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Coat of arms of Enghien-les-Bains
Enghien-les-Bains (France)
region Île-de-France
Department Val d'Oise
Arrondissement Sarcelles
Canton Montmorency
Community association Plaine Vallée
Coordinates 48 ° 58 ′  N , 2 ° 18 ′  E Coordinates: 48 ° 58 ′  N , 2 ° 18 ′  E
height 33-53 m
surface 1.77 km 2
Residents 11,228 (January 1, 2017)
Population density 6,344 inhabitants / km 2
Post Code 95880
INSEE code
Website ville-enghienlesbains.fr

Waterfront promenade and casino in Enghien-les-Bains

Enghien-les-Bains is a French commune with 11,228 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2017) immediately north of Paris in the Val-d'Oise department . The male inhabitants are called enghiennois , the female enghiennoises .

The municipality, founded in 1850, is located on the lake named after it, the Lac d'Enghien. The exceptional location on the lake, the thermal baths and the Champ de Courses d'Enghien racecourse make it both a popular local recreational area and one of the most sought-after residential communities in the Paris capital region.


Geographical location

The valley basin of Montmorency is a densely populated agglomeration with 300,000 inhabitants in the capital region of Paris. Enghien-les-Bains lies in the middle of this valley, between two witness mountains : the range of hills of Montmorency in the north and the Buttes du Parisis in the south.

Expansion of the urban area

The lake with 0.43 km² also belongs to the very small area of ​​the municipality with 1.77 km².

The lake of Enghien

The Swan Island ( Île des Cygnes ) in Lake Enghien

The lake is a shallow pool of water, filled with shallow water and originally swampy banks. It is fed by several streams that converge in the wide valley below the range of hills of Montmorency. Underground watercourses are also involved in the creation of the water reservoir. The water flows through layers containing gypsum , which are very common in the area. From these they take up sulfur; this sulphurous water reappears in the lake itself and in the thermal springs in its vicinity.

Neighboring communities

Neighboring municipalities are Montmorency , Deuil-la-Barre , Saint-Gratien and Soisy-sous-Montmorency .


Detached houses predominate in Enghien-les-Bains; they occupy 49.8% of the community area. A sizeable portion of this is 19th century mansions, especially near the lake. It is less common to find modern villas there. The city center is oriented along the Rue du Général-de-Gaulle and the tracks of the Paris- Pontoise railway line . The city does not have any official industrial areas, according to its character it is a residential city with a pronounced spa and tourism business.


Origin of name

The lake of Enghien around 1780, map by Cassini

The name Enghien is made up of the components Ed or Oed , ( Eid ), and Inghen , ( field or meadow ).

The compound forms of the name Edinghen , Edinghem , Adinghien have been handed down from documents from the 11th century. Anghien is found in a document from 1147, Aienghien is mentioned in 1227 and Enghien for the first time in 1264.

The city takes its name from a medieval feudal lordship near Brussels (see Enghien (Belgium) ). Marie of Luxembourg inherited this fiefdom in 1526 and brought it as a dowry into her marriage to François de Bourbon. One of their descendants. Louis I er de Bourbon , called himself Duc d'Enghien ( Duke of Enghien ) from 1566 . 1689 received the house Condé from Louis XV. permission to rename their Duchy of Montmorency (Duché de Montmorency), which they had held since 1633, to Duchy of Enghien. The town of Montmorency , its valley and the lake were to be given the name Enghien . In common parlance, however, the city of Montmorency kept its name, while the lake Étang d'Enghien and Lac d'Enghien became naturalized.

Origin of the community

Site plan of the sulphurous spring of Enghien, 1779

Until the 18th century, the marshy banks of the Étang de Montmorenci were almost free of human settlement, except for a mill and scattered individual buildings, some of which belonged to Ormesson Palace. A bad road that ran past the lower end of the lake connected the two cities of Montmorency and Argenteuil .

In 1766, Louis Cotte , a young pastor in Montmorency and a passionate scientist at the time, discovered a stinking pool near the lake during one of his walks. He undertook several experiments, dipped various pieces of metal into the water and submitted his findings as a thesis to the Académie des sciences . Pierre-Joseph Macquer , chemist and member of the academy, confirmed that it was a source of sulfur.

