|surface||37.29 km 2|
|Residents||4,772 (January 1, 2017)|
|Population density||128 inhabitants / km 2|
The name Bazas is derived from civitas basatica , "City of the Vasaten ". Its ancient name was Cossium , a Latinization of the Aquitaine * koiz , Gascognisch Coç , hill.
The existence of a fortified settlement at this point has been proven since the beginning of the Iron Age . Owning a wall with monumental gates soon gave it military importance and a certain superiority.
Bazas is on the Way of St. James to Santiago de Compostela and was a bishopric until the end of the 18th century. As the seat of a presidential court, it also had central administrative and legal functions, so that it could quickly establish itself as the most influential place in the region. It owed its reputation to the visits of such illustrious personalities as Richard the Lionheart and Emperor Charles V.
During the Hundred Years War , Bazas was contested between France and England. From 1441 it belonged again to France.
In 1562 during the Huguenot Wars , the Protestant military leader Durfort (von Duras) conquered the city. He had the Catholic clergy's lips cut off.
Bazas received outstanding structures from this golden age. Among them, the most important is the Gothic former cathedral of St. Jean-Baptiste de Bazas , classified as a protected monument historique since 1840 . It was built between the 11th and 14th centuries and rebuilt between 1583 and 1655.
Bazas was also the name of an arrondissement until 1923 when it was dissolved in favor of the Arrondissement Langon , to which the Arrondissement La Reole was also added.
See also: List of the Bishops of Bazas
A breed of cattle is bred in Bazas under the name Bazadaise , and the town has a slaughterhouse. Agriculture and livestock are practiced in the region; the forests in the southeast allow extensive timber management. Bazas has a number of industrial operations in the metal, wood, food, ceramics and textile sectors.
In the central square is the Saint-Jean-Baptiste ( John the Baptist ) cathedral . This 83-meter-long structure is classified as a Monument Historique and has been part of the UNESCO World Heritage “ Paths of the Pilgrims of St. James in France ” since 1998 .
The cathedral was built in the 13th and 14th centuries on the model of the great cathedrals of northern France. It achieved its original reputation through a relic with the blood of John the Baptist kept there. In 1561 it was ravaged by Huguenots , but the triple portal, one of the most beautiful examples of sculpture in the Gironde, was saved from destruction. With money from the French Parliament and with great personal commitment from Bishop Arnaud de Pontac , the church was rebuilt between 1583 and 1635.
The Johannes relic was lost during the French Revolution . The cloister was destroyed, as were the furniture and the choir grille. The latter could be replaced by donations in the 19th century, most notably an altar from the Cistercian Abbey of Rivet.
The central portal shows the last judgment as well as the story of John the Baptist. The interior of the building is remarkable for its long and narrow nave.
- Episcopal garden with remains from the Iron Age to the 15th century
- Brèche , a port of failure
- Sultan's garden with rose garden
- Gisquet gate
- former presidential court
- Market hall in the town hall
- 19th century racecourse
- Palace of Justice from the 19th century, until 2007 seat of a local court ( Tribunal d'instance )
- Ursuline monastery from the 17th century
- Maison de l'Astronome ( Monument historique )
See also: List of Monuments historiques in Bazas
- Ausonius (* around 310; † 393 or 394), late antique high Gallo-Roman civil servant and poet
- Clement V (* between 1250 and 1265; † April 20, 1314), Pope
- Arnaud de Pontac (1572–1605), Bishop of Bazas
- Edme Mongin (1668–1746), Bishop of Bazas and member of the Académie française
- Anatole de Monzie (1876–1947), politician
- François Mauriac (1885–1970), writer from Bordeaux , had strong ties to the southern Gironde. In his novel Die Tat der Thérèse Desqueyroux he describes Bazas and his court.
- Le Patrimoine des Communes de la Gironde. Flohic Éditions, Volume 1, Paris 2001, ISBN 2-84234-125-2 , pp. 115–123.
- Pierre Miquel: Les Guerres de Religion. France loisirs, Paris 1980, ISBN 2-7242-0785-8 , p. 234.
- plaque on the house wall
- On the building history of the WHC Nomination Documentation (PDF, 88.9 MB!), Application documents for the World Heritage Site, here: section "Bazas, Ancienne Cathedrale Saint-Jean-Baptiste"