|expansion||Pass road / motorway tunnel / railway tunnel|
|Ø pitch||5.3% (347 m / 6.5 km)||1.9% (242 m / 13 km)|
ˈmonte ˈʧeneri ]; Rhaeto-Romanic ) is the name of a at lying pass in the Swiss canton of Ticino . It connects the at around lying Magadino plain with the Vedeggio valley and separates the two mountains Monte Tamaro and Cima di Medeglia (1259 m).Monte Ceneri ([
The pass was first mentioned in 1004 as Mons Ceneris . In Roman times, the border between the two administrative areas into which the area of today's Ticino was divided ran here. The pass was fortified with a tower and two buildings in which one found Roman clay pots and a coin. In the 7th century the tower was restored by the Lombards . The tower, first mentioned in 1336, was destroyed by the Confederates in 1518. The road from Bellinzona via Ponte Tresa to Milan led over the Ceneri. It was used by traders, pilgrims and the military. An army of the Franks reached the Tresa via the Ceneri 590 .
In the 12th century Como was able to secure control of the Ceneristrasse against the local and Milanese resistance, the maintenance of which the neighboring communities had to contribute (Como statutes 1335). In 1367 Bellinzona, Locarno and Lugano established their territorial boundaries at the Ceneri.
Between 1559 and 1563, one road each from Cadenazzo and one from Quartino («Little Ceneri») were built on the north side, and the road from the top of the pass to Bironico on the south side . The newly founded canton of Ticino built a new road, which was finished in 1811. The Gotthard Railway has been running under the Ceneri since 1882, the Autobahn since 1984 and the Ceneri Base Tunnel is due to open in 2020 .
Its particular importance for traffic in the canton of Ticino is that it forms the only connection within Switzerland between the northern part of the canton, the Sopraceneri , and the southern part of the canton Sottoceneri . In addition to Hauptstrasse 2 , this barrier is crossed by the motorway tunnel of the A2 motorway and a railway tunnel of the Gotthard Railway . As part of the NEAT , another railway tunnel, the Ceneri Base Tunnel , is being built between Camorino near Bellinzona and Vezia near Lugano , which avoids part of the height difference.
The importance of Monte Ceneri has changed with the development of traffic. The Ceneri became really important with the construction of the Gotthard Railway. In 1835, ox carts covered the 31 km long Ceneri route from Bellinzona to Lugano in five hours and 20 minutes. Fast carriages took four hours in 1882. The Gotthard Railway reduced the journey time to one hour and 15 minutes. Today the journey by train or car takes about 30 minutes. With the Ceneri base tunnel, the train will pass under the Ceneri in twelve minutes.
Monte Ceneri is the location of the national transmitter for Italian-speaking Switzerland, which operates on the medium wave frequency 558 kHz . However, its location has been around six kilometers east, north of Isone, since 1979. Broadcasting was discontinued on June 30, 2008.
A 220-meter-high guyed steel truss mast , insulated from the ground, was used as the antenna system. There is also a reserve antenna in the form of a trap antenna , which is suspended between two guyed masts. Until 1978, the national transmitter was located on Monte Ceneri and used a 120 meter high, free-standing steel lattice tower, which was built in 1933 and isolated from the ground, as the transmission tower. Today this tower carries transmission antennas for DAB and DVB-T, which increased its height to 135 meters.
An extensive arsenal of the Swiss Army is located around the transmission tower . In the past, the Monte Ceneri arsenal was the center of the (vehicle) drawn artillery . The last recruiting school with training on this weapon took place in the summer of 1998. After the artillery was reduced to self-propelled guns with the Reform Army 95 , the barracks served the training of medical, hospital soldiers and drivers. From March 2008 only traffic soldiers and a total of approx. 10 troop accountants, office orderlies, troop cooks and company soldiers will be trained on Monte Ceneri. The company comprises around 170 people and reports to the 47 Traffic and Transport School in Romont .
Parallel to today's Monte Ceneri pass road, the steep (gradient of 10 to 17 percent) street “Via Montecenerino” (“small Ceneri”, “old Roman road”) leads further west from Quartino over Monte Ceneri to Rivera . The historic "Via Montecenerino" served as a connection to the port of Magadino , which was important for trade from Lombardy to the cities north of the Alps until around 1880 (railway construction, expansion of the Ceneristrasse).
The partially dilapidated street pieces from the 19th century were restored historically correct and the Via Montecenerino reopened for pedestrians and cyclists in 2016.
- Graziano Tarilli: Monte Ceneri. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- Transmitter mast Monte Ceneri. In: Structurae
- Pictures of the transmitter
- Images of the antenna
- Oberland Fortress: Monte Ceneri
- Fortifications in Monte Ceneri ( Memento of August 30, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Monte Ceneri at ethorama.library.ethz.ch/en/node