Joint municipality of Hesel
|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||Lower Saxony|
|Area :||84.35 km 2|
|Residents:||10,822 (Dec 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||128 inhabitants per km 2|
|License plate :||LER|
|Association key :||03 4 57 5402|
|Association structure:||6 municipalities|
|Association administration address
|Mayor :||Uwe Themann ( SPD )|
|Location of the joint municipality of Hesel in the district of Leer|
The Samtgemeinde Hesel is a community association on the northern border of the district of Leer in the Lower Saxony region of East Friesland . Along with the joint municipality of Jümme, it is one of the two joint municipalities in the district and of six in East Frisia. In addition to the municipality of Hesel , whose district Hesel is the seat of the joint municipality, the joint municipality includes the member municipalities of Brinkum , Firrel , Holtland , Neukamperfehn and Schwerinsdorf with other suburbs and places to live . Around 10,300 inhabitants live on an area of 84.31 km², which means that it is only sparsely populated. In the regional planning of the state of Lower Saxony, the place Hesel is run as the basic center for the integrated community.
The area is centrally located within the Oldenburg-East Frisian Geestrücke . Hesel was already the junction of a network of trails in prehistoric times. It still has this function in the East Frisian road network today. Many of the oldest traces of human settlement in East Friesland can be found in the area of the integrated community. Favored by its location, the main town, Hesel, was the location of two monasteries and several monastery outbuildings in the High and Late Middle Ages. Due to extensive excavations in the 1980s and 1990s, they are considered to be the most archaeologically researched epochs of East Frisia. On January 17, 1972, the six mentioned communities, which have many historical similarities, merged to form the Hesel community.
Economically, the municipality of Hesel is mainly characterized by medium-sized companies. Agriculture has always played a major role in the integrated municipality, which can be seen from the high proportion of agricultural land of more than 75 percent. To some extent, tourism plays a role. The overall community is, however, a commuter area especially to the neighboring district town of Leer .
In addition to the St. Mary's Church from the 13th century in Holtland, the former monastery Vorwerk Gut Stikelkamp from the 16th century and the archaeological sites are part of the cultural heritage of the integrated community .
Position and extent
The joint municipality of Hesel is centrally located in East Friesland in the northwest of the German state of Lower Saxony . Politically, the joint municipality of Hesel belongs to the district of Leer and lies in its north on the border with the district of Aurich . The entire municipality borders directly on the district town of Leer , the distance from the main town of Hesel to the center of Leer is around 15 kilometers. It is located on an ancient road connection between Leer and Aurich; the distance to Aurich is about 22 kilometers. Other larger cities in the vicinity are Emden (around 30 kilometers to the west) and the closest major city, Oldenburg , around 60 kilometers to the southeast. The largest north-south extension between the Bagbander Tief in the north and the Holtlander Ehetief in the south is almost ten kilometers, the largest east-west extension between the border with the municipality of Uplengen east of Firrel and the border with the municipality of Moormerland near Neuefehn is around 10 , 8 kilometers.
With 10,313 inhabitants spread over 84.31 square kilometers, the entire municipality of Hesel is only sparsely populated. There are an average of 122 inhabitants per square kilometer. This means that the entire municipality is still below the East Frisian average of 148 inhabitants per square kilometer, which in turn is well below the Lower Saxony (168) and the federal republican average (230). With around 10,300 inhabitants, the municipality ranks 21st among the most populous municipalities in East Frisia . The regional spatial planning program of the district of Leer assigns the function of a basic center for the entire municipality to the place Hesel .
The largest member congregation of the six communes is Hesel . Until the municipal reform in the early 1970s, it was the largest municipality in the district of Leer and the second largest municipality in East Frisia after Wiesmoor . With almost exactly 44 square kilometers, the municipality of Hesel is also the largest member municipality in terms of area within the six East Frisian integrated municipalities.
Geology and soils
Geologically, the municipality of Hesel, like all of East Friesland, is formed superficially by layers of the Pleistocene and Holocene . Pleistocene strata can be found in the Geest areas , which make up the majority of the municipality area. Part of the geest layers are covered with bog , a Holocene layer. The soils of the East Frisian Geest mostly consist of deck sands and boulder clay .
The entire municipality consists largely of podsol soils on orter earth or Ortstein , either in a drier or in a wetter location. These soils allowed only low agricultural yields. Due to pest management , which was carried out for centuries until the appearance of artificial fertilizers at the end of the 19th century, there are anthropogenic pest soils, especially in the area around the old Geest villages . Due to the constant application of new soil, the Esch, known in East Friesland as (the) guests, is now higher than the village center. This form of fertilization increased the soil value significantly, even if it still lagged well behind the fertile soils of the marshland .
There are also high and low moors in the entire municipality. The extreme west still has parts of the raised bog areas, which make up a large part of the neighboring municipality of Moormerland. In addition, it is mainly fen soils that adjoin this high moor area and extend in the far north and southwest of the Samtgemeinde area along the Bagbander Tief and Holtlander Ehetiefs. There is island-like, especially in the area around the bog colonies such as Firrel and Schwerinsdorf, strongly humus soil on recultivated peat areas, and locally also moorland .
The entire municipality area is quite high for East Frisian conditions: areas of the Heseler Forest are up to 16 meters above sea level and are therefore among the highest elevations on the East Frisian mainland. The municipality of Hesel itself is about eight to ten meters above sea level, the rest of the municipality is significantly lower. In the southwest the ground sinks to about 2.5 meters, in the moor areas in the north of the municipality even down to sea level.
The entire municipality forms a small-scale watershed . The larger northern part drains to the Ems, the villages of Holtland, Brinkum and Hasselt on the other hand to the Jümme . The drainage association Oldersum is responsible for the drainage of the northern part, while the southern part belongs to the area of the Leda-Jümme-Verband based in Leer.
Compared to many other East Frisian communities, the integrated community of Hesel is rather poor in water. In addition to drainage ditches throughout the entire municipality, there are also fen canals in the two fen towns of Neuefehn and Stiekelkamperfehn. These are the Neuefehn Canal as the main connection to the Fehntjer Tief , and its secondary canals, the so-called Wieken. The Sauteler Canal was created in the late 1960s and early 1970s to improve drainage. It is around 23 kilometers long, begins a few hundred meters west of Aurich-Oldendorf in the neighboring municipality of Großefehn and flows into the Ems with a pumping station south of the Moormerlander district of Terborg . The Sauteler Canal flows through Neuefehn and Stiekelkamperfehn for a length of a little more than two kilometers approximately in an east-west direction, the Fehn canals are connected to it. Two rivers form parts of the Samtgemeinde boundary, in the north the Bagbander Tief to the municipality of Großefehn, in the southwest the Holtlander Ehetief belongs to the Samtgemeinde Jümme. There are also three inland lakes in the municipality: the so-called Silbersee, a fire-fighting pond in the Heseler Wald, a quarry pond in Hasselt and a moor lake in the Brinkum district of Meerhausen.
|use||Area in ha|
|Buildings and open spaces||697|
|including living space||464|
|including commercial and industrial areas||41|
|of which mining areas (especially sand)||1|
|including green spaces||13|
|of which streets, paths, squares||395|
|of which moors||31|
|of it heather||5|
|Bodies of water||118|
|Areas of other use||54|
|of it land||7th|
The land use table on the right shows the overwhelming proportion of agricultural land in the municipality of Hesel. At 75.7 percent, the entire municipality is very close to the East Frisian average of around 75 percent, which in turn is well above the national average of 52 percent. With around 8.93 percent of the forest, the municipality is well above the East Frisian average of 2.6 percent. Within the district of Leer, which is the least forested of the three East Frisian districts, the joint municipality of Hesel is the municipality with the highest proportion of forest in the total area. However, in comparison to the rest of Germany, East Frisia is extremely under-forested: The proportion of forest in the total area of the Federal Republic is around 29.5 percent. Due to the proximity to the coast, there can be high windthrow damage, especially during storms in the winter half-year. In addition to the three forests, Kloster Barthe, Oldehave and Stikelkamp, there are a large number of other trees in the joint municipality area due to the abundant wall hedges in all localities of the joint municipality and in the outside areas. With 1.4 percent of the water area, the municipality is below the average for many East Frisian municipalities and also below the national average of around two percent.
The joint municipality of Hesel borders on municipalities in the northern district of Aurich and the district of Leer. In a clockwise direction (starting in the north) the joint municipality of Hesel joins the municipality of Großefehn in the district of Aurich, in the east to the municipality of Uplengen , to the southeast and south to the joint municipality of Jümme , in the southwest to the city of Leer and to the west to the municipality of Moormerland . The latter four municipalities are all located in the district of Leer. Three member municipalities of the joint municipality of Hesel and two member municipalities of the joint municipality of Jümme border each other: Hesel, Holtland and Brinkum border on the municipality of Filsum , the border is formed by the river Holtlander Ehe . The municipality of Brinkum also borders the municipality of Nortmoor , with the A 28 largely forming the border.
The combined community consists of six member communities, which, with the exception of Firrel and Schwerinsdorf, consist of the eponymous main towns and suburbs. Another exception is Neukamperfehn: The name is an artificial word from the time of the Lower Saxony municipal reform in 1972. There is no village called Neukamperfehn, the name was put together from the two names when Neuefehn and Stiekelkamperfehn merged. The following are the population figures (as of December 31, 2010) and the areas of the member communities.
|Member parish||Residents||Area (km²)||Associated districts|
|Hesel||4,096||44.02||Beningafehn, Hasselt, Kiefeld, Klein-Hesel, Neuemoor, Südermoor|
The municipalities of Brinkum, Firrel, Hesel, Holtland and Schwerinsdorf as well as the municipality of Neukamperfehn, formed from the places Neuefehn and Stiekelkamperfehn, merged to form the Hesel municipality during the Lower Saxony municipal reform in 1972 . While most of the smallest communities in East Friesland formed unitary communities , those named voted for the formation of a joint community. Hesel is one of eight at that time, since 2001 only six integrated communities in East Friesland. Even the largest member community, Hesel, with its now slightly more than 4,000 inhabitants, would have missed the number of at least 5,000, which the then state government considered to be decisive and the target for the formation of a unified community. This applies even more to the three smallest municipalities with only a three-digit population.
