Mountain and pleasure house Hoflößnitz

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The Berg- und Lusthaus Hoflößnitz in Radebeul-Oberlößnitz is the main building of the Hoflößnitz winery, formerly owned by the electors and royal Saxons and now owned by the city .

The winery is located on the former country estate of the Wettins in the Lößnitz countryside and was the center of courtly Saxon vineyard ownership for almost 500 years. The Weinbergsschlösschen, also romantically called Schloss Hoflößnitz since historicism, was the manor house of the Saxon ruler when he stayed on the courtly Hoflößnitz winery, built between 1648 and 1650 as the first important building right after the Thirty Years' War . Elector Johann Georg I kept it simple on the outside, while a whole different splendor hides inside: "Tropical peacocks, screaming red cockatoos, Brazilian parrots decorate the ceiling of the ballroom, there are eighty panel paintings in all, colorful and true to life - right down to the tip of the tail".

The mountain and pleasure house, with the “grey press” in front of it

The Berg- und Lusthaus is today the main building of the Saxon Wine Museum in Hoflößnitz . The history of Saxon viticulture is presented on the ground floor, while the upper floor with the ballroom and the two living rooms and bedrooms of the elector and electress is considered "one of the most remarkable examples of 17th-century decoration".

The Hoflößnitz: the entire complex from the Bismarck Tower. The mountain and pleasure house is on the left halfway up the picture.

The Hoflößnitz with mountain and pleasure house, press house, cavalier house and wine press is a "monument preservation entity" ( ensemble protection ) under monument protection . The entire open and green area, including the surrounding vineyard landscape with the Goldener Wagen vineyard, is considered a work of "landscape and garden design" within the historic vineyard landscape of Radebeul , a conservation area . The Hoflößnitz also includes the winegrower's house below and to the right of the staircase or the gate with an attached bakery , as well as the former wood yard to the left of the property, also with a winegrower's house.


Site plan of the Hoflößnitz buildings (from Gurlitt, 1904) with southern access; on the manor right. below the mountain and pleasure house

The Hoflößnitz winery is listed in the Radebeul monument list under the address Knohllweg 37 as "Hoflößnitz, Hoflößnitz Winery Museum Foundation, mountain and pleasure house with cavalier's house, former press house, farm buildings, wine press, gate systems, stairs (including pointed house stairs with shell pavilion), equestrian stone and adjacent vineyards listed.” In the Radebeul monument topography, the Hoflößnitz cultural monument is presented as a whole on the associated monument mapping of Radebeul on a scale of 1:5,000 , which is also completely a work of landscape and garden design. The listed vineyard landscape is located within the monument protection area Historical Vineyard Landscape Radebeul . The actual estate ensemble stands as a roughly rectangular group of buildings on the upper heath sand terrace below the steep ascent of the Elbe slope, part of the Lusatian fault that leads to the Lausitzer Platte plateau . To the west lies the foothills of the Lößnitzgrund and further to the east the terrace merges into the Junge Heide . From the south, the stairway leads to the estate approximately in the middle. On the right, in the south-east corner, is the Berg- und Lusthaus, to the west is the chestnut terrace with large horse chestnut trees , which, forming the south-west corner, is adjoined by the Winzerstube and, across the corner, the residential building. On the north side is the press house on the left, between it and the residential building there is a footpath on the north-west corner to Hoflößnitzstraße. The Kavalierhaus is on the right, and to the right is the lower part of the Spitzhaus stairway, which leads out of the manor to the north. The east side of the courtyard forms a mighty entrance gate, to which the Knohllweg between vineyards leads. The courtyard in front of the buildings is attached to several walkways, as is the chestnut terrace, with a water-bound ceiling . In between there are larger lawns, which are slightly raised. In front of the left side of the Berg- und Lusthaus there is a two-spindle wine press under a housing from 1952. It is the "grey press" from the winery in Wahnsdorf , neighboring to the north . Like the other manor buildings, the Berg- und Lusthaus is part of the ensemble and also an individual monument .

Exterior stylization as a vineyard house

Mountain and pleasure house with the characteristic Wendelstein, there the entrance to the interior

The Berg- und Lusthaus, often also romanticized as "Schloss Hoflößnitz", is the main building of the electoral or royal Saxon winery complex Hoflößnitz. As a manorial pleasure palace on a country estate that was not primarily created for state-supporting representational purposes, but rather as the summer residence of the vineyard owner, it corresponds more to the type of manor house . At that time, many of these were built in the region by stately, mostly Dresden winery owners, starting with the probably oldest, the Bennoschlösschen in the Renaissance style, through rather simple ones like the Kynast to externally representative ones like the Carefree house in the Dresden Zopf style .

The two-storey main house of the Hofweingut corresponds in its external stylization with a plastered, solid ground floor, a half-timbered upper floor and the high hipped roof to the usual construction of many of the local vineyard or winegrowers' houses in the Lößnitz. In contrast to most of them, however, it does not stand on the barrel-vaulted wine cellar, but on the ground floor. The building is 20.8 meters wide and 10.5 meters deep. The truss consists of foot and head braces . The main views each have four symmetrical window axes, the secondary views each have two. The windows except for the one next to the stair tower are designed as twin windows. The ground floor windows are framed by profiled sandstone walls. The tiled roof has a lower row of four hipped dormers and an upper row of two bat dormers on both long sides. Shortly before the ridge ends, two chimneys protrude from the roof membrane.

In contrast to the other Lößnitz mansions, the octagonal stair tower in front of the building on the mountain side characterizes the mountain and pleasure house. This "Wendelstein" is plastered; it is illuminated on the north and east side by windows that are distorted by the angle of the stairway. On the west side is the entrance door, above which the partially gilded coat of arms of the Electorate of Saxony, dated "1650". The tower shaft reaches halfway up the hipped roof, then follows a copper-lined scalloped hood . A gilded sphere sits on it and above it a gilded weather vane with the Saxon electoral coat of arms and the date "1677".