In 1772 Louis-Guillaume Le Veillard received permission from Prince Louis VI Henri de Bourbon-Condé to initially exploit the sulfur spring for four years. A few years later, after the initial difficulties had been overcome, the concession was extended to 60 years. In 1781 the spring was set in stone and a rental carriage service was set up for guests from Paris who did not have their own carriages. In 1787 the Journal de Paris published an article written by two doctors, in which the healing effects of water were described using a case study. The article helped cement the thermal spring's reputation and increased visitor numbers.

At that time, the hamlet of Enghien still consisted of just a few cottages clustered around the mill. Two huts served as bathing places for the spa guests. It was not until 1821, when Jean-Baptiste Péligot gave up his job as director of the hospitals in Paris to devote himself entirely to the management and development of the thermal spring, that the company was embellished and expanded. Péligot had a paved road built, the marshy lakeshore fortified, he discovered another spring and had wells drilled in order to achieve a more even flow of the thermal water.

The Hôtel des Quatres pavilion

The first large buildings were erected in 1822, including the first hotels, after Péligot had bought the right to use the lake and the bathing facility from the Comte de Luçay. The construction of the railway to Enghien in 1846 also contributed to the fact that the thermal bath developed into a much-visited health resort by the middle of the 19th century.

Alexandre Dumas , who visited Enghien for the first time in 1827, described in his memoir the development of the place over several decades.

However, the further development of the place was hindered by the fact that it extended over the boundaries of four rural communities, none of which wanted to pay for the necessary infrastructure. The roads were not paved, there was no school or church. When, with the construction of the railway, also less wealthy guests came in large numbers, the situation became precarious. The failure of the French monarchy in 1848 delayed the decision further. On August 7, 1850, the government of the Second Republic finally passed a legislative decree establishing the municipality of Enghien-les-Bains. The four neighboring municipalities had to cede land in favor of the new municipality: Soisy-sous-Montmorency had to give up 62.4 hectares, Deuil 27.6 hectares, Épinay 15.2 hectares and Saint-Gratien 37.8 hectares. The first local elections in the newly founded town took place on December 29, 1850.

The heyday of Enghien

Cadastral plan from 1853

Under the Second Empire , the city was famous for its sumptuous festivals, most of which included the lake as a central element. Every Sunday there was a concert and a ball in the park of the thermal baths, every Wednesday there was a dance evening. The upscale Parisian society met on the shores of the lake. Politicians, industrialists and artists resided in Enghien during the summer season.

The Marquis Astolphe de Custine , a well-traveled writer and diplomat, received many artists in his castle in neighboring Saint-Gratien , for example Balzac , Victor Hugo , Frédéric Chopin , Eugène Delacroix , François-René de Chateaubriand , who had a close personal relationship for 20 years cared to his mother, Alfred de Musset , Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly , George Sand and Alphonse de Lamartine .

20 years later, Mathilde Bonaparte took up residence in Saint-Gratien; this gave the health resort a further boost, especially as it welcomed the most famous authors of its era in its house.

As a result of a law of 1864, Enghien increased by another 41 hectares to the hamlet of Ormesson. On July 18, 1865, the Enghien water was officially recognized by decree as useful to the public ( décret de Reconnaissance d'utilité publique ).

In the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71 Enghien was occupied by Prussian troops.

In 1875 Hippolyte de Villemessant , founder of Figaro , acquired a share in the Société des eaux de la ville . In 1877 he achieved that a license to operate a gaming room was granted; however, only small stakes were allowed. The racecourse was inaugurated in 1879. With the opening of a theater in 1891, winter also became the season for guests.

At that time, wine was still grown in the district: in 1886 a yield of 255 hectoliters was achieved on 5 hectares of cultivated land.

In 1901 a new casino in the shape of a ship was built. A 1907 law allowed gambling for money in seaside resorts, after which an even larger casino building was built. The building has been preserved to this day. Guests who had ruined themselves financially gambling in the casino were offered a first class train ticket back to Paris. The lake was the center of numerous festivals and competitions; for example regattas or a flower decoration competition for boats.

The 20th century

The First World War abruptly ended the glory of the Belle Époque in Enghien as well . The casino closed its doors and became a military hospital, as did the parish ballroom. All public entertainment was banned, with the exception of the Sunday concerts at the pavilion in the park.