The joint municipality of Hesel is in the temperate climate zone, influenced by the North Sea . In summer the daytime temperatures are lower, in winter often higher than in the further inland. The climate is characterized by the Central European west wind zone.
After the climate classification of Köppen , the joint community is in the classification Cfb . (Climate zone C : warm-temperate climate, climate type f : humid-temperate climate, sub-type b : warm summer ). Within the temperate zone, it is assigned to the climate district of Lower Saxony flatland North Sea coast , which has a maritime character and is characterized by relatively cool and rainy summers, relatively mild winters with little snow, prevailing westerly and south-westerly winds and high annual rainfall.
Weather data is collected for the neighboring Leer, which has similar climatic conditions: The average annual temperature there is 9 ° C with maximum values in July and August around 20 ° C and average minimum values around −2 ° C in December and in January. There are most rainy days with 14 in November and December, the least in March and May, where there are nine days of precipitation. The number of average hours of sunshine per day varies between one (December / January) and six hours (May / June). The mean frost-free time is given as 170 to 187 days. The mean amount of precipitation is 738 mm / year, the mean annual sunshine duration is 1550 to 1600 hours.
Climate table for Leer
The Heseler Forest is a nature reserve in the area of the municipality . In addition, the joint municipality of Hesel has a share in three large-scale landscape protection areas (LSG). The best known is the LSG Heseler Wald und Umgebung , which has been under protection since 1969. It covers about 830 hectares. The 173 hectare LSG Stikelkamper Wald and the surrounding area has also been under protection since 1969 . The LSG Oldehave , which was placed under protection in 1975, covers almost 741 hectares and is partly in the area of the neighboring municipality of Großefehn in the Aurich district. Since the Großefehntjer share is larger, the district of Aurich is also the responsible nature conservation authority. In addition, several trees are protected as natural monuments in various communities, including in Hesel, Beningafehn and Holtland.
Like most of the unified communities and joint communities in Lower Saxony, the joint community of Hesel has existed since the community reform in 1972. In that year, small communities were merged into larger-scale joint or unit communities. Historically, however, the member communities of the joint community of Hesel and its districts have been linked with one another for a much longer time. The Geestrücken, on which large parts of the Samtgemeinde area lie, shows many of the oldest traces of human settlement in East Friesland. In the Middle Ages, the area belonged to the Frisian state community Moormerland, later it formed offices, bailiwicks or during the French occupation 1810–1813 Mairien within the various lordships to which East Friesland belonged. From the settlement centers on the Geest, the surrounding bog colonies were founded as daughter settlements in the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1972 the member communities decided to found the Hesel joint community, while the majority of the other East Frisian communities decided to form unitary communities.
Prehistory and early history
|Holocene||(➚ early history )|
|late bronze age|
|middle bronze age|
|early bronze age|
|Old Stone Age|
The oldest archaeological find in East Friesland was discovered in the mid-1980s during deep plowing on a meadow in Holtland, but it was not handed over to the Archaeological Service of the East Frisian Landscape until 2008 : an approximately 35 to 40,000 year old, twelve centimeter long and nine centimeter wide tool Flint for cutting and scraping from the Middle Paleolithic . Through this find the presence of the Neanderthal man in East Friesland was proven for the first time ; the Holtlander Fund is also the northernmost in Germany. Until then, the northernmost find was in the Emsland .
The oldest finds in the area around the municipality of Hesel date from around 7500 to 6500 BC. BC, the transition period between the older and younger Mesolithic . These are fireplaces, the age of which was determined by radiocarbon dating ; they are the oldest traces of settlement in the region identified in this way. They come from the excavation site of the later Barthe Monastery. There are traces of settlement in Holtland, the age of which is given as around 4000 years (transition period between Mesolithic and Neolithic ). There are a total of eleven flint axes, including a rock ax of the Jutland type.
On the Geest foothills, which extends in a south-westerly direction from Hesel via Holtland and Logabirum to Leer, there is the greatest concentration of sites from the funnel beaker culture , the single grave culture and generally from the late Neolithic in East Friesland. Stone tools from the Neolithic period were found in Brinkum . The oldest house floor plan so far found in East Friesland dates from around 2000 before the turn of the times (transition from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age ) and was discovered in the industrial area south of the town of Hesel. Barrows from the Stone Age and Bronze Age in the Holtland district were leveled in the 19th century. In the Heseler Wald, however, there are still some burial mounds from the Bronze Age. Hesel was already a "traffic junction" in the Bronze Age due to its central location within the Oldenburg-East Frisian Geestrücke. This is the conclusion reached by archaeologists who, as early as the 1950s , examined the Bronze Age network of trails in the region on the basis of barrows and other artifacts found , in particular their spatial concentration. A road connection existed between the Leeraner and the Aurich area, via Brinkum, Holtland and Hesel. For Hesel, "continuous settlement (...) up to the 5th century before the turn of the ages can be assumed."
Urns from the Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age came to light in Brinkum. Around 300 ceramic disks from the early pre-Roman Iron Age were extracted from two pits in Brinkum. During sand excavations north of Brinkum, the remains of a large stone grave were found in which deeply engraved and undecorated ceramics from the funnel beaker culture were discovered. A ceramic kiln from the same era was discovered in the Holtland district.
From the first four centuries AD, 19 racing furnaces for iron extraction from lawn iron ore , which were discovered in the Holtland district during an emergency excavation , date from the first four centuries . Such a find is so far unique in East Frisia.
The three oldest places of the integrated community (Brinkum, Hesel and Holtland) can be dated to the Carolingian period or to the time shortly after the end of the Carolingian era. In 1984 an early medieval water scoop from the 9th century was discovered in Brinkum, and a coin treasure from the first half of the 9th century near a barrow in Holtland. In the Werden land registers , Hesel is mentioned as Hasla around 900 . However, the information there shows that the place was already a certain size at this point in time, i.e. it is older than the first documentary mention.
The Premonstratensian Monastery of Barthe was founded between 1170 and 1184, and the Johanniterkommende in Hasselt around 1300 . Both had several outworks in what is now the Samtgemeinde area. Barthe Monastery was probably the second oldest monastery in East Friesland after Reepsholt Monastery , which is around 200 years older (983). Of the Premonstratensian monasteries, Barthe is the oldest in East Friesland. The first residents probably came to East Frisia from areas east of the Ems. The monastery was built on a Geest plateau northeast of Hesel. Brick buildings began around the middle of the 13th century; the raw material clay came from the surrounding area. In 1287, Barthe allegedly had 140 residents .
In the Middle Ages, Hesel belonged to the Frisian state municipality of Moormerland . It was much larger than today's political community of the same name and also included the area of the city of Leer and the joint communities of Hesel and Jümme.
After the time of the Frisian freedom , no notable chief rule could be established because the soils of the area were too sandy and did not promise any wealth. The importance of Hesel is to be found in the monastery complex and in the convenient location within East Frisia. In the conflict between the chief Focko Ukena from Neermoor and the Freedom League of the Seven East Friesland , the place Hesel played a certain role as the scene of a skirmish in the conflicts that ended with the defeat of Ukena and the rise of the chief family Cirksena to counts of East Friesland.
Under the Cirksena (1464–1744)
In the course of the Reformation , the Barthe Monastery and the Coming Hasselt were gradually dissolved. Two fires in 1558 and 1560 also caused severe damage and destroyed large parts of the monastery. Barthe was secularized in 1563 and converted into a sovereign estate . After several trials before the Imperial Court of Justice between the rulership and the Order of St. John over the Kommende Hasselt, both parties agreed on a settlement on September 3, 1574. The then ruling Countess of East Friesland, Anna, had to return the monastic property with all the works, validities, pensions and other accessories. They were then given by the order to leaseholders and later sold to them.
After the establishment of the county of East Friesland , Hesel belonged to the Stickhausen office . Militarily, Hesel was poorly protected. During the Thirty Years' War , East Friesland was not the scene of fighting, but it was used by troops as a rest room . Three times (1622–1624, 1627–1631 and 1637–1651) foreign troops moved through East Friesland, which caused the area to suffer. The region was particularly hard hit by the occupation by the Mansfelder . Among other things, the Barthe, Hasselt and Stikelkamp estates were looted or destroyed. Comparisons of the farms in 1598 and 1625 show a decline: “In almost all villages, desolate sites can be found, i. H. find abandoned or burned farms, which very often did not become an independent economic entity again until the second half of the 18th century. ”In Holtland, the church was probably looted, as indicated by the purchase of new equipment after the withdrawal of the Mansfelder. The next two occupations also meant burdens from contributions. The occupiers from 1627 to 1631, however, imperial troops under Tilly , “kept discipline and avoided excesses” as did the Hessian troops billeted from 1637 to 1651 under Wilhelm V of Hessen-Kassel . Materially, too, the situation was different under these two occupations than under Mansfeld: Although contributions were collected, these were also spent in the region. The East Frisian historian Tileman Dothias Wiarda had already pointed this out in Volume 5 of his “East Frisian History” (Aurich 1795): “Since these contributions were almost completely consumed again in the province due to the many years of billeting, and the money always remained in circulation, so the riddle can be resolved to some extent. ”During the war, the plague broke out in East Frisia , but deaths for the area are not documented.