Interior design in representative mannerism or early baroque

ground floor

Tafelstube (1987)
Division and room functions

The ground floor with the documentation of viticulture is entered from the stair tower. The space corresponding to the ballroom on the upper floor is divided by a transverse wall in front of the center of the building, resulting in a narrow transverse hallway that leads to the Marschallstube on the right and the dining room on the left. A colored edition of Moritz Retzsch's Winzerzug from 1840 is on display in a showcase on the transverse wall opposite the entrance. The table room or the table room on the east side to the left of the entrance extends over the entire depth of the building and is spanned by two cross ridges. A transverse wall behind the middle of the building divides the counterpart to the Tafelstube on the west side of the building, resulting in a slightly larger room, the Marschallstube, and a slightly smaller room. The square on the south side behind the transverse wall of the corridor is also divided in two by a wall. On the eastern side is the Zehrgarten, connected to the Tafelstube, and to the west is the kitchen. This is supported by a pillar off the center. All rooms are connected with doors, so the visitor can walk in a circle through the ground floor. In the first inventory from 1659 , the kitchen with the two adjoining rooms was referred to as the "kitchen vault". The ceilings of the other rooms also have groin vaults . The floors are covered with sandstone slabs. All ground floor rooms except the kitchen were painted with vine motifs. In the table room, the courtly table society was served. The court tableware was also kept on the ground floor of the Berg- und Lusthaus. It was reserved for the marshals of the court to dine in a separate room.

restoration progress

In December 2013, the two freshly restored representative rooms on the ground floor, the larger Tafelstube in the east (to the left of the entrance) and the Marschallstube on the west side, were presented to the public. After evaluating the reports on the restorations in the 1980s and minimally invasive examinations of the wall surfaces, these were compared with historical sources and the results were presented to a colloquium of German monument conservators and restorers. This worked out the recommendations for the latest version of the wall surfaces, doors and windows.

upper floor

Upper floor plan by Gurlitt, 1904 (North is down). The doors from the ballroom to the bedrooms are missing in the picture.

The electoral living and representation rooms are located on the upper floor. The chambers are considered to be one of the few examples of intact 17th century interior architecture in Saxony on the stylistic border between late Mannerism and early Baroque . They date, including the fireplaces and the tiled stoves, from the time of Johann Georg II. While the painted paneling (boiserie) is almost completely preserved, the furniture was auctioned at the end of the 19th century.

In 2013, the floorboards of the four royal chambers behind the ballroom were restored, the roof structure with the roofing and the windows were refurbished.

arrangement and design
Hall and outbuildings, 1910
Looking north-west Looking northeast
View of the northern staircase entrance (left: north-west corner, right: north-east corner)
In each case by the fireplace: left door to the Elector's bedroom and right to that of the Electress
Looking north-west View of the southern pomp (left: south-east corner, right: south-west corner) Doors to the electress' living room on the left and the elector's on the right
View of the southern pomp (left: south-east corner, right: south-west corner)
Doors to the electress' living room on the left and the elector's on the right

From the stairwell, the visitor enters the centrally located ballroom, which is a good eight by eight meters in size. It is illuminated on the south side by two double windows, on the north side there is a single window on each side of the stair tower, in the middle in front of both side walls there is a chimney. On either side of the fireplaces, a door hidden in the painting leads to the rooms beyond. On the west side are the elector's living room and bedroom (chamber and bedchamber), on the left side of the stair tower, i.e. in the east, the mirror image of the electress' living room and bedroom, each lit by two double windows. Both suites have chimney attached tile stoves behind the fireplaces and a back. The floor of the ballroom is covered with sandstone slabs, the four side rooms have wooden floorboards. The painted wooden frames and panels of the wall and ceiling panels are still preserved. The wall coverings are divided up to about two thirds of the wall height by pilasters and columns on pedestals . Fillings follow above a cornice up to the ceiling. The softwood panels were painted on site. The colors used are lime-case bindings in tempera with hints of oil. The rooms have ceilings with visible, artistically decorated beams, in between there are recessed slide-in boards with pictures painted on canvas and mounted on frames. The pictorial design comes mainly from the two court painters Christian Schiebling (1603-1663) and Centurion Wiebel (1616-1684), who were probably helped with the emblems by journeymen or students. The wall panels, which were partially painted over in 1912/13, have been restored since 1978 by removing the overpainting and the yellowed varnish .

Entrance portal in the ballroom with the alliance coat of arms, behind it the Wendelstein

The pilasters of the ceremonial hall are Doric, based on Vitruvius ' column order , in order to express, in connection with the images described below, the principles of "strength and heroism" emphasized by Renaissance architectural theorists (e.g. Sebastiano Serlio ). However, Dehio 1996 describes the similarly designed columns at the entrance portal as the Tuscan order because they have a base , which also applies to the pilasters. However, both columns and pilasters are also fluted, which actually contradicts the Tuscan order.

The entrance portal, which is flanked by the above-mentioned columns, is crowned with a truss containing the coat of arms of the Electoral-Saxon alliance.


The wall paneling shows sixteen almost life-size, young "baroque moving female figures" as allegories of the virtues , mostly dressed in antique-style robes. Each panel sits between the pilasters of the lower wall, four per wall. In a painted round-arched niche lies a base plate that is spatially distorted backwards, on which the figure stands. On the apex of the round arch is the Latin name in capital letters (the German translation is in brackets). From left to right, the north wall with the entrance shows "Benevolentia" ( benevolence ), "Vigilantia" (vigilance), "Fortitudo" (strength, bravery ) and "Mansuetudo" (benevolence); the east wall to the right contains "Heroitas" ( heroic courage ), " Temperantia " ( temperance ), " Pietas " ( piety ) and " Magnanimitas " ( generosity ); on the south wall are "Iustitia" ( Justice ), "Sapientia" ( Wisdom ), "Dignitas" ( Dignity ) and "Intellectus" ( Mind ) and on the west wall "Animositas" (Fortitude), "Constantia" (Consistency, serenity ), “artium cognitio” (knowledge of the arts) and “prudentia” ( prudence ).