Rococo house on rue du Général-de-Gaulle

After the war, urban life, tourism and entertainment were resumed. The tourist office was founded in 1920 and a covered market was inaugurated in 1925. A railway bridge, roads and squares were built. At the beginning of the 1930s, Enghien train station received 3 million travelers a year.

However, the conditions were difficult. The 1920 Finance Act banned gambling within 100 kilometers of Paris. This severely curtailed the city's sources of income. Numerous submissions by the then mayor Henri Patenôtre-Desnoyers ultimately led to success: the then interior minister Pierre Laval allowed gambling in Enghien under certain conditions. In 1935, President Albert Lebrun inaugurated a new thermal bath.

With the outbreak of World War II , the casino closed again. In 1940 the city came under German occupation.

In 1946 the casino reopened. Old buildings had to give way to new ones: the old Hôtel des Bains was demolished in 1949 in order to make the Grand Hôtel des Bains , which still exists today . This luxury hotel housed Pierre Fresnay , Yvonne Printemps and the painter Maurice Utrillo in autumn 1995 . The old Kursaal (sic, also in French), which had been empty for a long time, was finally demolished in 1953. Road construction measures made it possible to enlarge the rose garden.

The city resumed its traditional festival calendar, adapting it to modern public needs. In 1954 the first horse pool was opened at the racetrack. Various events such as salons, theater performances in the casino, conferences, a renowned international chess tournament , a Christmas market and, more recently, an international wakeboard competition have established themselves.

On January 8, 1964, Enghien-les-Bains became the capital ( chef-lieu ) of a new canton with the same name as the city, to which the towns of Deuil-la-Barre and Montmagny also belong.

With the growth of automobile traffic in the 1960s, the city with its narrow streets threatened to succumb to traffic gridlocks. By expanding the rue de Malleville as the main traffic axis and relieving the city center of through traffic and by building large underground parking garages, especially in the years since 1989, the city tried to master this problem.

Enghien today

The history of Enghien is short compared to the neighboring parishes. However, it is unique due to its special position as a thermal bath in a metropolitan area. In October 2003, the city administration decided to set up an urban protection zone in order to preserve the rich architecture from the 19th century. In 2005 the city theater and in 2006 the thermal baths were renovated.

In addition to the classic spring and bathing operations, the city has recently turned to other medical rehabilitation methods .


The Protestant church and the Enghien-Montmorency tram at the time, around 1900

The Catholic faithful meet for worship in the Saint-Joseph church . The parish belongs to the diocese of Pontoise .

Since 1855 the Protestants of Enghien and 15 other parishes have met in the Temple d'Enghien-les-Bains , which is located on the municipal border with Montmorency .

Reformed Church followers also have a church called La Maison Haute .

A synagogue is located directly behind the thermal bath.

There are two cemeteries: the old cemetery, also called the north cemetery, and the south cemetery.

Population development

From the 1860s, the population increased parallel to the flourishing of the spa business. However, this development was practically complete in the 1930s: The space available on site and the requirements of a health resort, which ruled out a more densely built-up area, set an upper limit on the number of inhabitants.

year 1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2017
Residents 12,504 12,152 10,712 9739 10,077 10,368 12.121 11,228
Sources: Cassini and INSEE

The age pyramid has certain local characteristics. The proportion of children under the age of 15 is below the regional average. Between the two censuses of 1990 and 1999, the municipality caught up a little in this regard, but in 1999 it was still well below the regional average of 19 with 17.7% children among the male and 14.1% among the female population. 9% and 17.9%, respectively.

The opposite is true for the age group from 60 to 74 years of age: in Enghien this is significantly over-represented with 12.9% for men and 14.6% for women compared to 10.2% and 11.3% in the region . In the older person aged 75 and over, the proportions are 7.8% for men and 13.5% for women, compared with 4.0% and 7.2% in the region.

The very high land and rental prices are seen as one reason for the relative aging of the population. These make it too expensive for many young families to settle in Enghien.


City council

The town hall

The city council ( conseil municipal ) consists of 33 members, including the mayor and eight councilors ( adjoints ). The city council usually meets every two months. Six municipal committees support the work.

On October 17, 2006, a children's city council ( Conseil municipal des enfants ) was founded.

Political currents

Politically, the population tends to prefer the bourgeois-conservative side.