In 1660 Neuefehn was created as the fifth Fehnsiedlung in East Friesland. The initiators were the brothers Albert and Cord Jobus, who came from the Netherlands, which is why the new fen settlement was initially called Jobusfehn . It was later called Neues Timmeler Fehn , which was later abbreviated to Neuefehn . The name Das Neue Fehn is documented for the year 1710. The background to the founding of the Fehn was a peat export ban that the Netherlands had already issued in 1621. Since peat was the most important fuel for the East Frisians at that time, the region suffered from a shortage of peat. In addition, the need for fuel continued to rise in the course of the 17th century, because the Gulfhaus became more and more popular as a rural house and the brickworks had a corresponding need for fuel . The Jobus' leased the area from the sovereign, had the Neuefehn Canal built to drain the moorland and as a transport route, and gave land on the canal to sub-tenants. For this they had to pay taxes to the ten founders, who in turn had to pay a part to the sovereign rulers; the difference remained as a profit with the fen entrepreneurs. The sub-tenants took care of the peat extraction and later cultivated the pitted areas in order to build up an agricultural existence. According to Neuefehn, the Stiekelkamperfehn, which adjoins it to the southeast, was developed according to the same principle under the direction of the lord of Stikelkamp. As in the other East Frisian Fehn villages, shipping developed into a further branch of business for the Fehntjer in the more than 200 years that followed, alongside peat extraction and mostly modest agriculture. The basis of this profession was the removal of the peat to the sales areas, primarily the cities of Emden and Leer and the marshes. Compared to the larger Fehn settlements such as Großefehn / Spetzerfehn, Warsingsfehn / Jheringsfehn and Rhauderfehn / Ostrhauderfehn, shipping was less extensive.
In the roll call war between the East Frisian rulership and the so-called renitents , the villages of today's integrated municipality officially sided with the rulers. Together with Nortmoor, Brinkum, Holtland and Hesel formed advanced posts within the rebellious area around Leer. However, farmers in Holtland had agreed not to defend themselves against the orders from Aurich in the event of attacks by the rebels. "One tried to move on" neutral ground "in order to keep the damage to oneself and one's own property as low as possible." In Holtland as well as in Brinkum and Hesel, there were attacks by the insurgents, connected with Looting. The aim of the renitenten in Holtland was in particular the princely Comptoir (tax office). The renitenten were defeated in 1726 after the sovereignty had strengthened with additional Danish troops.
In 1735, Hesel's ascent to a hub in the East Frisian post office (carriage) began. There was a regular postal service between Aurich and Leer since 1699, set up under the aegis of Prince Christian Eberhard . The line ran via Hesel, but the place was not a post office, but the Bagband a few kilometers to the north, almost exactly halfway between Leer and Aurich . Only when the merchant and mayor Hinrich Schweers from Leer applied for the concession for a post from Leer to Oldenburg and Bremen and received it, did Hesel become the hub of the postal system. The routes from Leer to Aurich and from Leer to Oldenburg forked in Hesel, where a rest station was set up and the mail was sorted. Because dams had to be built through poorly passable moorland, road fees were charged for using the route. In spite of the newly acquired function as a hub in the postal system, Hesel continued to be a rather poor and thus typical Geest village for East Frisia. The villagers did not derive greater economic benefit from the postal service until around the middle of the 19th century.
Prussian and other dominions (1744-1815)
In 1744 Ostfriesland fell to Prussia through an prospectus . During the Seven Years' War , East Frisia was ravaged by the troops of the Marquis de Conflans, which were primarily made up of Germans. In September 1761 the hussars attacked Hesel and Holtland. In the latter place, according to the East Frisian historian Tileman Dothias Wiarda , the soldiers wanted to assault women of the place, whereupon the men spontaneously defended themselves, killed five of the soldiers and pursued the rest to Hesel. This was the beginning of a revolt against the Conflans forces. After the incidents in Holtland, resistance came up in other parts of East Frisia, especially in Shirum . At the end of September around 500 to 1000 farmers moved towards Leer, where the troops were quartered. Although they were dispersed by the soldiers and killed around 40 people, the Conflans then withdrew from East Frisia via the Ems.
In the second half of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century, several bog colonies were established in what is now the Samtgemeinde area . The first two were Neuemoor (founded 1764) and Firrel (1764). Most of the new bog colonies , however, were only created after Frederick the Great's 1765 edict of land reclamation . These included Beningafehn (1772), Siebestock (1774), Kiefeld (1775), Südermoor (1775) and Holtland-Nücke (1777). Most of the new settlers came from the surrounding old Geest villages, including those that are not in the Hesel municipality today, such as Bagband and Strackholt .
The agricultural basis of the bog colonies was the bog fire culture. Small trenches were dug in the summer to drain a piece of bog. In autumn, the Moor was chopped into flakes, which by freezing in winter and the following spring harrowed were. In late spring, the colonists set fire to the cultivated bog areas and placed seeds, mostly buckwheat, in the ashes, which grow very quickly and could be harvested after a few weeks. The buckwheat, a knotweed plant , was then processed. Potatoes, rye and oats were also grown. However, the bog soil was depleted after a few years due to this form of cultivation, so that the yields fell. With a few exceptions, the bog colonies therefore became emergency areas. One of these exceptions was the Siebestock colony: It was laid out on a ridge that allowed extensive grain cultivation, but at the same time had pastureland southwest of the village that allowed additional livestock farming. Peatlands in northeastern Kolonats addition, the fuel local drains allowed dismantle . Siebestock, founded by Holtland farmers' sons who were not entitled to inheritance, thus became a comparatively prosperous bog colony. However, since the other bog colonies became impoverished, partly increased by the effects of the weather and / or cattle epidemics, the propagation of buckwheat cultivation after the bog brandy culture was initially stopped by the Prussian War and Domain Chamber in 1791. The creation of new colonies or the enlargement of existing colonies came to a halt.
This only changed during the term of office of the President of the Prussian War and Domain Chamber Carl Heinrich Graf von Schwerin, who had held this office since 1798. In 1802 he approved the construction of another colony in the area of the Dominialgutshof Kloster Barthe. This resulted in Schwerinsdorf in 1802, which was named after Schwerin's death in 1806. In 1809, Klein-Hesel was added as a further new bog colony.
After the battle of Jena and Auerstedt in 1806, East Friesland and thus the area of the Samtgemeinde was incorporated into the Kingdom of Holland and thus into the French sphere of influence. In 1810, as the department of Ems-Orientale (Osterems), it belonged directly to the French Empire, and in 1813, after the wars of liberation, it came back to Prussia for a short time. After the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, Prussia ceded East Frisia to the Kingdom of Hanover.
In the Kingdom of Hanover (1815–1866)
From his native Stikelkamp estate, Bojung Scato Lantzius-Beninga played a decisive role in the planned reforestation in East Frisia from 1807 until his death in 1847. Since 1807 he was the successor to the East Frisian chief forester Grube. When Lantzius-Beninga took office, there was still no systematic forest management in East Frisia, rather the East Frisians were used to exploiting the last remaining forest areas at will. Lantzius-Beninga recognized the value of site-adapted tree species for reforestation and paid attention to high quality when purchasing the seeds. During his tenure, the forest area in East Friesland doubled. Nonetheless, the forests remained fragmented (and still are today), as Lantzius-Beninga essentially only had the abandoned Domanial grounds afforested due to a lack of available areas. Among other things, the Heseler Wald on the site of the former Barthe monastery was built under his direction. The Oldehave forest is also located on a former cloister site.
The first stone road in Ostfriesland ran through Brinkum, Holtland and Hesel from Leer to Aurich, which was laid out in 1834/1835. Between 1839 and 1841 the route from Hesel to Oldenburg was expanded, so that Hesel remained an important junction within the developing East Frisian road network. There was a toll station at the post office in Hesel, which was set up in 1846. In 1863 the daily mail service between Aurich and Leer was supplemented by another from Leer to Oldenburg.
The teacher Hinrich Janssen Sundermann contributed to the politicization of the Hesel population as a teacher, publicist and through his political commitment as one of the leading East Frisian heads of the revolution of 1848/49 . A number of colonists then led a temporarily successful uprising against the domain administrator in Barthe, but the revolt shared the fate of the revolution. In the years that followed, Sundermann founded the Neufriesland emigration association , which helped emigrants to emigrate to the USA.
Even after the middle of the 19th century, the economic conditions in today's integrated municipality were meager. A three-digit number of people left the area by the turn of the century. In the second half of the 19th century, 65 emigrants from the municipality of Hesel alone emigrated to America.
After the German War in 1866, the Kingdom of Hanover was incorporated into Prussia; for East Frisia this meant the third Prussian rule after 1744–1806 and 1813–1815. After the repeated crop failures in 1867 and 1868, the Prussian state set up a commission "to improve the situation in the bog colonies". One of the proposed points was the prohibition of further immigration to the bog colonies. The discovery of artificial fertilizer in the 19th century brought advances for the colonies, but this was slow. A further improvement in the situation of the colonists brought them permission to dig up further bog areas; they were able to earn extra income by cutting peat . In order to bring the fertilizer faster and more reliably to the often remote and difficult to reach colonies, more attention was paid to road construction. However, it took decades before the disadvantages of the bog colonies were alleviated. Another measure to increase the productivity of farms was land consolidation . It took place in the municipality of Hesel as early as 1889, but not until 1912 in Holtland. The farmers often had to be persuaded with great effort that the measures made sense.
In the two fen towns of Neuefehn and Stiekelkamperfehn, shipping declined significantly between the middle of the 19th century and the turn of the century. There were several reasons for this: On the one hand, the fen villages were significantly smaller than others in East Frisia, so that peat shipping decreased. On the other hand, the two Fehne were a little further away from the traffic compared to the others. Third, the share of shipping on its own account also decreased. As in other Fehn settlements, Neuefehntjer and Stiekelkamperfehntjer had switched to coastal shipping since the late 18th century, although the Fehn could not be the home port due to the small size of the Fehn canals. Rather, the ships, as far as they were not en route, anchored in the ports on the Ems. With the advent of steam shipping, the Fehntjer boatmen had to give up more and more of the sails as their sailors had little to oppose the competition. The number of registered vessels in Neuefehn fell from 27 (including 16 inland vessels) in 1862 to only 4 (including 3 inland vessels) in 1902. In Stiekelkamperfehn the number went from 10 (5) to 3 (2) in the same period. back. In 1902, boatmen from Großefehn had the largest fleet with 98 ships, of which only eight were seagoing ships.
