geographic location :|
|Residents :||8,024 (Jan 1, 2019)|
|Postal code :||750 02-751 31|
|License plate :||M.|
|Mayor :||Miloslav Přikryl (as of 2017)|
|Address:||náměstí TG Masaryka 89
751 31 Lipník nad Bečvou
Lipník nad Bečvou (German: Leipnik , formerly Leibnik or Leubnick ) is a town in the Olomouc region in the Czech Republic . It is located on the Bečva , 12 kilometers west of the town of Hranice in Moravia .
Leipnik was first mentioned in 1238 and probably destroyed by the Tatars before 1240. Between 1256 and 1266 it was rebuilt and settled with German colonists. It was granted city rights before 1280. In 1294 it was mentioned in the will of the Moravian under chamberlain Ulrich II von Neuhaus , who transferred the customs duties from Leipnik to the Bohemian King Wenceslaus II . Around 1320 it belonged to the Helfenstein lordship , which at that time belonged to the Wok / Vok von Krawarn , with whose descendants it remained for around 100 years.
After the death of Latzek / Lacek von Krawarn in 1416, who held the office of the Moravian governor, Leipnik came with the rule of Helfenstein to Peter von Krawarn and Straßnitz . He was a follower of Jan Hus , which is why he was forced to sell his lands during the Hussite Wars in 1420. After his death in 1434, his son Georg / Jiří von Krawarn and Straßnitz († 1466) got the Helfenstein rule back. In 1447 he sold it to the Sovinec wok ( Vok ze Sovince ). At that time it consisted of Helfenstein Castle, the city of Leipnik, 27 villages and four village parts. In 1464 Wok von Sovinec sold everything to Albrecht, Zdeňek and Jan Kostka von Postupitz ( z Postupic ) as well as Georg / Jiřík von Landstein and Morawan, who died in 1468. During the Bohemian-Hungarian wars, Albrecht von Postupitz, who now owned the estate alone, sold the property to Wilhelm II von Pernstein in 1474 . Under him, the city fortifications were expanded and the suburbs and a water pipe that worked up to modern times were laid out. The Jewish community founded around 1488 built a synagogue around 1530. At the same time Leipnik was a center of the Moravian Brethren , who built a school and two prayer houses.
In 1554 Půta von Ludanitz ( z Ludanic ) acquired the castle and the Helfenstein estate, to which Leipnik also belonged. After his death in 1560 he was followed by his son Wenzel / Václav. He held the office of governor of Moravia, but died in 1571. His five-year-old daughter Katharina / Kateřina, who was placed under the guardianship of the Moravian governor Zacharias von Neuhaus , became the heir . She was married to Peter Wok von Rosenberg in 1580 . He sold the indebted Helfenstein rule with Helfenstein Castle in 1592 to Heinrich / Hynek von Würben on Freudenthal , who died in 1592. He and his son Georg von Würben auf Freudenthal ( Jiří Bruntálský z Vrbna ; † ~ 1623) promoted the spread of Lutheranism . Georg moved the seat of the Helfenstein rulership to the newly built Renaissance palace in Leipnik. For his German servants, he had a Lutheran church built next to the castle in 1610 and a school in 1613. Since he was a member of the Moravian Directory and 1619–1621 Oberstlandrichter von Moravia, his property was confiscated by the Emperor after the Battle of the White Mountain and the rule of Helfenstein with Leipnik was handed over to the Olomouc bishop Franz Xaver von Dietrichstein . He introduced the Counter Reformation and in 1634 transferred the former Brethren College to the Piarist Order . After his death in 1636 the rule of Helfenstein remained with his descendants and until 1945 with the Count Althann .
After the economic decline as a result of the Thirty Years' War, an upswing only followed with the construction of the Emperor Ferdinand's Northern Railway in 1841. In 1873 the town school was divided into a German, Czech and Jewish branch. In 1880 Leipnik belonged to the district administration of Mährisch Weißkirchen and was the seat of a district court. Of the 6,367 inhabitants at the time, 1972 were Germans. The inhabitants lived from the cloth and flannel, sugar and malt production as well as the beer brewery, the grain and fruit trade. After the establishment of Czechoslovakia, the German secondary school was closed in 1919. The same fate happened to the Czech secondary school, which was founded in 1895 and closed by the National Socialists in 1941 .
In 1989 Lipník was declared a city monument reserve; it is the only one in the region and the second in Olomoucký kraj to have this status.
Lipník nad Bečvou is divided into the following districts:
- Lipník nad Bečvou I - Město
- Lipník nad Bečvou III - Nové Dvory ( Neuhof )
- Lipník nad Bečvou V - Podhoří ( Podhorn )
- Lipník nad Bečvou VI - Loučka ( Lautschka ) and
- Lipník nad Bečvou VII - Trnávka ( Tirnau ).
The inhabitants of the Lipník nad Bečvou VIII - Jezernice district with the associated settlement Přední family decided in a citizen vote with 80% for self-employment. In 1999 the Jezernice municipality was re-established.
The historic city center was declared an urban monument reserve in 1989 .
- City fortification with seven bastions
- Lipník Castle
- Renaissance bell tower
- former synagogue
- Dean's Church
- Helfštýn Castle (also Helfenstein), approx. Four kilometers south-east (on a hill that can be seen from afar).
- Jair Chajim Bacharach (1639–1702), scholar and rabbi in Worms
- Wilhelm Ritter von Gutmann (1826–1895) entrepreneur and president of the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Vienna
- Victor Hammerschlag (1870–1943), doctor, specialist author and Nazi victim
- Josef Hlouch (1902–1972), Bishop of Budweis
- Gregor Mendel (1822–1884), hereditary researcher, attended the Piarist high school in Leipnik in 1834/35
- Jan Neff (1832–1905), wholesaler, patriot and patron
- Sigmund Friedl (1851–1914), philatelist and postage stamp forger
- Emanuel Schreiber (1852–1932), rabbi
- Johann Nepomuk von Schmiel (1774–1850), Swiss politician and officer
- Joachim Bahlcke , Winfried Eberhard, Miloslav Polívka (eds.): Handbook of historical places . Volume: Bohemia and Moravia (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 329). Kröner, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-520-32901-8 , p. 322 f.
- Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)