However, the mayor has been a member of the Center ( UDF ) since 1989 . He was re-elected in 2001 with a majority of 76.44% of the votes cast.

In the second and decisive ballot of the 1995 presidential election, the Enghiennois preferred the later President Jacques Chirac to the defeated candidate Lionel Jospin with a majority of 72.94% .

In the 2002 presidential election, 28.8% of voters voted for Jacques Chirac, 15.9% for Jean-Marie Le Pen , 11.4% each for François Bayrou and Lionel Jospin , 8.0% for Alain Madelin and in the first ballot 7.0% for Jean-Pierre Chevènement . In the second ballot, 84.5% voted for Jacques Chirac versus 15.5% for Jean-Marie Le Pen, with 17.0% abstentions.

In the referendum on the European Constitution on May 29, 2005, in sharp contrast to France as a whole, which had a majority against the draft constitution, 67.42% voted for the draft constitution and only 32.58% against, with 27.75% abstentions.

In the 2007 presidential election, 49.16% voted for Nicolas Sarkozy in the first ballot . Far behind were François Bayrou with 19.46%, Ségolène Royal with 18.46% and Jean-Marie Le Pen with 7.0%. In the second ballot, Nicolas Sarkozy prevailed in the Enghiennois with 68.55% of the vote against Ségolène Royal with 31.45%.

public safety

The official violations and crimes rate in 2005 was 138 per 1,000 people. The number refers to the Enghien-les-Bains police district, which includes the town of Saint-Gratien. This is the highest crime rate in the département, and the figure far exceeds the French national average of 83/1000. In contrast, the clearance rate is 25%, which is the lowest in the department.

In order to improve this relatively bad situation, the local government decided in 2005 to install a video surveillance system. It consists of 22 cameras installed at known hot spots of increased crime.

Town twinning

Enghien-les-Bains has twinning partnerships with Enghien in Belgium and Bad Dürrheim in Germany.

Culture and sights

Health resort

Sources of Enghien

The Source du Roy (King's Spring)

The sources of Enghien are the reason why the place came into being and exists in its present form.

Nowadays, your water is no longer allowed to come to light naturally, but is pumped in order to achieve an even yield. The water is clear and colorless, but has a rotten egg smell. This is due to its hydrogen sulfide content .

An analysis of the water typically shows 80 mg / l carbon dioxide , 400 mg / l carbonates and bicarbonates , 180 mg / l calcium , 200 mg / l sulphates and 36 mg / l hydrogen sulphide; besides magnesium and sodium. It also has a very low oxygen content. In 1969, aerobic and anaerobic desulfurization bacteria were detected in a concentration between 70 and 240 specimens / ml.

Sulfur-containing water is said to have a number of therapeutic effects, especially for ear, nose and throat diseases, diseases of the respiratory tract, rheumatism , osteoarthritis and age-related degradation of the joint cartilage .

Of the 13 springs discovered on the lake since 1766, most of them have dried up or are no longer used, including the first Source du Roy, discovered by Father Cotte . Nowadays the thermal bath is fed solely by the Coquil source. Source Iris , which was only discovered in 2001, occupies a special position : its water contains no sulfur and its composition is similar to that of Vittel .

The thermal bath

Vintage car parade in front of the Enghien thermal baths

Le Thermal , located on Rue du Général de Gaulle directly opposite the waterfront, offers a total of 13,000 m² of indoor space on three floors. It was renovated and reopened in 2006, with the city contributing 20 million euros to the costs. There are medicinal thermal baths on the ground floor. Rehabilitation and medical training facilities can be found on the second floor, the Spark . On the third floor there are two swimming pools, a solarium of 150 m² and administration rooms. The building is connected to two Lucien Barrière hotels on either side.


The municipal theater ( théâtre municipal ) of Enghien-les-Bains is located in the casino building. During the theater season from October to April, it offers a varied program, both classical and modern theater, concerts, opera and ballet with guest performances by well-known artists from France and around the world.

movie theater

The Le Français cinema , part of the Union générale cinématographique , has 6 halls.

Media library

George Sand media library

The Médiathèque George Sand offers an internet café and a media lending library on 1,500 m² . It offers 25,000 titles for adults and 6,000 titles for children and young people, 60 magazines and magazines as well as an audio library with 700 titles for the blind and visually impaired.


Opened in 1976, the Galérie des Arts specializes in contemporary art.