As in many other moor and Geest areas of East Friesland, a noticeable shift to the right in political opinion was already noticeable in today's Samtgemeinde area in the early phase of the Weimar Republic. In Schwerinsdorf, for example, the German Democratic Party won 55.9 percent of the vote in the 1919 Reichstag elections, and the German-Hanoverian party won the election the following year . Right-wing parties won an absolute majority in the Reichstag election in May 1924 : the Völkisch Social Bloc won 53.7 percent of the vote, the DNVP another almost 38 percent. In the following years, too, the right-wing extremist parties retained the upper hand in Reichstag elections, while local groups of voters were mostly victorious at the municipal level. In the Reichstag election in 1930, the National Socialists became the strongest party for the first time with 37 percent; over the next three years, they continued to build their primacy. In July 1932, the Nazis in Schwerinsdorf got 96 percent of the vote, only six residents of the town did not vote for the NSDAP. In the last Reichstag election in March 1933, the NSDAP again won 95 percent. In a retrospective in 1947, the long-time councilor Rindest Post, himself an opponent of the Nazis, declared: "Blinded by propaganda, the farmer in particular believed that he could expect a better future." The colonists in the moor and Geest villages also lived in the Weimar years in rather meager conditions, which were intensified by the agricultural crises of the 1920s. However, unlike most of the large farmers in the marshland, who were tenants, they themselves owned their plaice. The Nazis' blood-and-soil ideology was particularly successful there. The extent to which the crises and the propaganda only strengthened existing perspectives can hardly be understood from the community chronicle. However, the chronicle also reports that at political events at the beginning of the 1920s, revanchist remarks such as the one that at the end of the First World War "the guns were put down too early" were heard.
In 1934 the mayor of Hesel was deposed by the National Socialists in the local council and replaced by one of their own. In Brinkum, several farmers had already joined the NSDAP in 1931, which formed the local council after 1933. The non-party mayor remained in office.
Through the Reich Labor Service , paths were developed as paved sand paths in several localities. As in other areas, this measure served to reduce unemployment (based on higher national debt).
The church struggle between members of the Confessing Church and the German Christians was also reflected in and around Hesel. Conflicts arose particularly in Firrel and Schwerinsdorf. The Firrel pastor Ludwig Heinemeyer was close to the Confessing Church, in Schwerinsdorf, which was and is parish after Firrel, the teacher and Nazi functionary Andreas van Dieken tried to sabotage the pastor's course. For example, the parish was forbidden to use the Schwerinsdorf school for church services several times. On New Year's Day 1934, a service was disrupted by gunfire. The conflicts between the pastor, who was supported by the Schwerinsdorfer community leaders, and the Nazi functionary continued until the outbreak of war. Even after the war began, Pastor Heinemeyer was exposed to stunts by the Gestapo ; however, no wrongdoing could be proven. In Firrel a new church of the Baptist congregation was built in 1936 to replace the previous chapel from 1896 and in Bagband in 1937 a small church for the independent Lutheran Cross congregation. It is the only two new church buildings in East Frisia that were built during the Nazi era.
Even before the outbreak of war, the Navy had set up an anti-aircraft command near Hesel, and later supplemented it with a radio measuring station for the Luftwaffe. Their task during the war was to identify and count enemy aircraft. During the Second World War, prisoner-of-war camps were set up in several villages in what is now the municipality, for example in Hesel for 80 to 100 inmates, mostly of Serbian origin. They were used in agriculture and crafts. Prisoners of war were also housed in Holtland, as were around 15 to 20 French in Firrel. From March 1941, bombed-out families from Emden and - as part of the “ extended children's area ” - children from other areas of Germany such as Bremen, Hamburg, the Ruhr area and Berlin were admitted. They were housed in Holtland families.
Polish and Canadian units took what is now the Samtgemeinde area on April 30 and May 1, 1945, after they had previously conquered Leer and returned to Aurich. Several Polish soldiers and members of the Wehrmacht were killed in combat. Two German soldiers were executed in Holtland and four more in Hesel for deserting. A street in Hesel was named after one of them, the then 17-year-old Günter Oßwald. In the village of Hesel, the mill and several houses caught fire from being shot at. The advancing Polish troops led to looting.
post war period
After the war, refugees from the eastern areas of the German Empire were settled in what is now the Samtgemeinde area, which in some cases significantly increased the number of inhabitants. In addition to open rejection and integration problems, there were also cases of what appeared to be relatively quick integration. In some bog colonies, the slight social differences within the long-established village population probably contributed to this, as reported in Schwerinsdorf's example in a pastoral report on the occasion of a church visit in 1947. In other places, however, the refugees were also viewed more critically. In Holtland, for example, several refugee families were deliberately not assigned building sites; instead, they were assigned old barracks in 1950. "Anyone who was not wanted in the village was accommodated there," says the memory of a refugee woman. In most villages, regardless of their previous occupation, the displaced were working in agriculture, so the diet was often better than in non-agricultural areas. For Hesel it has been proven that marriages between long-time residents and newcomers were above average. Among the refugees from the east was Horst Milde , later (Lord) Mayor of Leer and Oldenburg as well as a social democratic member of the state parliament and president of the Lower Saxony state parliament. After 1945 he lived in Holtland for a few years. The neighboring city of Leer offered jobs and also quickly recognized the benefits that the - often well-educated - refugees meant for the place.
In the immediate post-war period, the district of Leer was the most heavily populated of the three East Frisian districts with refugees from the East, because - in contrast to the districts of Aurich and Wittmund - it was not used as an internment area for prisoners of war German soldiers. However, the district of Leer subsequently accepted most of the people in Lower Saxony who were already unemployed or unemployed in the eastern regions. The proportion of people over 65 was also higher than the average in Lower Saxony. In contrast, the district of Leer recorded the lowest proportion of male refugees from the East between the ages of 20 and 45 of all districts in Lower Saxony.
The increasing use of technology in agriculture caused the number of employees in the present area to fall significantly. At the same time, the average farm size increased. Firrel can be mentioned as an example, where in 1949 there were 113 farms with an average size of 9.6 hectares. The number of farms fell from 96 (1971) and 87 (1977) to only 44 in 1999. However, the average farm size was 22.9 hectares. The decrease in the number of people employed in agriculture corresponds to the increase in commuters.
In the course of the Lower Saxony municipal reform in 1972, the integrated municipality of Hesel was formed on January 17th of that year from the municipalities of Hesel, Holtland, Brinkum, Firrel, Neukamperfehn and Schwerinsdorf. At the same time, the joint municipality of Hesel took on the villages of Neuemoor and Südermoor from the municipality of Bagband (district of Aurich), Neuefehn also changed district membership and has since formed the municipality of Neukamperfehn in the district of Leer with Stiekelkamperfehn.
The infrastructure of the integrated community was continuously expanded in the late 1960s and 1970s. An indoor swimming pool and a sports hall were created during the construction of the new school center in Hesel. The town hall of the joint community in Hesel had to be rebuilt due to the formation of the joint community, since the existing offices of the community of Hesel alone were insufficient. In 1974 the waterworks in Hasselt was built, which is responsible for the drinking water supply of around 40,000 people in the northern district of Leer. The transport infrastructure was also expanded, including the construction of the former federal highway 530 (now, after being downgraded, federal highway 24) and the expansion of the existing (federal) roads.
Development of the community name
Hesel is first mentioned as Hasla in the Werden landmarks in the 10th century . A mention in the East Frisian document book as Hosla (1319) is attributed to a typo . In 1474 the eponymous place was mentioned as Hessele , in a head treasure from 1719 finally in its current spelling.
The name goes back to the old Frisian word hesel for the hazel , combined with the also old Frisian là for wood. The community name means nothing else than Haselwald, which can be traced back to the abundant forests on the Geest at that time.
In the Middle Ages were under Hesel and Holtland the provost vacancy in the diocese of Münster . Around 1290 the Barthe monastery housed 40 nuns. In 1594 there were only a few left, so the monastery was finally sold. Since the Reformation , the Samtgemeinde area, like all of East Frisia, has been very clearly Protestant, with Hesel in the eastern, predominantly Lutheran part of East Frisia. The Liudgeri congregation in Hesel first switched to the Reformed and, after 1585, to the Lutheran creed. Today the parishes of the Liudgerikirche in Hesel , the Marienkirche in Holtland , the Nikolaikirche in Stiekelkamperfehn and the Andreaskirche in Firrel belong to the church district Leer of the Evangelical Lutheran. Regional Church of Hanover . The parish in Firrel only became independent in 1899. After the church services were initially held in the school building for financial reasons, house collections made it possible to build the St. Andrew's Church, which was inaugurated in 1907. The Heseler Ludgeri community has been supported by a foundation with share capital of 25,000 euros since 2008. The money comes from citizens of Hesel. The purpose of the foundation is to support church work and care for graves at the Heseler cemetery.
There are also various free church congregations in the Hesel joint congregation. The old Firrel Baptist Chapel was built in 1896 before the Lutheran church was built, after the Baptist congregation founded in Neudorf in 1873 had been relocated to Firrel. The sub-community in Remels became independent in 2000. In organizational connection with the mother parish in Firrel, the Evangelical Free Church Christians in Hesel have a center, the so-called Backstage . Since 1937 there has been an independent Evangelical Lutheran Church Congregation (SELK), the Kreuzgemeinde Hesel-Bagband. The first church building was built in Bagband in 1937 and no longer exists today. From 1955 onwards, community work shifted to Hesel, where a wooden church was built, which was replaced in 1987 by the current building. In 2007, a Free Evangelical Congregation was founded in Hesel, a subsidiary of the Aurich FeG, which converted a former commercial building into a community center.