The southern wall of the banqueting hall: Dignitas in the middle right, Sapientia next to it on the left. The four emblems above the windows (from left): "The tallest bird in the air", "The biggest fish in the sea", "The spirited bird in Fewer", "The master of all animals". They can be interpreted as the four elements.

In addition to the four cardinal virtues, there are other virtues that are interpreted as sovereign virtues; the three Christian virtues , on the other hand, are absent. Dignitas and Heroitas even wear regalia. The Dignitas is just opposite the front door next to the Sapientia. In her right hand she holds a scepter, in her left a "golden miter crown decorated with precious stones as a symbol of the emperor". She wears a gold outer robe, a cloak lined with red, and a crown of leaves on her head . Heroitas is shown in royal regalia with an oriental headgear. The Fortitudo with laurel wreath and imperial general's armor and the Constantia, which is based on an ancient general's bust, complete the references to ruler personifications from which the Saxon princely virtues are said to derive.

Lost Portraits of Rulers

Fifteen portraits of rulers hung above the depictions of virtue in front of a series of white-painted panels with a suggested frame: in the middle of the south wall, opposite the entrance portal, of Emperor Ferdinand III. and his wife Eleonora , in front of the west wall towards the electoral rooms by Emperor Leopold I , Emperor Ferdinand II and the Saxon electors Johann Georg I and Johann Georg II , the Brandenburg elector Friedrich Wilhelm and the elector Carl Ludwig zu Pfalz-Heidelberg . Opposite on the east wall, on the left, were portraits of the three spiritual electors, Johann Philipp von Schönborn , Archbishop of Mainz, Maximilian Heinrich von Bayern , Archbishop of Cologne, and Karl Kaspar von der Leyen Archbishop of Trier. Above the corner in front of the north wall hung the picture of Elector Ferdinand Maria of Bavaria and on the right side of the east wall were the three brothers of Johann Georg II, Dukes Moritz von Sachsen-Zeitz , Christian von Sachsen-Merseburg and August von Sachsen- Weissenfels pictured.

In a contextual parallel to the Nine Good Heroes , the virtues shown led to the "image of the good prince". This form of the "Reichs- und Virtuespiegel" was a typical feature of the rulers' halls of the 16th and 17th centuries; they continued the idea of ​​the written mirror of princes . The princely paintings were handed over to the Ministry of Finance together with a few pieces of furniture before the auction in 1889. Her whereabouts are unknown.

Ceiling detail: Painted and decorated beamed ceiling with the bird images

There are 32 emblematic representations (symbols) on the wall panels that have not yet been described . This humanistic art form originally from the Renaissance consists of three parts: the headline (motto, lemma), the picture (pictura, icon) and the explanatory text (subscriptio, epigram). In the fine arts, the depiction is reduced to the image, to which a short motto is added. As a rule, however, the meaning of the emblem is only made clear by the epigram. In some cases, emblems were taken from template books that were known to the artists of the time, for example from Schoonhoven 's Emblemata. Partim Moralia partim etiam Civilia .

The symbols in the Hoflößnitz consist of a picture and an explanatory short text in Gothic script in the lower area of ​​the picture or on the frame, with two exceptions in German. Seven of the 32 emblems of the Hofloessnitz come directly from Schoonhoven, for the others no template could be determined so far. However, there are emblematic representations with similar content, such as the watchful/non-sleeping lion, the burning altar, the eagle as a symbol of power, or the phoenix as a symbol of resurrection.

Only two emblems are dedicated to wine or viticulture. Moralizing content, particularly related to good rulership or the fear of God, form a large group, in addition there are numerous symbols with the theme of the Holy Roman Empire and with reference to the Saxon rulership.

The two emblems on the doors to the chambers of the elector and the electress refer specifically to the rulers, in front of the respective living rooms they are probably even personal impresions of the ruling couple.

bird pictures

The ceiling of the ballroom is decorated with 80 pictures of exotic, mostly Brazilian birds by the Dutch painter Albert Eckhout (* ca. 1607 in Groningen ; † 1665 or 1666 ibid). Eckhout had brought the sketches for the pictures from the Brazil expedition from 1637 to 1644 under Johann Moritz von Nassau-Siegen . The depictions of birds are "of particular natural historical interest."

The elector's living quarters
View of the Elector's Room

In the corner of the living room, behind which is the fireplace in the adjoining ballroom, there is a richly structured tiled stove decorated with reliefs. The pilasters between the wall panels in the two rooms of the elector and the electress are not of Doric order, but the shape of the terme, which was modern at the time, was chosen with the shaft tapering downwards. The panel divisions are decorated with sparse jewel ornamentation.

Goddess of hunting with nymphs and domestic dogs

The wall of the elector's living room is decorated with mythological female figures in round arched niches, all of whom, with the exception of two, lead hunting dogs in the foreground. Diana, the goddess of hunting, is named on a small name tag. Her nymphs are nameless. The dogs, which are very carefully worked out and individually depicted, wear different collars, some with the initials I.G.H.Z.S.that refer to Johann Georg I (Johann Georg Herzog Zu Sachsen). Herz suspects that this is the most accurate representation of the electoral body dogs.

Electoral game route

On the ceiling there are 24 game motifs of animals which, according to the inscriptions, the elector killed himself or which were killed during his reign. These are representations of bears, badgers, squirrels, foxes, rabbits, deer, lynx and wild boar. Some of the inscriptions indicate the size and weight of the animals and the place and date of the hunt.

Elector's bedroom
Naiads and Putti

The walls of the bedchamber are decorated with naiads , partially wreathed with seaweed. On the ceiling are putti , often accompanied by reeds in connection with water. Both types of figures play or wrestle with crabs, fish and other animals.