Cultural centers

The François Villon Cultural Center offers a wide range of activities such as ballroom dancing, gymnastics, language courses, theater, visual arts and seminars on local history.

The Center des Arts opened in 2002 on the site of the former Garnier distillery. It has 400 seats and offers dance performances, concerts and exhibitions of painting and sculpture.


The municipal music school ( école municipale de musique ) with its 12 music teachers trains more than 200 students.



The casino

The current building, built in the style of an Italian theater, dates mainly from 1909. In 1935 it was renovated and lost turrets and decorations. In 2003 it was modernized again and received the characteristic glass facade.

The casino owes its position as the top-selling casino in France above all to the introduction of gaming machines in 2002. These were previously banned. At the end of 2003, the casino expanded its range of games to include 12 tables for blackjack , 20 tables for the English and 4 tables for the French variant of roulette , three tables for stud poker and two for punto banco . The stakes on the machines are between € 0.50 and € 20 per game. The stakes at the tables start at € 2.50.

The slot machines are accessible from 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 a.m. the next morning. The gaming tables are occupied from 4:00 p.m. to 4:00 a.m. A valid identity card or passport is required to enter. Furthermore, correct dress required, which means a suit and tie for the men, upscale clothing for the ladies, no sportswear and no sports shoes.

The entrance fee varies according to the time. It is € 9 on normal days before 4:00 p.m., € 12 after 4:00 p.m., and € 14 on special evenings, for example the Saturdays before public holidays.

There is also a restaurant in the gaming room with the gaming tables, which is open from 8 p.m.

St. Joseph Church

The construction of the Église Saint-Joseph began in 1857. The main nave was finished in 1860, the side aisles in 1870. It owes its existence to a donation subscription, the greater part of which was contributed by the Moreno de Mora family. In return, this family was given the privilege of choosing a name; whose head decided that the church should be named after his patron saint. In 1927 the building was expanded. The organ dates from 1901 and was renewed in 1934 and 1963.

Villas and private houses

Architect's drawing of house number 56, Boulevard Cotte
Villa Mon Rêve (My Dream)

The first buildings erected in the 19th century to accommodate bathers were of a more sober style, with white exterior plaster and a mansard roof . The influx and settlement of fashionable bathers then quickly led to the construction of magnificent eclectic houses, with many borrowings, especially from the Gothic . This so-called neo- style is partly understood as a counter-reaction to classicism , whose academic rigor one had grown tired of.

Typical examples of such structures are:

  • The Château d'Enghien on avenue de ceinture , built in 1845 by the architect Pasquier for Jules Robin . Robin became mayor of Enghien in 1851. The publisher later bought Émile de Girardin . In the style of the time of Louis XII. built, it served as a representative building, intended to receive guests from high society in Paris. The building has been used by the Lycée Gustave Monod high school since 1947 .
  • The Château Léon , built by the same architect, now also belongs to this high school. It impresses with the wealth of decorations, the arrangement of the colored bricks and elements that are usually found on churches, such as gargoyles and eyelashes .
  • The Scottish castle ( Château écossais ), also built in 1845 in neo-feudal style for the Comtesse de Xaintrailles. It was later used by the mayor, Frédéric Reise. The castle owes its name to an essay by the historian Émile de La Bédollière, in which he writes that the architectural style was exported from damp Scotland or misty England .

A large number of modeled Swiss chalets as well as wooden huts and cottages in regionalist style were built on the lakeshore . Modeled Norman peasant cottages were popular , for example the painter Eugène Isabey lived in such a dwelling for twelve years. One example that has survived is the villa at 9 avenue de Ceinture.

The period from 1870 to 1920 brought with it a further differentiation of the architectural styles, with stylistic borrowings from all possible past epochs, and with a great variety in the building materials used. Burned bricks were still used, but also natural stones of all kinds, especially limestone. Examples of such structures are:

  • The Palais Condé on Rue Félix Faure , a curious building from 1911, with oversized balconies, battlements and a mixture of Gothic style elements with those from the time of Louis XV.
  • The villas on Boulevard Cotte, in particular house number 56, built in 1909 by the architect Leseine.
  • The Villa Mon Rêve at number 43 on Boulevard Cotte is also particularly noteworthy . Their multicolored facades are reminiscent of Byzantine buildings, the shapes of the Baroque , and the decorations evoke the emerging Art Nouveau .
  • House number 53 on rue du Général-de-Gaulle is an example of a Second Empire style building .