There is no Catholic parish in the joint parish of Hesel, the closest is in the neighboring town of Leer. A church service station in Hesel had to be closed in 1954 after the Catholic expellees who had initially settled in Hesel after the Second World War had withdrawn. There are no figures on other religious members (e.g. Muslims) at the joint community level. Up until the time of National Socialism, there were also some Jews in today's integrated community area, but their number was too small to be able to form an independent community. The closest community was in Leer until 1938 .
In the joint community of Hesel, the SPD and CDU have equally strong support, although the role of the SPD has increased since the Federal Republic of Germany was founded. In contrast to the rest of East Friesland, the CDU in the Leer district was organized very early on and achieved the best results within the region there. This also applies to the area of today's integrated community. With the exception of the feudal settlements Neuefehn and Stiekelkamperfehn, the CDU won an absolute majority in all localities in the 1949 federal election. The exceptional position of the two Fehne was, as in the neighboring feudal settlements in the Moormerland, with the social structure (high proportion of sailors in the total population). In 1949, the SPD received more than 40 (Neuefehn) and more than 50 percent (Stiekelkamperfehn) of the votes cast in the two fehnees. In Neuemoor, Firrel, Schwerinsdorf and Brinkum, however, the CDU achieved an absolute majority or at least became the strongest party with more than 30 (Hesel) or more than 40 percent (Holtland) of the votes. In the 1953 Bundestag elections this became even more pronounced: the SPD only gained a relative majority in Neuefehn, whereas the CDU gained an absolute majority in all other districts. The clear lead of the CDU over the SPD in the joint community of Hesel changed little in the following decades: Even in the "Willy Brandt election" in 1972 , which brought the SPD a record result in East Friesland and penetrated some of the previous CDU bastions , the integrated community area remained a source of support for the CDU: again with the exception of the two Fehnsiedlungen, it won the absolute majority in all localities, in Neuemoor, Firrel and Schwerinsdorf even more than 70 percent. The SPD was only able to catch up in the following decades, and in the 2005 federal elections it became the strongest party in Hesel.
Even in state elections, the entire municipality, like the neighboring municipalities of Jümme and Uplengen, has been a support for the CDU in the past, while East Frisia as a whole is a traditional stronghold of the SPD in elections. Here, too, the results of the CDU and SPD have converged over the past few decades, with changing election winners. In the last state elections, the CDU was the strongest force in Hesel. Other parties did not play a major role in federal and state elections. At the municipal level, however, the General Voting Community Samtgemeinde Hesel ( Free Voting Group ) has meanwhile become the third largest group in the Council.
As in other joint communities, there are occasional political discussions in the joint community of Hesel about dissolving the joint community in favor of a unified community , as happened in East Friesland in 2001 in the case of the federal government and Dornums . Often this has financial reasons.
Joint council and administration
The joint council of the joint municipality of Hesel consists of 26 councilors. This is the specified number for a joint municipality with a population of between 10,001 and 11,000. The 26 council members are elected for five years each by local elections. The current term of office began on November 1, 2016 and ends on October 31, 2021.
The last local election on September 11, 2016 resulted in the following:
|Political party||Proportional votes||Number of seats||Change voices||Change seats|
|General Voting Community for the Samtgemeinde Hesel (AWG)||12.9%||3||−1.0%||−1|
|The left||2.9%||1||+ 0.4%||0|
|The Frisians||2.5%||1||+ 0.2%||0|
The turnout in the 2016 local elections was 59.6%, above the Lower Saxony average of 55.5%. For comparison - in the previous local election on September 11, 2011, the turnout was 54.5%.
Since the joint community of Hesel consists of six member communities, there are no local councils there, as in many unitary communities. The purely local function that the local councils have in unified congregations is assumed by the member congregations. For the election results in the member municipalities, see the articles on the member municipalities. The entire community has the administrative apparatus that not only takes on the tasks set out in the NKomVG and the main statutes , but also the administrative business for the member communities. The member communities therefore do not have their own administration.
Joint mayor of the municipality
Uwe Themann (SPD) has been the full-time mayor of the municipality since November 1st, 2006 . He prevailed in the run-off election on September 24, 2006 against his rival Hinrich Bruns (CDU). Themann won 54.1 percent of the vote, with a turnout of 55.9 percent. In the first round of the joint mayor election 14 days earlier, Themann narrowly missed the required absolute majority with 49.3 percent, while Franziska Junker (Die Linke) came in as the third candidate and had 4.3 percent of the votes. In the last mayoral election on May 25, 2014, Themann was re-elected as incumbent with 72.4% of the vote. He was able to prevail against two opposing candidates in the first ballot. The turnout was 52.5%. Themann began his further term in office on November 1, 2014. In contrast to the mayors of the member municipalities, the joint municipality mayor serves as a full-time employee, analogous to the mayors in unitary municipalities. The joint municipality mayor also acts as the municipality director of three of the six member municipalities, the others have appointed their mayors as heads of administration.
Representatives in the Land and Bundestag
The joint municipality of Hesel belongs to the constituency of Leer . 15 parties ran for the state elections in Lower Saxony in 2017 . Six of these parties had put up direct candidates. The directly elected MP is Ulf Thiele ( CDU ). Meta Janssen-Kucz ( Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen ) also entered the Lower Saxony state parliament via the state list .
The combined municipality of Hesel belongs to the Bundestag constituency Unterems (constituency 25), which consists of the district of Leer and the northern part of the district of Emsland. The constituency was redesigned for the 1980 federal election and has remained unchanged since then. So far, only representatives of the CDU have prevailed as direct candidates in this constituency. The constituency is represented in the Bundestag by the directly elected CDU MP Gitta Connemann from Leer. No party candidate from the constituency entered the Bundestag via the parties' list.
Due to the special construction of a joint community , the financial relationship between the levels of the member communities and the joint community is not always free of tension, as is the case in the joint community of Hesel. Controversy occasionally breaks out when it comes to the contribution of the individual member communities to the joint community budget.
coat of arms
|Blazon : “Divided by silver and green; above, between two green fir trees, a red church with three pointed arched windows, the staggered gable of which is decorated with a black cross, below three golden ears of wheat arranged in a fan shape. "|
|Justification of the coat of arms: The church building indicates the monasteries that were in the area of the Samtgemeinde. The Barthe Monastery is particularly worth mentioning here. The trees stand for the Heseler Forest and the ears of wheat for the originally agricultural character of the municipality.|
The joint municipality of Hesel has a partnership with the Dutch municipality of Ten Boer . The first contacts between the Dutch from the province of Groningen and the joint municipality had been in place since 1994. Four years later, this became a sealed partnership.
Culture and sights
The oldest preserved church in the all-inclusive parish is the Marienkirche in Holtland from the 13th century. The early Gothic hall church originally had an apse on the east side , which was replaced by a late Gothic polygonal choir before 1500 . In 1787 the church was rebuilt, in which the windows were enlarged and a wooden cove ceiling was put in place of the vault . The oldest piece of furniture is a Romanesque baptismal font made of Bentheim sandstone , which was taken over from the previous building. Johann Gottfried Rohlfs created the parapet organ between 1810 and 1813 , which has largely been preserved. The free-standing bell tower of the parallel wall type goes back to the time the church was built.
The baroque Liudgerikirche in Hesel from 1742 is a successor to an abandoned church. In the base area, the old bricks in the monastery format were reused. The free-standing medieval bell tower had to give way to a neo-Romanesque west tower in 1909. The altar (acquired in 1622) and the pulpit (1654) are from the previous building. From Johann Friedrich Wenthin's organ from 1793 only the side veils are preserved. In 1961/62 Alfred Führer built a new factory behind a neo-baroque prospect . The three brass chandeliers date from 1706, 1747 and 1868.
There are also two other church buildings from the first half of the 20th century: the St. Andrew's Church in Firrel (1906/1907) and the Baptist chapel built in 1936 in the same place . The Andreas Church received its four-story west tower in 1962. The pastorate, which has half-timbering in the gable, was added to the southern transverse annex. The pulpit dates from 1907 and the altarpiece from 1908. The Baptist chapel replaces the first chapel from 1896. A large community center was built in 1989 behind the simple building with a gable roof. In 1971 both parishes received organs from the Dutch company Hendrik Jan Vierdag .
A number of buildings in the municipality are listed. These include the historic churches and the Stikelkamp estate, as well as the forester's lodge Kloster Barthe in the Heseler Wald, whose cellar probably dates back to the 18th century. In the main town of Hesel, five residential and farm buildings from previous days are also listed as historical monuments. In Holtland, the old rectory, the gallery Dutchman , the war memorial erected in 1920 and four buildings in the center are also under protection. The mill in Holtland was built in 1863 and restored to full working order between 1994 and 1997.
Gulfhöfe can be found in large numbers both in the center of the villages and in the outer areas . Corresponding to the significantly lower harvest yields on the Geest in earlier centuries, they are mostly smaller than in the marshland areas of East Frisia, but based on the same principle.
The Fehn character with its typical Fehn canals, bascule bridges and locks has been preserved in Neuefehn and partly in Stiekelkamperfehn. The houses are on both sides of the Fehn canals.
One of the technical attractions is a hand-operated crank ferry (only for pedestrians / cyclists) across the Holtlander Ehetief. The ferry connects Holtland with Filsum.
Museums and theaters
Gut Stikelkamp is used by the district hunters of the Leer district as a space for natural history exhibitions and the presentation of hunting trophies. The Gulf Barn, which belongs to the estate and was built in 1794, serves this purpose. There is also a collection of paintings and ancestral portraits from the 18th to 20th centuries as well as old furniture and other household items that are on display in the house. The estate, a brick building built around 1400 with stones in the format of a monastery, is framed by broad walls. It was built on the site of the former Johanniter Vorwerk. Outside the manor building in the forest-like park there is an educational tree path and a small forest cemetery, which was created in 1828.