The fish depicted in the elector's bedroom, mostly in connection with naiads or putti, were probably painted by a zoologist. Not only certain artistic liberties, but also imprecise ideas about the natural life of the respective fish species are noticeable. While some of the details are shown very precisely, the connoisseur will notice that typical color characteristics of the living fish are missing and the color scheme corresponds more to that of a specimen that has been kept for a long time. The fish shown are zander , flounder , sea ​​lamprey , salmon , eel , catfish , brown or sea ​​trout , pike , roach , bream and carp .

The electress' living quarters
Tiled stove in the electress' chamber
European Sibyl in the room of the Electress

In the corner of the living room, behind which is the fireplace in the ballroom, there is a richly articulated tiled stove decorated with reliefs. The pilasters between the wall panels in both the Elector's and Electress's rooms are not of Doric order, but the shape of the terme, which was modern at the time, was chosen with the shaft tapering downwards. These panel divisions are decorated with sparse jewel ornamentation.

Liberal Arts

In the living room of the electress, the seven liberal arts are depicted as putti in the round-arched niches on the illusionistically three-dimensionally painted base plates , which are inscribed on the apex of the niche. Trivium and Quadrivium are mixedly distributed over the walls: On the east wall on either side of the windows: " Aritmethica. ' with number table and ' Geometria. ' with compass and paper, south wall on both sides of the windows: ' Astronomia. ' with measuring telescope and armillary sphere and ' rhetorica ' with raised hands, on the west wall: ' dialectica ' with book and ' musica ' with trombone, on the north wall ' gramatica'. ' with a strip of writing and a Latin alphabet in his hands, supplemented by an eighth art from the Artes mechanicae , the ' Pictura. ' with palette and brush.

On the north wall, next to the furnace, is a ninth, unnamed putto with unidentifiable features, which falls sharply against the others in artistic design. It is possible that this is a subsequent wall filling after the kiln was moved after 1660 by one of the secondary artists.


In the upper part of the wall, above the entablature, are the twelve sibyls , i.e. Varro's ten and the other two created in the Middle Ages, the Agrippinian sibyl and the European sibyl . The Sibyls are depicted as grisaille busts ; they sit on brownish plinths, which are supported on a two-dimensional plinth . This takes on the function of a name plate for the sibyls, which are described in French, which could give an indication of the origin of the template used.

The hair of the female prophets, depicted as young women, is covered by white cloths that are draped in very different ways. Only the Persian Sibyl in the right corner of the north wall is traditionally depicted as an old woman. It is placed above the eighth non-liberal art, Pictura.

In the same order as the liberal arts, the sibyls are distributed as follows: on the east wall " Sibyl: Cimaine. ", " Sibyl: Samienne. ', ' Sibyl: Helespontiqve. ' and ' Sibyl: Tiburtine ', on the west wall ' Sibyl: Cymeriene. ', ' Sibyl: Delphiqve. ', ' Sibyl: Agrippine. ' and ' Sibyl: Lubiqve. ', on the north wall ' Sibyl: Eristree. ", " Sibyl: Europeane. ", " Sibyl: Phrigiene. ' and ' Sibyl: Persiqve. “.

The sibyls are probably also to be seen as an allusion to the first names of the rulers, since the second wife, the daughter of Johann Georg I and also the wife of Johann Georg II bore the name Sibylle.

Putti with flowers and clouds

On the coffered ceiling of the living room and bedroom there are 24 and 16 coffers, respectively, with putti between clouds and flowers, which are the fashionable flowers of the time, mainly tulips, but also lilies, roses, carnations, daffodils and an imperial crown , as they were presented as templates in many contemporary Florilegia . One of the putti embraces a peacock instead of holding a flower.

In the Electress' living room, eighteen of the cassettes contain pictures of the most prestigious flower of the time, the tulip. In addition, there are four roses, two lilies, two carnations, as well as prickly pear, tazette, gold star, milk star, scilla, bellflower, morning glory, milk star or narcissus and the imperial crown.

The electress' bedroom

Eleven busts with grisaille painting on brownish bases on the wall of the electress's bedroom represent an inscription after Amazons . The heads of the warriors, depicted as young women like the sibyls, usually wear helmets.

At that time, the Amazons, like the Sibyls, were counted among the heroines , the so-called "femmes fortes". These were standard motifs in literature and art in the first half of the 17th century. In numerous books, the strong female gender was described and depicted in praise of an outstanding baroque princess. The theme of the "Praise of Princesses" thus forms an analogy to the iconography of the ballroom, the "image of the good prince".

Putti with flowers and clouds

On the coffered ceiling of the living room and bedroom there are 24 and 16 coffers, respectively, with putti between clouds and flowers, which are the fashionable flowers of the time, mainly tulips, but also lilies, roses, carnations, daffodils and an imperial crown , as they were presented as templates in many contemporary Florilegia . One of the putti embraces a peacock instead of holding a flower.

In the Electress' bedroom, six of the cassettes contain images of the most prestigious flower of the time, the tulip. Next to it are three roses, two sunflowers, physalis, lilies of the valley, narcissus, morning glory, a cherry branch and an unidentifiable flower.

monument property

The Hoflößnitz is listed as early as 1904 in the large- scale inventory of Saxony by the art historian Cornelius Gurlitt (descriptive presentation of the older architectural and artistic monuments in the Kingdom of Saxony) : as one of 32 art and architectural monuments in five Lößnitz towns, the location and the mountain and pleasure house, the outbuildings, the pointed house staircase and at the upper end the shell-like building are described on three book pages. In addition, the Berg- und Lusthaus is presented in detail on another ten pages, in particular the ballroom with its adjoining rooms, which Gurlitt describes in summary as follows:

"one of the most remarkable examples of 17th-century style of decoration."