In the French version of Art Nouveau , Art Nouveau , a large number of buildings that are still preserved today were built between 1900 and 1930. Ornaments made of colored bricks, floral ceramic decorations and frescoes on the facades are typical of that time.

Green spaces

The rose garden ( Jardin des Roses )

At the national Concours des Villes et Villages fleuris (flower competition for towns and villages), the town regularly wins awards for the high quality of its green spaces. Due to the limited area, the city cannot maintain a large city park, but it does offer a number of well-maintained smaller facilities:

  • The rose garden ( Jardin des Roses ) is at the heart of the community, the corner between the lake, the casino, the town center and the thermal baths. In the 1990s, it was redesigned with a gently sloping water cascade that leads down to the lake together with the main path, and rose-covered pergolas that are grouped around this main axis. and through which the secondary paths lead.
  • Square Villemessant , which was established in the 1970s, is opposite the casino.
  • The Square Jean-Mermoz in the Rue du Départ was built on the site of a small freight station that used to be there;
  • The square de la place de Verdun .
  • The Jardin de la villa du Lac is located on Avenue de Ceinture, on the east bank of the lake.
  • The Jardin du pont de la Muse, presqu'île aux fleurs ( Garden at the Muses Bridge, Peninsula of Flowers ) is located on the west bank of the park.
  • The Jardin de l'hôtel de ville , ( garden by the town hall ) was renovated in 2004.


Equestrian sport

Enghien-Soisy Racecourse

The Champ de Courses d'Enghien-Soisy Racecourse is one of the city's main attractions. 96% of its 44 hectares are in the municipality of Soisy-sous-Montmorency . 4% are in the Eaubonne area. Equestrian sports have been practiced here since 1860, but it wasn't until 1879 that it was officially opened as a hippodrome. In 1922 a permanent race track was built. The racetrack was closed during the two world wars.

The races are used by the leading French betting company Pari mutuel urbain for horse betting. Since 1997 it has been managed by the Société d'Encouragement du Cheval Français . The track specializes in trot and obstacle races. In 1986 it was renovated and equipped with a floodlight system. It has had its current official name Hippodrome d'Enghien-Soisy since 1999.

Every year in April the Prix ​​de l'Atlantique takes place there.

Other sports facilities and clubs

  • The Société Nautique d'Enghien is located on the Île des Cygnes (Swan Island ), surrounded by the lake. She practices rowing , dragon boat sports and sailing.
  • The chess group L'Echiquier du lac belongs to the French chess association Fédération française des échecs . It was founded in 1994; his play room is right on the lake.

Regular events

Enghien offers a wide variety of cultural events throughout the year. Worth mentioning are among others:

  • Part of the Wakeboard World Cup competitions that take place on the lake in June;
  • The Triathlon Enghien - Val-d'Oise;
  • The Enghien Jazz Festival.


The city magazine Contact is dedicated to the topics in and about Enghien.

The radio station IDFM was originally called Radio-Enghien , later Radio-Enghien-Île-de-France . It is also dedicated to disseminating local information and opinions. It has existed since 1982 and broadcasts from the Sannois radio station .

Enghien-les-Bains in literature and film

Numerous 19th and 20th century writers have visited Enghien, but few have mentioned Enghien in their works.

An adventure by Arsène Lupine , the burglar and gentleman whom Maurice Leblanc called into literary life, takes place in Enghien. In the 1912 novel Le Bouchon de cristal (The Crystal Plug), Lupine and his gang rob an MP's villa by the lake. In 1971 this episode was filmed as part of the television series Arsène Lupine with Georges Descrières .

Several other films and TV series have been shot in Enghien including:

Economy and Infrastructure

Economic orientation

Since it was founded, Enghien has focused entirely on spa operations and tourism and related services. The city has no business park and no noteworthy industrial companies.

retail trade

The Rue du Général-de-Gaulle

The retail trade is concentrated, with more than three hundred stores, in rue du Général-de-Gaulle, rue de Mora and in the train station area. Despite some large shopping centers in the surrounding communities, urban retailers can hold their own thanks to the short distances and proximity to the affluent public. In Enghien itself there are none of the large shopping centers ( hypermarkets ) often found in France .