The results of the extensive excavations in and around Hesel are exhibited in the "Villa Popken" in Hesel. The focus is on the excavations at the former Barthe monastery. In the Heseler Wald there is also a hedge planting that reproduces the ground plan of the monastery church.
The 0.7 hectare water park has been created on the site of the waterworks in Hasselt. There is a biotope crossed by a network of paths with a permanent exhibition on the topic of drinking water.
There is no permanent theater building in the integrated community. The regular performances by amateur theater groups take place in village community centers or schools.
In the integrated community, East Frisian Platt is spoken in addition to Standard German . At least among adults, Platt is an everyday language. The integrated community promotes - also with the support of the Plattdütskbüro der Ostfriesische Landschaft - the use and thus the preservation of the Low German. Citizens are expressly encouraged to speak Platt when things are going on in the town hall, as most administrative employees are bilingual, but at least have passive knowledge of Platt. It is also possible to have marriage ceremonies held entirely in Low German.
The district sports association of the district of Leer with its sports school is located in Hesel. Universal sports clubs can be found in several districts: TSV Hesel, SV Holtland, SV Stikelkamp, Grün-Weiß Firrel, Stern Schwerinsdorf and Frisia Brinkum. SV Holtland has an athletics department which, among other things, produced hammer thrower Andrea Bunjes . From 1982 to 2006 the club also hosted the Ossiloop . In the higher-class league operation, no club from the combined community is represented.
In addition to the universal sports clubs, there are a number of other clubs that focus on certain sports. These include the Hesel swimming club, the Hesel riding and driving club and the surrounding area and the Hesel water sports club. The Frisian sports Boßeln and Klootschießen are practiced in the Boßelverein Freesensport Beningafehn.
In addition to the municipal gyms and sports fields, Hesel also has an indoor swimming pool. Tennis courts are located in Hesel, Firrel and Neukamperfehn.
Every year at the end of September / beginning of October there is a big harvest festival in the main town of Hesel. The highlight is the parade on Thanksgiving Sunday with decorated floats, historic vehicles and the appearance of traditional groups. A summer festival has been held at Gut Stikelkamp for several years, which the four (velvet) communities of the northern district of Leer (Moormerland, Hesel, Jümme and Uplengen) organize together. It attracts several hundred visitors every year and offers musical performances. In 2011 it took place for the 15th time. The Ossiloop , a running event with up to four-digit numbers of participants , which has taken place every year since 1982, runs through the entire municipality . The run follows the former small railway line from Leer to Bensersiel, on whose route the East Friesland hiking trail is today. Shooting festivals and folk festivals take place in several districts, along with East Frisian traditional events that can also be found in other communities, such as the setting up of a maypole . The regular sporting events in addition to the Ossi Loop also include the clubs' sport weeks, with Grün-Weiß Firrel regularly inviting higher-class clubs to play during its sport week, including Werder Bremen several times . Since 2010, the Pixxen Festival has been attracting almost 4,000 visitors to the Neukamperfehn member community at the end of August as a benefit concert for children with heart disease .
Economy and Infrastructure
The economy in the joint municipality of Hesel is primarily shaped by medium-sized companies. In addition, agriculture, including upstream and downstream farms, continues to play a role in the integrated community. The central location and therefore also the most important shopping location is the main town Hesel, where there are large supermarkets and other shopping facilities along the main roads. The entire municipality is hardly industrialized.
There are four industrial parks in the municipality, of which the one south of the main town Hesel on the B 436 is by far the largest: It covers 44.5 hectares. Located there is among other discounters -Company Aldi -Nord with one of its regional offices, plus a large central warehouse. The Schröder window and door company is also based there. Other industrial areas are scattered across the municipality: In Neukamperfehn there are 5.7 hectares, mostly occupied by handicrafts and smaller trading companies. In Firrel, the industrial park covers 5.4 hectares. The industrial area in Brinkum is the second largest with 7.8 hectares and is closest to the A 28. Until 2008 there was also a regional branch of the Spar chain with around 200 employees in the Brinkum industrial park, which was closed at the end of that year.
Data on unemployment in the municipality itself are not collected. In the Leer division of the Employment Agency, which includes the district of Leer excluding Borkum, the unemployment rate in December 2015 was 6.3 percent. It was 0.4 percentage points above the Lower Saxony average.
The entire community is a commuter community . Since there is also a flow of commuters between the individual member communities, the number of commuters cannot be aggregated for the entire municipality area. Figures are available for the individual municipalities, all of which have a negative commuter balance. Due to its importance as a central location, the negative balance of commuters is still the lowest percentage in the main town of Hesel: Here there are 867 inbound commuters versus 1,071 outbound commuters (as of 2006). In Neukamperfehn there were 410 outbound and 44 inbound commuters, in Firrel 205 outbound and 146 inbound commuters, in Holtland 559 outbound and 98 inbound commuters. For Schwerinsdorf the number of inbound commuters was not given for data protection reasons (too small a number), there were 230 outbound commuters. Brinkum was the only municipality to have a commuter surplus in 2006 (169 outbound and 230 inbound commuters), but these statistics could not yet take into account the closure of the Spar branch with 200 employees. The number of employees subject to social security contributions at the place of residence in 2006 totaled 2,963 people. The number of jobs subject to social insurance contributions in the integrated municipality was 1,699 plus a very small number in Schwerinsdorf.
Tourism plays a role in the municipality to a certain extent. In 2010, 39,379 overnight stays were counted in the municipality. Accommodation is available in two hotels, seven holiday houses, 32 holiday apartments and nine private rooms with a total of 246 beds (status: end of 2009). The top of the municipality sees a need for further expansion in terms of accommodation. There is no campsite in the municipality. However, on the Heseler Dorfplatz, which was renovated in 2011, parking spaces and storage space for twelve mobile homes have been created.
The bicycle tourism segment plays a dominant role; according to the tourist information, around 80 percent of the guests are cyclists. The joint municipality of Hesel and the neighboring communities of Moormerland, Jümme and Uplengen have set up the longest cycling route in the region to date, the "East Frisian Route" over 172 kilometers. The joint municipality with its districts Neuefehn and Stiekelkampferfehn is also on the German Fehn route . A special feature of the municipality's cycle path network is the crank ferry over the Holtlander Ehetief on the border with the Jümme municipality: users take the ferry themselves over the river. It cannot be used for cars.
Agriculture in the Samtgemeinde area is characterized by dairy farming and, to a lesser extent, by cultivation of fodder for cattle. Due to the average size of the integrated municipality, this contributes to a certain extent to the fact that the district of Leer is one of the ten largest milk producer districts in Germany. For some years now, dairy farmers have suffered from an often low and highly fluctuating price for milk and milk products. Farmers earn additional income by installing wind turbines or generating energy from biomass. In addition, some farmers rent rooms to holiday guests under the motto of a holiday on the farm . There are occasional disputes over the construction of stables for factory farming, also in the political arena.
Hesel has long been a road and traffic junction in East Frisia. Early paths converged here, including the one between Leer and Aurich. In addition, there has been a path towards Oldenburg for centuries, which branches off the street mentioned in the core town of Hesel. Hesel therefore formed an intersection in traffic until the A 28 and A 31 motorways were built , as several state and later federal highways converge here. Since the construction of the above-mentioned motorways between the 1970s and 1990s, Hesel's supraregional importance for road traffic has decreased somewhat. As the intersection of federal highways and at least one important state road, the integrated municipality continues to have a supra-local importance in road traffic. In addition, the entire municipality has a motorway connection to the A 28 and is close to another. A junction of the A 31 is also just a few kilometers west of the municipality of Hesel.
The Leer-Ost junction of the A 28 is partly in the area of the municipality of Brinkum. The Filsum junction on the A 28 is only a few hundred meters from the border between the Hesel municipality and the municipality of Filsum. The Veenhusen junction of the A 31 is just a few kilometers west of the municipality border with Moormerland.
South of Hesel the federal highways B 72 and B 436 meet. The B 72 begins near Cloppenburg and in the immediate vicinity of the A 1 junction of the same name . It leads via Friesoythe , Hesel and Aurich to the coast in Norddeich . Until the completion of the A 31 in the 1990s and 2000s, this was the shortest connection between East Frisia and the Osnabrück area and thus also North Rhine-Westphalia south of it . The B 436 begins at Weener and leads via Leer, Hesel and Wiesmoor to Sande near Wilhelmshaven and represents one of the two federal roads running west-east across the East Frisian peninsula. Between the meeting of the two federal roads south of Hesel and the fork north of the Samtgemeinde border at Bagband lead both federal highways on the same route, passing through the town Hesel. The Hesel through-road is therefore considered to be heavily polluted, but a bypass road would have to run around the place and is therefore currently not considered feasible by the Hesel community leaders. The B 530 , which led to the Veenhusen junction on the A 31, began at the intersection south of Hesel until the 1990s . She set the shortest distance between Hesel and Emden . After the completion of the A 31 between Emden and empty middle of the 1990s the main road to was country road L 24 downgraded. The high standard of construction for a state road with wide hard shoulders originates from the earlier function, and in the neighboring municipality of Moormerland there is even an elevated section on a dam and two intersections with driveways at different levels. The Hesel – Remels section of Bundesstraße 75 , which also forms the L 24, has also been downgraded to a state road . However, these roads are still of great importance for the municipality as a connection to Emden and Remels and also as a diversion route. The villages off the main roads mentioned are connected via district roads.