There are also pictures and drawings. The Spitzhaus got its own chapter with one and a half pages and five drawings. The main house of the Hoflößnitz and the Spitzhaus are also listed as two of nine art monuments in the brief inventory by Georg Dehio from the following year 1905 (Handbook of German Art Monuments) . The first Dehio manual as well as the following editions up to 1943 contain the following description of Hoflößnitz:

“Residential house around 1653. The upper floor, preserved in its old form, bmkw. [remarkable]. Example of 17th century decoration.”

In the following Dehio from 1965, the Hoflößnitz was already shown with twelve lines, in contrast to the two lines in 1905. The interior decoration in particular was dealt with in much more detail. In the Dehio from 1996, two pages and a site plan are dedicated to the facility. Three quarters of a page is available for the mountain and pleasure house alone with its interior design. The section to Hoflößnitz has been awarded an asterisk as one of the "art monuments of special rank or exemplary importance", which within Radebeul was only awarded for Wackerbarth's peace and quiet .

Like Dehio, the historian Hans Beschorner also described the building, which is little known to the public. After an article in the Dresdner Geschichtsblatt in the previous year, he wrote in the scientific supplement of the Leipziger Zeitung in 1905:

“The Hoflößnitz manor house has been empty for a long time. […] What will be his future destiny? Will it disappear from the face of the earth? Or will it find an art-loving owner who will lovingly spread his hand over all the glories of bygone days?”

In 1912, the Hoflößnitz Association took over the core of the Hoflößnitz, which it secured over the following three years and "the [according to the statute] art-historically extremely valuable, namely unique in its decoration" object in terms of monument preservation by the architect Emil Högg on the historical Original brought back and developed a future concept for the monument and museum.

After the bankruptcy of the association, which was unable to carry out the expensive project, the adjacent municipality took over the property in 1915 and placed it under official monument protection with a local law on the basis of the Saxon Defacement Act of 1909 .

In GDR times, the Hoflößnitz monument ensemble was included in the district monument list as a "monument of cultural history" and was awarded the highest value group I.

This protection status was also adopted after reunification; the Hoflößnitz is still classified as a cultural monument according to the new Saxon Monument Protection Act.

Saxon Wine Museum

The Gray Press , a two-spindle wine press in the museum's outdoor area

The local history museum in the Hoflößnitz specialized in the mid-1980s on local viticulture; At the end of the 1990s, this became the Hoflößnitz Winery Museum. On the occasion of the Saxony-wide event 850 years of winegrowing in Saxony , the museum was upgraded in 2011 as the Saxon Winegrowing Museum Hoflößnitz, the only winegrowing museum in Saxony. In 2012, the museum had about 24,000 visitors.

On the ground floor, the museum presents the history of viticulture in the Elbe Valley. It shows the work of the winegrowers in the past centuries as well as equipment, documents, maps, works of art and models. The development of the former electoral or royal winery is shown and important personalities associated with viticulture are introduced.

On October 25, 1840, a large civil wine festival took place with the winegrowers' parade of the wine-growing society, which led from the Hoflößnitz to the Goldene Weintraube inn . In addition to a banquet and dance, a Bengal fire was offered on the mountain heights of Hoflößnitz and at Cossebaude on the other side of the Elbe. This procession of winegrowers is probably the best-known in Saxony, as it was published in a series of pictures by the painter Moritz Retzsch , who lives in Oberlößnitz on his Retzschgut winery . Retzsch's artwork influenced all subsequent moves. A colored version of Retzsch's series of pictures is on display in the hallway at the entrance to the Wine Museum.

On the upper floor is the art-historical highlight of the museum, the baroque ballroom with its contemporary painting and illustrations, including Eckhout's 80 bird pictures. On both sides of the ballroom are the living and sleeping quarters of the Elector and the Electress.

The lower rooms of the Kavalierhaus were restored in 1995. Since then they have been used for events or wine tastings; To the right of the entrance is the museum cash desk with wine sales, in a museum room on the left the exhibition Remembrance + Responsibility was set up in 2010. Saxon viticulture opened under National Socialism, reminiscent of the forced laborers in Saxon viticulture during the National Socialist period .

In 2014, the large dioramas with numerous figures, made by the painter Julius Otto Fritzsche , were unexpectedly found in the attic of the Berg- und Lusthaus .

History of the mountain and pleasure house

In extension of:

the following section deals specifically with the Weinbergschlösschen, in particular with the specific restorations of the building and its artistic furnishings.

Originated as the elector's pleasure palace

After the acquisition of property in the Lößnitz on May 8, 1401 by Margrave Wilhelm the One-Eyed during the Dohna feud from the noble family of the master chefs, who had probably owned the area around Kötzschenbroda since the 13th century, the Wettins brought the scattered vineyard properties in the area under their control for almost five centuries (until 1889). They concentrated the courtly viticulture on the Hoflößnitz estate. For a long time, the core of the complex was the press house described in 1563, which was equipped with a large tree press and, until 1688, had the only wine cellar.

The current name "Hoflößnitz" was first mentioned on January 14, 1622.

In the 17th century, an extension to the existing press house was added for the mine manager. Around 1650, the kitchen and stable building was built to the east of the press house, which today looks out on both sides of the cavalier's house, which was later extended from it. Both buildings form the north side of the manor.