At Place de Verdun there is a market every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday morning from 7:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.


The Grand Hotel

There are four hotels on site, including the four-star Grand Hôtel and the three-star Hôtel du Lac . 31 restaurants as well as 17 cafés, bars and pubs ( brasseries ) are available.

The casino, the thermal baths, the Grand Hôtel and the Hôtel du Lac are all owned by the Lucien Barrière group of companies .

Local companies

  • The auction house ( L'Hôtel des ventes ) on Rue du Docteur Leray has a good reputation among connoisseurs around the world for its auctions of art, especially Art Nouveau furniture.
  • The casino is the largest in France with an annual income of 135 million euros from gaming operations (as of 2006). Around 70% of the income comes from the slot machines and around 30% from the gaming tables.

labour market

In 1999, 16.6% of employed Enghiennois had a job with the municipality. Compared to 1990 this meant a decrease of almost half. 464 people were unemployed, which corresponds to a rate of 9.4%. The median annual household income in Enghien was € 28,640, compared to € 15,027 for the French average.

Management positions and intellectual professions are over-represented in Enghien with 33.8% compared to the national average of 13.1% and the regional average of 22.8%. 38.9% of the Enghiennois have a higher educational qualification, compared to 28.1% in the regional average.


The history of the railway in Enghien began in 1846 when the city was connected to the line from Paris to the Belgian border. Further connections were added later, namely the private Le Refoulons railway line from Paris to Montmorency , as well as an hourly connection to the Paris Saint-Lazare train station . In 1897 the first tram connection to Enghien was established.

Gare d'Enghien-les-Bains train station

Today there are two train stations in the city, the Gare d'Enghien-les-Bains and the Gare de La Barre - Ormesson . Enghien is a quarter of an hour away from Gare du Nord in Paris . Eight trains per hour run during rush hour. The above-mentioned train stations are also served bus routes at high frequency.

The Enghien bus station is the central hub in the Montmorency Valley. Here the bus routes 154 and 256 as well as the night bus route N51 of the Paris company RATP cross, as well as the routes 11, 13, 14, 15A and 15M of the company Transports du Val-d'Oise .

A junction for the A15 motorway is 3 km away. From Paris city center, Enghien can be reached in 15 minutes by car outside of peak hours.

The airport Roissy-Charles-de-Gaulle is some kilometers away, which on the one hand a fast connection, on the other hand a tangible impact entails by aircraft noise 15th

Housing stock

Enghien counted 4,776 apartments in 1999. New buildings tend to be rarer than in the rest of the region: only 6.4% of residential buildings were younger than ten years in 1999, compared to 9.1% on average in the region. In contrast, 54.6% of the population comes from the years before 1949, compared to 33.7% on average for the region.

84.4% of the apartments are primary residences. Of these, 25.1% are in single houses and 74.9% in apartments. The majority of the apartments, around 70%, are three or four-room apartments. 49.6% of residents own their homes, compared to 44.3% in the region.

Only 7.3% of the dwellings are social dwellings ( Habitation à loyer modéré ). The municipality was thus far below the statutory requirement that was set in 2000, which stipulates a minimum quota of 20%. 13.1% of the stock is empty, compared to 8.1% in the region.

Public facilities

In Enghien there is an office of the French post office on rue de Mora, a fire station , a tax office and a police station for the national police. The city also has a municipal police force with around 30 police officers.


Of the three Écoles maternelles (pre-schools) in Enghien, two are public and one private. There is a private and a public primary school.

Of the four high schools ( Lycées ) in the city, three are public and one private. The largest of these is the public Lycée Gustave Monod , located directly on the lake, with 1,850 students and 185 teachers. The private Collège Lycée Notre-Dame Providence teaches 1,350 students and employs 90 teachers.

There are also three vocational schools with different orientations in the city.