The favorable location of Hesel as a road traffic junction has no equivalent in rail traffic. The Samtgemeinde never had a standard-gauge railway connection, as the Oldenburg – Leer line forms a very direct connection between the two cities and therefore runs south of the Samtgemeinde area. However, since 1899 trains ran on the meter gauge line of the narrow-gauge railway empty Aurich-Wittmund . There were several train stations and stops in the entire municipality: at Gut Stikelkamp , in Hesel roughly in the center of the village, south of Hesel at the yeast and alcohol factory (Hesel factory) with a freight rail connection to the factory, in Holtland with a reloading station from a small field railway, the led to the local moor area, as well as in Brinkum. Passenger traffic was discontinued in 1956, freight traffic in 1967. Plans that arose during the imperial era and the Weimar Republic to add a branch from Hesel via Schwerinsdorf to Remels were never implemented for reasons of cost. Today the train station in Leer is the closest passenger station. From there, trips with regional traffic and InterCitys to the entire federal territory and neighboring countries are possible.
Local public transport is ensured with buses from the Aurich (Jan-Klein) district railway and the Weser-Ems Bus (WEB) subsidiary . The most important line is the express bus line 460 from Aurich via Hesel, Holtland and Brinkum to the train station in Leer. It runs every hour (Monday to Friday). Neukamperfehn is connected to Leer with line 479 via Klein-Hesel and Holtland. In addition, there are bus connections from the WEB that primarily serve and are tailored to school traffic. So you only drive on school days. However, these buses can also be used by non-students. These connections include the lines 476 ( Jheringsfehn - Neuefehn - Hesel - Firrel - Ostgroßefehn ), 619 ( Remels - Firrel - Neuemoor - Hesel - Brinkum - Leer), 625 (Leer - Brinkum - Holtland - Hesel - Schwerinsdorf - Remels - Westerstede ) , 626 (Remels - Schwerinsdorf - Hasselt - Siebestock - Holtland - Brinkum - Hesel), 629 ( Warsingsfehn - Neuefehn - Beningafehn - Hesel - Klein-Hesel - Holtland - Holtland-Nücke - Meerhausen - Brinkum), 630 and 638 (both Hollen - Filsum - Brinkum - Holtland - Hesel on slightly different routes). In addition, there is a dial- a- bus service for the entire municipality of Hesel, which is organized by the district of Leer.
In contrast to many other East Frisian municipalities, waterways have never played a major role in the integrated municipality of Hesel. Only the Fehnsiedlung Neuefehn was and is connected to the East Frisian waterway network via the Bagbander Tief and Fehntjer Tief , which was previously important for the removal of the peat extracted there. Today the canal is only used for water tourism. All other watercourses in the municipality are not navigable with motor boats.
In addition to the municipal administration and its operations, there is a police station in the main town. However, it is not manned around the clock; outside the opening times, the municipality area is looked after by the Warsingsfehn police station in the neighboring municipality of Moormerland. The tourist information, operated by the municipality, is located in the "Villa Popken". The former school houses in Brinkum, Firrel and Neuemoor are now used as village community houses after extensive interior renovations. There is a waterworks in the Hasselt district of Hesel, which not only takes over the water supply for the municipality of Hesel, but is also responsible for Moormerland, Uplengen and the municipality of Jümme and has a network of around 1400 km of pipelines. The operator is the Moormerland-Uplengen-Hesel-Jümme water supply association. In 2010 the association released 3.57 million cubic meters of drinking water. Authorities responsible for the entire municipality such as tax office, employment agency, district court, land registry office, etc. are located in neighboring Leer, where the district administration is also based and the closest hospitals are located. The rescue service in the district is organized by the DRK, which maintains an ambulance station in Hesel. The fire brigade is organized on a voluntary basis with smaller and larger volunteer fire brigades in the respective municipalities of the integrated municipality.
In the joint community there are primary schools in Hesel, Holtland and Neukamperfehn, where the three kindergartens in the joint community area are also located. The primary schools and kindergartens are sponsored by the joint municipality. In Hesel there is also the high school "Kloster Barthe", which is named after the former Premonstratensian monastery Barthe in today's Heselerwald, with a branch in Brinkum, as well as the Wilhelm Busch school for learning assistance, which is also located in Hesel. These schools are sponsored by the district of Leer. Courses at the community college in Leer are held in the various schools in the municipality and are also sponsored by the district.
There is no grammar school in the municipality, the closest are the Ubbo-Emmius-Gymnasium and the Teletta-Groß-Gymnasium in Leer. The vocational schools can also be found there. The closest university of applied sciences is the University of Emden / Leer . The closest university is the Carl von Ossietzky University in Oldenburg.
The joint municipality of Hesel is in the circulation area of the Ostfriesen-Zeitung , which has a de facto monopoly in the joint municipality. Various newspapers financed by advertisements ( Neue Zeitung , Sunday Report and others) appear weekly or monthly and complement the local reporting. The citizen broadcaster Radio Ostfriesland also reports from the entire community .
In the 19th century, the landowner and chief forester Bojung Scato Lantzius-Beninga (born December 10, 1775 on Gut Stikelkamp; † April 4, 1861 ibid.) Was a pioneer in the field of afforestation in East Frisia. His son Bojung Scato Georg Lantzius-Beninga was a professor of botany in Göttingen and author of a flora of East Frisia. Bernhard Weerts from Firrel (* July 17, 1858, † March 19, 1929 in Berlin) was a Baptist clergyman who held a number of important offices within the German Baptist Union.
The hammer thrower and Olympic participant Andrea Bunjes (born February 5, 1976) comes from Holtland ; the television presenter and journalist Uke Bosse (born September 28, 1976) grew up in Stiekelkamperfehn.
Horst Milde (born April 6, 1933 in Breslau), later (Lord) Mayor of Leer and Oldenburg, Member of the State Parliament and President of the Lower Saxony State Parliament , was not born in the Samtgemeinde area . As a refugee from the East, he first came to Holtland in 1945 and lived there. The writer Heide Braukmüller (born March 30, 1940 in Oldenburg; † February 24, 2017) worked as a teacher in Stiekelkampferfehn.
Extensive archaeological investigations into prehistory and the history of the monasteries in the Samtgemeinde area in the 1980s and early 1990s have resulted in these periods of time being among the best-documented in East Frisia for the area at hand. Since the mid-1990s, several publications have been published by employees of the East Frisian landscape that deal with these topics. This was taken as an opportunity to create complete community chronicles for the towns of Holtland and Hesel, and later also for Schwerinsdorf. The following works deal with large parts of the combined municipality area (in alphabetical order of the authors):
- Rolf Bärenfänger: From the history of the deserted Barthe monastery - results of the archaeological investigations in the years 1988 to 1992 ( problems of coastal research in the southern North Sea area , vol. 24). Verlag Isensee, Oldenburg 1997, ISBN 3-89598-491-4 .
- Joachim Tautz: Steerner Chronik - The history of the East Frisian community Schwerinsdorf. Ed .: Municipality of Schwerinsdorf. Verlag Risius, Weener 2002, ISBN 3-88761-075-X .
- Paul Weßels: Barthe - On the history of a monastery and the subsequent domain on the basis of written sources . Verlag SKN, Norden 1997, ISBN 3-928327-26-7 .
- Paul Weßels: Gut Stikelkamp - from the Johanniter cloister to the “parlor” of the Leer district. Ostfriesische Landschaftliche Verlags- und Vertriebsgesellschaft, Aurich 2002, ISBN 3-932206-28-2 .
- Paul Weßels: Hesel - desert area, arid wilderness and lean heather plants - the path of a farming village into the modern age. Ed .: Municipality of Hesel. Verlag Risius, Weener 1998, ISBN 3-88761-065-2 .
- Paul Weßels: Holtland - "The well-built large church village". Ed .: Municipality of Holtland. Isensee Verlag, Oldenburg 1995, ISBN 3-89598-284-9 .
The two Fehn settlements Neuefehn and Stiekelkamperfehn are mentioned several times in the following work:
- Jürgen Bünstorf: The East Frisian Fehnsiedlung as a regional type of settlement and bearer of socio-functional professional tradition. (Treatises and lectures on the history of East Frisia, Volume 45; also Göttingen Geographical Treatises, Issue 37). Self-published by the Geographical Institute of the University of Göttingen, Göttingen 1966, .
In addition, the following works, which deal with East Frisia in general, are also significant for the history and description of the integrated community insofar as they illuminate individual aspects:
- Heinrich Schmidt: Political history of East Frisia . ( East Frisia in the protection of the dike , vol. 5). Rautenberg, Leer 1975, .
- Wolfgang Schwarz: The prehistory in East Frisia. Verlag Schuster, Leer 1995, ISBN 3-7963-0323-4 .
- Karl-Heinz Sindowski u. a .: Geology, soils and settlement of East Friesland (East Friesland in the protection of the dike, vol. 1). Deichacht Krummhörn (ed.), Self-published, Pewsum 1969, .
- Menno Smid: East Frisian Church History . ( East Frisia in the protection of the dike , vol. 6). Self-published, Pewsum 1974, .
- Harm Wiemann, Johannes Engelmann: Old ways and streets in East Frisia . ( East Frisia in the protection of the dike , vol. 8). Self-published, Pewsum 1974, .
- Official website of the municipality of Hesel
- Paul Weßels (local chronicle of the East Frisian landscape): Brinkum , PDF file, 7 p.
- ders .: Hesel , PDF file, 16 pp.
- ders .: Holtland , PDF file, 9 p.
- Johann Wilken (local chronicle of the East Frisian landscape): Firrel , PDF file, 5 p.
- State Office for Statistics Lower Saxony, LSN-Online regional database, Table 12411: Update of the population, as of December 31, 2019 ( help ).
- Numbers and facts ( Memento of the original from March 2, 2005 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed December 28, 2011.
- www.landkreis-leer.de: Regional spatial planning program of the district of Leer 2006 , pdf file, p. 13 according to the original pagination, accessed on January 21, 2012.
- Eberhard Rack: Kleine Landeskunde Ostfriesland , Isensee Verlag, Oldenburg 1998, ISBN 3-89598-534-1 , p. 24.