View of the vineyards in the Lößnitz with a winery . Johann Paul Knohll : Small Vinicultur booklet . Frontispiece, 1667. (The Wendelstein still in half-timbering)

In the years 1648 to 1650, just after the Thirty Years' War , Elector Johann Georg I built a summer palace south of the kitchen building as the south-east corner of the estate with the help of his master builder Ezechiel Eckhardt . With its location on a slope, it grants an unobstructed view of the Elbe valley. Eckhardt received the order because the previous head master builder Wilhelm Dilich retired from service due to his advanced age and his official successor Wolf Caspar von Klengel was not appointed until 1656. Stylistically, the Lusthaus can be assigned to Mannerism as a transition from the late Renaissance to the early Baroque. Externally, it differed from the Lößnitz vineyard houses by the tower with the spiral staircase and the gilded weathervane with the Saxon coat of arms. The son of Elector Johann Georg II , who had the painting of the Hoflößnitz completed after his father's death in 1656, employed the Dutchman Albert Eckhout , who had already been brought in by his father, as court painter. In particular, the court painters Wiebel and Schiebling created the magnificent furnishings of the ballroom with the two side living rooms and bedrooms of the elector and electress. Most of the interior work was probably completed before 1661, since the provincial coat of arms of the county of Barby in der Hoflößnitz, which was included in the Saxon shield by imperial order in 1661, is still missing. After 1667, the stair tower, originally made of half-timbered timber, was rebuilt into a massive Wendelstein. According to the Lößnitz manual , the pleasure palace was presented to the imperial resident Heinrich Julius von Blume and the Count Palatine and imperial field marshal Philipp von Sultzbach in 1668 ; In 1670 the French resident was also allowed to look around there.

The buildings to the west of the pleasure house, with a wine cellar, cellar room, winegrower's apartment and stable, were built in 1688, giving the manor its roughly rectangular shape.

August the Strong invited his hunting parties to Hoflößnitz and organized court dances with wine being served. The first such festival took place at the grape harvest in 1715, which was followed by others in 1719 and 1727.

In 1843, master builder Carl Mildreich Barth drew up the plans for the late-classical construction of the mining manager's house, which included parts of the kitchen and stable building. Karl Moritz Haenel was responsible for the execution . At the beginning of the 20th century, this building was given the ahistorical name Kavalierhaus , which is still used today .

Sale to private, historical conversion

Hofloessnitz Palace , around 1910

In the 1880s, the phylloxera catastrophe in the Lößnitz caused serious damage to the vineyards. In the summer of 1887, officials determined that the soil was infested. The Saxon government decided to give up viticulture in the Hoflößnitz. In 1889 the winery was parceled out and auctioned off, as were many of the moveable inventory.

After two changes of ownership, the estate itself came into the hands of the Russian general and envoy to the Saxon court, Count Boris Sukanov-Podkolzin (also known as Suckanoff-Podkolzine). He had a very large, sheet metal neo-rococo tower built on top of the mountain and pleasure house to the south towards the valley. In front of the main house, facing the valley, a balustrade with an outside staircase was built. In addition, the courtyard gate received a neo-baroque lattice.

The general died in 1900 and the new owner became his heiress, Countess Anna von Zolotoff , who lived in St. Petersburg . Since the castle in faraway Saxony meant little to her and she was considering selling the property, which was only used for occasional summer stays, there was once again the danger of further subdividing the remaining areas of the formerly extensive winery. The Oberlößnitz development plan provided for the development of villas all around, of which Villa Franziska was built in 1905 at Hoflößnitzstraße 58. The development of the Altfriedstein villa colony showed what could have happened to the rest of the area , including the intervention in the centuries-old structure of a stately building.

Securing the substance and dismantling, repairing pictures, local monument protection law

Pleasure and mountain house today, after the re-stylization

In 1912, the core of the Hoflößnitz, a 2.8-hectare property with the vineyard complex, was up for sale again.

In order to be able to counteract the further demolition of the remaining areas with the consequence of further urban sprawl as well as the scattering of existing works of art, interested citizens founded the Hoflößnitz Association. On March 20, 1912, the association founded in the Grundschänke took up residence in Oberlößnitz under the leadership of the Secret Finance Councilor Georg Friedrich Haase from Oberlößnitz. Lippert became vice chairman and Beschorner secretary; the Oberlößnitz community leader Bruno Hörning was also present as treasurer. According to the articles of association, the purpose of the association was

"To buy up, repair and preserve the former electoral vineyard palace Hoflößnitz, which is extremely valuable in terms of art history and unique in its decoration, with the surrounding area, and to create a museum of the history of the Lößnitz towns and Saxon viticulture to be housed on the ground floor."

The association, which soon grew to 120 members with the support of the historian Woldemar Lippert , member of the board of the Royal Saxon Antiquities Association, managed within a short time to raise a large part of the funds of 350,000 marks required for the acquisition and the renovation, in particular through donations from the ranks to attract the industry.

After the acquisition of the complex and the areas to the east (in particular the Schlossberg ) in July 1912, responsibility for securing the historical substance, some of which was centuries old, for the necessary demolition to reflect the historical stylization and for the renovation in accordance with the ideas of the time, was given to the architect and board member Emil Högg , who settled in neighboring Radebeul in the same year .

The structural investigations had shown that the Weinbergsschlösschen was "highly dilapidated", worse than previously feared. The improper installation of the oversized ridge turret on the south side deformed the roof construction so severely that rainwater had penetrated and damaged the ceiling painting of the ballroom. In addition, the half-timbered structure on the upper floor, which was probably plastered in the 18th century, was severely damaged. Högg's measures such as dismantling the roof tower, freeing up the half-timbering and replacing beams saved the building and at the same time gave it a form on the outside that corresponded to the time it was built in 1650. In addition, the balustrade was demolished again. All these construction projects were in the hands of the construction company Hörnig & Barth. The historically appropriate restoration of Högg was carried out "in a way that is still exemplary today", but was so complex that it consumed the club's assets. In addition, the external appearance provoked protests from the population, who just did not imagine a castle like a simple winegrower's house. In particular, the dismantling of the roof turret, which had already been declared a "landmark of the Lößnitz", aroused great concern.

The Dresden painter Gustav Löhr carried out the necessary restoration of the damaged wall and ceiling paintings. Its restoration was viewed critically as early as 1913 by the Saxon Homeland Security Association , since Löhr had carried out extensive overpainting. Löhr's contemporary, the architect Carl Zetzsche, summarized this critically in 1914 as follows: "...the badly damaged ceiling painting was repaired to some extent by the artist Löhr with a competent hand."