Mistinguett's birthplace on rue Gaston-Israël
  • The painter Horace Vernet (1789–1863) moved to Enghien in 1825 with his daughter.
  • The painter Eugène Isabey (1803–1886) lived in Enghien on the lake shore for 12 years. The local residents called us the sea admiral ( amiral du lac ) because he used to sail on the lake on a boat with four sails.
  • The writer Tristan Bernard (1866–1947) lived here.
  • Jeanne Marie Bourgeois (1875–1956), known as Mistinguett , is the city's best-known daughter in France. She was born on April 3, 1875 in house number 5 in what was then rue du chemin-de-fer (now rue Gaston-Israël) and buried in the family's grave in the city's north cemetery
  • The jazz musicians Maxim Saury (1928–2012) and Gérard Marais (* 1945) were born here.
  • The writer and historian Georges Bordonove (1920–2007) was born here.
  • Élie Semoun (* 1963), humorist, actor, writer, and singer, lived in Enghien.
  • The singer Christophe Willem (* 1983) was born in the municipality.

Journalists and politicians

Émile de Girardin
  • The MP and entrepreneur Émile de Girardin (1806-1881) lived in the Château d'Enghien . He became a member of the parish council in 1875, but did not attend any of the meetings.
  • The Resistance fighter Rachel Cheigam-Grunstein lived in Enghien.
  • Jacques Nikonoff (* 1952), founding member of the French organization Attac , lived in Enghien for a while.
  • Dzon Mathias , former Minister of Finance and Director of the National Bank of the Republic of the Congo, has a second home in Enghien-les-Bains.
  • Hippolyte de Villemessant , the founder of Le Figaro , played a key role in the economic development of the city through his participation in the Compagnie des Eaux from 1875.


Individual evidence

  1. J.-P. New: Enghien-les-Bains nouvelle histoire , p. 21.
  2. J.-P. New: Enghien-les-Bains nouvelle histoire. P. 23.
  3. J.-P. New: Enghien-les-Bains nouvelle histoire. P. 27.
  4. P. Cotte: Mémoire sur une nouvelle Eau minérale sulfureuse, découverte dans la vallée de Montmorenci près Paris, en 1766. in Mémoires de mathématique et de physique, présentés à l'Académie royale des sciences par divers sçavans, et lus dans ses assemblées , 1774.
  5. JP. New, Enghien-les-Bains nouvelle histoire , pp. 14-15.
  6. Alexandre Dumas - Mes Mémoires, chapitre XV ( Memento of November 18, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  7. JP. New, Enghien-les-Bains nouvelle histoire , p. 50.
  8. ibid, pp. 62-64.
  9. ibid, p. 82.
  10. ibid., Pp. 111–112, 117.
  11. ibid, p. 128.
  12. ibid, p. 132.
  13. ibid, pp. 139-140.
  14. Élections municipales de mars 2001 - Enghien-les-Bains ( Memento of September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  15. Le Figaro - Archives des élections présidentielles de 1995 ( Memento of September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  16. Scrutin présidentiel de 2002 - Enghien-les-Bains
  17. Scrutin du 29 may 2005 on the constitution Européenne - Enghien-les-Bains
  18. Scrutin présidentiel de 2007 - Enghien-les-Bains
  19. Préfecture et services de l'État dans le Val-d'Oise ( Memento of the original from June 25, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.val-doise.pref.gouv.fr
  20. Site municipal - vidéo-surveillance ( Memento of January 3, 2005 in the Internet Archive )
  21. JP. New, Enghien-les-Bains nouvelle histoire , p. 143.
  22. ibid, p. 56.
  23. Émile de La Bédollière, Histoire des Environs du Nouveau Paris , édité par Gustave Barba, 1860.
  24. L'Internaute - Enghien-Les-Bains: Emploi
  25. INSEE - Enghien-les-Bains (95210 - Commune) ( Memento of the original from April 21, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.statistiques-locales.insee.fr
  26. INSEE - Enghien-les-Bains (95210 - Commune) ( Memento of the original from April 21, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.statistiques-locales.insee.fr
  27. INSEE - Enghien-les-Bains (95210 - Commune) ( Memento of the original from April 21, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.statistiques-locales.insee.fr


  • Jean-Paul Neu: Enghien-les-Bains, 125 ans d'histoire , Éditions Actica, 1974.
  • Jean-Paul Neu: Enghien-les-Bains, nouvelle histoire , Éditions du Valhermeil, 1994, ISBN 2-905684-48-8 .
  • Philippe Sueur (editor): 150 ans d'histoire d'Enghien-les-Bains , Éditions du Valhermeil, 2000, ISBN 2-913328-12-1 .

Web links

Commons : Enghien-les-Bains  - collection of images, videos and audio files