The sources of donations dried up in a short time. As a result, there were only minor modifications to the Kavalierhaus and the press building. Costly mistakes by Haase cost him his place and he was forced to resign. A tax levy in 1914 led to the de facto insolvency. The burden of debt resulted in orderly bankruptcy proceedings for the association three years after it was founded.

In order to secure what had been achieved, the association's property, in particular the Hoflößnitz property, was sold to the municipality of Oberlößnitz as the main creditor for little money during the bankruptcy proceedings. The municipality received the state requirement to maintain the property as a monument and to prevent future land speculation with the Hoflössnitz property. In the same year, 1915, Oberlößnitz enacted a local law against the disfigurement of the Hoflößnitz along with its facilities and surroundings , in order to protect the further division of the core areas of the former royal Hoflößnitz winery against urban sprawl . The basis was the Saxon law against defacement of town and country of 1909.

local museum

Worth painting: Landscape by Georg Richter-Lößnitz , undated

The Niederlößnitz school director, Emanuel Erler, was commissioned to set up a local history museum back in the days of the Hoflößnitz association . He headed the local group of the Association for Saxon Folklore , with which he had already shown a show of local winegrowing history at the Kötzschenbrodaer trade exhibition of 1909. Especially because of the encouragement from King Friedrich August III. Erler wanted this exhibition to become a permanent presentation.

In 1924 the municipality of Oberlößnitz set up the museum in the small castle (Heimathaus Hoflößnitz) ; She was supported by the first Saxon state curator , Walter Bachmann , who had moved to Lößnitz in 1919. In addition, at Pentecost 1924, the Oberlößnitz youth hostel opened on the top floor of the castle, a bed domicile with 40 beds. The youth hostel was allowed to use the top floor until 1935, when the city winery was created.

After the incorporation of Wahnsdorf and Oberlößnitz, the city of Radebeul was the owner of Lößnitz vineyards. The Mayor at the time, Heinrich Severit , created the Stadtweingut Radebeul in 1935 , the headquarters of which were set up in the traditional, formerly royal Hoflößnitz winery estate.

In the meantime, the Hoflößnitz served as a prisoner of war camp for soldiers of the Red Army during the Second World War. After the war, which the Hoflößnitz survived unscathed, it became the seat of the Soviet occupation forces.

Separation from the winery, whereabouts as a municipal museum

On October 1, 1949, the Heimathaus Hoflößnitz with its museum building, the Berg- und Lusthaus , remained in the legal ownership of the city of Radebeul.

The other operations of the city winery were replaced. Like the State Winery of the State of Saxony , on October 1, 1949, this became the legal entity of the Central Association of Publicly Owned Goods (ZVVG) Southeast , which was subordinate to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of the State of Saxony. The union of the two wineries gave rise to the state-owned wine- growing estate "Lößnitz" , whose seat was the Paulsberg winery in the Zitzschewig district . Later, the seat of the Lößnitz People's Winery was relocated to Wackerbarths Ruhe , where a new sparkling wine cellar was built.

From the mid-1980s, the local history museum specialized in local viticulture.

Reunification with the again urban winery, Saxon Wine Museum

Pleasure and mountain house with the steep slopes in the background ( Goldener Wagen vineyard ), in front of the estate's own Schlossberg

In July 1990, the state-owned estate was converted into Weinbau Radebeul - Schloß Wackerbarth GmbH . Wackerbarth Castle took over the state of Saxony in April 1992, while the Radebeul city ​​winery, which had been incorporated into the Volksweingut , was separated again as the Hoflößnitz city winery and transferred to city ownership. The vineyard castle and winery came under one owner again.

In 1998, the city brought the property into a foundation called the Hoflößnitz Winery Museum Foundation . At the same time, she outsourced the winery to a GmbH . With the transformation of the Hoflößnitz Municipal Museum into the Hoflößnitz Winery Museum , the art inventory was divided: the wine-specific part remained with Hoflößnitz for its museum, while the other works of art were transferred to the inventory of the Municipal Art Collection , which is affiliated with the Radebeul am Anger von Altkötzschenbroda City Gallery.

In 2001, the publication 600 Jahre Hoflößnitz: Historische Weingutanlage , edited by the art historian and former Saxon state curator Heinrich Magirius , was probably the most extensive standard work on Hoflößnitz.

On the occasion of the Saxony-wide event 850 years of winegrowing in Saxony , the Hoflößnitz Winery Museum was upgraded to the Saxon Winegrowing Museum Hoflößnitz in 2011. The museum is a member of ICOM Germany . Also in 2011, the Hoflößnitz Winery Museum Foundation brought Moritz Retzsch 's historic winegrowers' procession from 1840 back to life based on historical models; only the direction of the train was reversed in order to be able to end in the Hoflößnitz. The winegrowers' procession has been repeated annually since then.


web links

Commons : Hoflößnitz  - Collection of images, videos and audio files


  1. Sibylle Zehle: "No vines where beets grow". In: from October 31, 1980, retrieved on October 16, 2016.
  2. Cornelius Gurlitt : Oberlössnitz; Hofloessnitz. In:  Descriptive representation of the older architectural and artistic monuments of the Kingdom of Saxony. 26th issue: The art monuments of Dresden's surroundings, Part 2: Administrative Authority Dresden-Neustadt. C. C. Meinhold, Dresden 1904, pp. 136-149.
  3. a b c Entry in the monument database of the state of Saxony for monument ID 08950283 with further information (PDF, including map section) - Hoflößnitz (object group); Hofloessnitz Castle; Hoflößnitz Winery Museum Foundation. Retrieved April 18, 2021.
  4. a b c Volker Helas (Edit): City of Radebeul . Publisher: State Office for the Preservation of Monuments in Saxony, large district town of Radebeul (=  monument topography in the Federal Republic of Germany . Monuments in Saxony ). Sax-Verlag, Beucha 2007, ISBN 978-3-86729-004-3 , p. 173–176 along with the accompanying map .
  5. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Silke Herz: "Princely adorned for pleasure." The interior of the mountain and pleasure house: use, furnishings and iconographic program. In: Heinrich Magirius (ed.): 600 years Hoflößnitz. Historical winery . Sandstein Verlag, Dresden 2001, ISBN 3-930382-60-1 , p. 47-73 .
  6. Radebeuler Official Journal 01/2014, p. 8.
  7. Radebeuler Official Journal 05/2014, p. 4.
  8. Barbara Bechter, Wiebke Fastenrath and others. (Edit): Handbook of German Art Monuments , Saxony I, District of Dresden . Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-422-03043-3 , p. 735 .
  9. Florentius Schoonhovius: Emblemata. Partim Moralia partim etiam Civilia. Gouda 1618.
  10. Cornelius Gurlitt : Oberlössnitz. In:  Descriptive representation of the older architectural and artistic monuments of the Kingdom of Saxony. 26th issue: The art monuments of Dresden's surroundings, Part 2: Administrative Authority Dresden-Neustadt. C. C. Meinhold, Dresden 1904, pp. 135-157. Accessed 30 December 2012.
  11. Oberlössnitz. In: Georg Dehio: Handbook of German Art Monuments . Volume 1: Central Germany. 1st edition, Wasmuth, Berlin 1905, p. 236.
  12. Barbara Bechter, Wiebke Fastenrath and others. (Edit): Handbook of German Art Monuments , Saxony I, District of Dresden . Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-422-03043-3 , p. 733-735 .
  13. Quoted from: Frank Andert: The Hoflößnitz - 100 years public monument. In: Preview & Review; Monthly magazine for Radebeul and the surrounding area. Radebeul Monthly Magazines e. V., July 2012, accessed 22 July 2012.
  14. Exhibition: Hoflößnitz wants to commemorate Emil Högg: the architect renovated the manor's castle a hundred years ago. ( Memento of August 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) In: Online offer of the Dresden Latest News of February 15, 2013, retrieved on February 16, 2013.
  15. Dietrich Lohse; Frank Andert: No »bright spotlight«. To the new special exhibition of the Hoflößnitz. (No longer available online.) In: Preview & Review; Monthly magazine for Radebeul and the surrounding area. Radebeul Monthly Magazines e. V., September 2010, archived from the original on January 21, 2016 ; retrieved December 23, 2012 .
  16. Caught in the Vineyard. Exhibition about forced laborers in Saxon wineries. In: Jüdische Allgemeine of August 12, 2010, retrieved on December 30, 2012.
  17. BILD newspaper: Historical treasure discovered at Hoflößnitz!
  18. Ingrid Zeidler: The development of viticulture in the area of ​​today's city of Radebeul in the 19th century. Polydruck, Radebeul 1985, p. 44.
  19. Heinrich Magirius (ed.): 600 years Hoflößnitz. Historical winery . Sandstein Verlag, Dresden 2001, ISBN 3-930382-60-1 , p. 17 f .
  20. a b Historic Hoflößnitz winery. In: Liselotte Schliesser (Erarb.): Radebeul - city guide through the past and present . 1st supplemented edition. Edition Reintzsch, Radebeul 2008, ISBN 978-3-930846-05-4 , p. 53-58 .
  21. a b c Hoflössnitz Association. In: Frank Andert (Red.): Stadtlexikon Radebeul . Historical handbook for the Lößnitz . Published by the Radebeul City Archive. 2nd, slightly modified edition. City archive, Radebeul 2006, ISBN 3-938460-05-9 , p. 86 f .
  22. Woldemar Lippert: Loessnitz home. Issue 7, supplement to the Radebeuler Tageblatt, 2nd year 1926.
  23. a b Volker Helas: The Hoflößnitz Association, Emil Högg and its restoration of the Hoflößnitz winery and further modifications up to 1945. In: Heinrich Magirius (ed.): 600 years Hoflößnitz. Historical winery . Sandstein Verlag, Dresden 2001, ISBN 3-930382-60-1 , p. 168-173 .
  24. The conversion of the Hoflößnitz castle. In: Communications of the State Association of Saxon Homeland Security , No. 3, 1913, pp. 64-66. Quoted from: Volker Helas: The Hoflößnitz Association, Emil Högg and its restoration of the Hoflößnitz winery and further modifications up to 1945. In: Heinrich Magirius (ed.): 600 years Hoflößnitz. Historical winery . Sandstein Verlag, Dresden 2001, ISBN 3-930382-60-1 , p. 168-173; Note 9: p. 207 .
  25. Carl Zetzsche: The restoration of the vineyard castle »Hof Lößnitz«. In: The preservation of monuments. No. 16, 1914, pp. 52-54. Quoted from: Volker Helas: The Hoflößnitz Association, Emil Högg and its restoration of the Hoflößnitz winery and further modifications up to 1945. In: Heinrich Magirius (ed.): 600 years Hoflößnitz. Historical winery . Sandstein Verlag, Dresden 2001, ISBN 3-930382-60-1 , p. 168-173; Note 8: p. 207 .
  26. From margravial "weyngarten" to organic wine producer ( Memento des Originals from August 31, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , retrieved December 30, 2012. @1@2Template:Webarchiv/IABot/
  27. Heinrich Magirius (ed.): 600 years Hoflößnitz. Historical winery . Sandstein Verlag, Dresden 2001, ISBN 3-930382-60-1 , p. 174 .
  28. ^ " Volksweingut". In: Frank Andert (Red.): Stadtlexikon Radebeul . Historical handbook for the Lößnitz . Published by the Radebeul City Archive. 2nd, slightly modified edition. City archive, Radebeul 2006, ISBN 3-938460-05-9 , p. 205 .
  29. Historical background: The "historical color slide archive for wall and ceiling painting" 1943-1945. ( Memento of 22 February 2014 at Internet Archive ) Retrieved 30 December 2012.

Coordinates: 51° 6′ 41.5″  N , 13° 39′ 43.8″  E