- Heinz Voigt, Günter Roeschmann: The soils of East Friesland. In: Karl-Heinz Sindowski, Heint Voigt, Günter Roeschmann, Peter Schmid, Waldemar Reinhardt, Harm Wiemann: Geology, Soils and Settlement of East Frisia. ( Ostfriesland im Schutz des Deiches , Vol. 1), Verlag Deichacht Krummhörn, Pewsum 1969, pp. 51–106, here p. 96 and cartographic supplement.
- Paul Weßels (local chronicle of the East Frisian landscape): Hesel , pdf file, p. 1.
- Map ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF file; 4.6 MB) of the association area at www.entwaesserungsverband-oldersum.de.
- Rita Badewien / Otto Saathoff / Bernhard Müller: Moormerland im Wandel 1973–1998 . Edited by the municipality of Moormerland, Verlag Sollermann, Leer 1999, ISBN 3-928612-50-6 , p. 172/173.
- Source: State Office for Statistics and Communication Technology Lower Saxony , direct link to the page is not possible. Procedure: Click on "Regional database", without logging in "Next", as a guest "Next", select "Survey area" and "Define time and region", click on "Unity / Samtgemeinde", select Samtgemeinde Hesel (scroll down quite a bit), Clicking on “Create and View Table,” accessed December 27, 2011.
- Eberhard Rack: Small regional studies of Ostfriesland . Isensee Verlag, Oldenburg 1998, ISBN 3-89598-534-1 , p. 115.
- Wolfgang Malzahn: 3000 young oaks for the Heseler Wald , in: Ostfriesen-Zeitung , March 23, 2011, accessed on December 29, 2011.
- For the partly voluntary, partly controlled formation of integrated or unitary communities from the previous small communities, see the history of local government reform in the neighboring community of Moormerland under The emergence of the community of Moormerland ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically defective marked. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed January 26, 2012.
- For the minimum number of inhabitants, see von Unruh / Thieme / Scheuner: The basics of communal territorial reform , Nomos-Verlag, Baden-Baden 1981, p. 110; cited in decision 46/03 of the Brandenburg Constitutional Court of August 18, 2005, Link , accessed on January 26, 2012.
- www.koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at: Updated climate map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification , viewed on December 28, 2011.
- www.holidaycheck.de: Climate and Weather for Leer , viewed on December 28, 2011.
- Eberhard Rack: Kleine Landeskunde Ostfriesland , Isensee Verlag, Oldenburg 1998, p. 35ff.
- Precipitation according to the formerly free German Weather Service, normal period 1961–1990.
- Temperature information, hours of sunshine and rainy days according to www.holidaycheck.de: Climate and Weather for Leer , viewed on December 28, 2011.
- The information can be viewed on an interactive map at www.meine-umweltkarte-niedersachsen.de ( Memento from January 16, 2012 in the Internet Archive ).
- www.ostfriesenelandschaft.de: Find in Holtland 2008 , accessed on January 3, 2012.
- Norbert Fiks: Neanderthals came to East Friesland. In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung. September 18, 2008, accessed January 1, 2012.
- Paul Weßels: Hesel - desert area, arid wilderness and poor heather plants - The way of a farming village into the modern age (Ed .: Hesel municipality), Verlag Risius, Weener 1998, ISBN 3-88761-065-2 , p. 26. Im Following Weßels: Hesel - desert area, arid wilderness and lean heather - the path of a farming village into the modern age.
- Wolfgang Schwarz: Die Urgeschichte in Ostfriesland , Verlag Schuster, Leer 1995, ISBN 3-7963-0323-4 , p. 75 (cartographic representation).
- Harm Wiemann / Johannes Engelmann: Old ways and roads in Ostfriesland ( Ostfriesland in the protection of the dike , vol. 8). Verlag Deichacht Krummhörn, Pewsum 1974, without ISBN, p. 96ff.
- Paul Weßels (local chronicle of the East Frisian landscape): Hesel , PDF file, p. 1.
- Gottfried Kiesow : Architectural Guide East Friesland . Verlag Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz , Bonn 2010, ISBN 978-3-86795-021-3 , p. 190 .
- Rolf Bärenfänger : Wüstung Kloster Barthe near Hesel. In: Rolf Bärenfänger (editing and editing): Guide to archaeological monuments in Germany, Vol. 35 Ostfriesland , Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-8062-1415-8 , p. 197.
- Hemmo Suur: History of the former monasteries in the province of East Friesland . Hahn, Emden 1838, p. 101. Online in the Google book search (reprint of the edition from 1838, Verlag Martin Sendet, Niederwalluf 1971, ISBN 3-500-23690-1 ).
- www.praemonstratenser.de: Barthe in Hesel (Leer district, Ostfriesland) , accessed on December 31, 2011.
- Weßels: Hesel - desert area, arid wilderness and poor heather plants. 1998, p. 109.
- Paul Weßels: Holtland - "The well-built large church village" (Ed .: Municipality Holtland), Isensee Verlag, Oldenburg 1995, ISBN 3-89598-284-9 , p. 40. In the following Weßels: Holtland - "The well-built large church village ".
- Walter Deeters: East Frisia in the Thirty Years War. In: Emder yearbook for historical regional studies of East Frisia. Vol. 78 (1998), pp. 32-44, here, p. 39.
- Quoted from: Walter Deeters: Ostfriesland in the Thirty Years War. In: Emder yearbook for historical regional studies of East Frisia. Vol. 78 (1998), pp. 32-44, here, p. 43.
- Walter Deeters: East Frisia in the Thirty Years War. In: Emder yearbook for historical regional studies of East Frisia. Vol. 78 (1998), pp. 32-44, here, p. 38.
- Weßels: Holtland - "The well-built large church village". 1995, p. 66.
- Weßels: Hesel - desert area, arid wilderness and poor heather plants. 1998, pp. 74, 132-136.
- Weßels: Holtland - "The well-built large church village". 1995, pp. 74-76.
- Arend Remmers : From Aaltukerei to Zwischenmooren. The settlement names between Dollart and Jade. Verlag Schuster, Leer 2004, ISBN 3-7963-0359-5 , p. 160.
- Arend Remmers: From Aaltukerei to Zwischenmooren. The settlement names between Dollart and Jade. Verlag Schuster, Leer 2004, ISBN 3-7963-0359-5 , p. 70.
- Helmut Sanders: Wiesmoor - His cultivation and settlement from the peripheral communities . Verlag Mettcker & Söhne, Jever 1990, ISBN 3-87542-006-3 , p. 22 ff.
- Joachim Tautz: Steerner Chronik - The history of the East Frisian municipality Schwerinsdorf (Ed .: Municipality Schwerinsdorf), Verlag Risius, Weener 2002, ISBN 3-88761-075-X , p. 16 f. In the following Tautz: Steerner Chronik.
- Walter Deeters: Lantzius-Beninga (Fam.) (PDF file; 32 kB) in: Biographisches Lexikon für Ostfriesland . Volume I, Aurich 1993, p. 235, accessed December 31, 2011.
- Paul Weßels (local chronicle of the East Frisian landscape): Hesel , PDF file, 16 pp.
- Tautz: Steerner Chronicle. 2002, pp. 41-43.
- Weßels: Hesel - desert area, arid wilderness and poor heather plants. 1998, p. 319.
- Otto Aden: Development and changing situations of selected trades in East Frisia from the middle of the 18th to the end of the 19th century (treatises and lectures on the history of East Frisia, Volume 40), Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1964, without ISBN, p. 201 .
- Tautz: Steerner Chronicle. 2002, pp. 66–70, quoted on p. 69.
- Tautz: Steerner Chronicle. 2002, p. 66, citing the parish chronicle of the place.
- Tautz: Steerner Chronicle. 2002, pp. 80-84.
- www.efg-firrel.de (Evangelical Free Church Community Firrel): History of the Evangelical Free Church Community of the Baptists Firrel , accessed on May 12, 2009.
- Weßels: Holtland - "The well-built large church village". 1995, p. 338.
- Wolfgang Malzahn: Oßwaldstrasse leads into the Hesel construction area. In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung. June 27, 2008, accessed January 1, 2012.
- Bernhard Parisius : Many looked for their own home. Refugees and displaced persons in western Lower Saxony (Treatises and lectures on the history of East Frisia, Volume 79), Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 2004, ISBN 3-932206-42-8 , pp. 153/155 .
- Bernhard Parisius: Many sought their own home. Refugees and displaced persons in western Lower Saxony (Treatises and lectures on the history of East Frisia, Volume 79), Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 2004, ISBN 3-932206-42-8 , p. 190.
- Bernhard Parisius: Many looked for their own home. Refugees and displaced persons in western Lower Saxony (Treatises and lectures on the history of East Frisia, Volume 79), Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 2004, ISBN 3-932206-42-8 , p. 194.
- Bernhard Parisius: Many looked for their own home. Refugees and displaced persons in western Lower Saxony (Treatises and lectures on the history of East Frisia, Volume 79), Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 2004, ISBN 3-932206-42-8 , p. 47.
- Bernhard Parisius: Many sought their own home. Refugees and displaced persons in western Lower Saxony (Treatises and lectures on the history of East Friesland, Volume 79), Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 2004, ISBN 3-932206-42-8 , p. 78/79 .
- Johann Wilken (local chronicle of the East Frisian landscape): Firrel , PDF file, p. 3.
- Arend Remmers: From Aaltukerei to Zwischenmooren. The settlement names between Dollart and Jade. Verlag Schuster, Leer 2004, ISBN 3-7963-0359-5 , p. 100.
- Menno Smid : Ostfriesische Kirchengeschichte ( Ostfriesland in the protection of the dike , vol. 6). Verlag Deichacht Krummhörn, Pewsum 1974, without ISBN, p. 42. In the following Smid: Ostfriesische Kirchengeschichte .
- Smid: East Frisian Church History . 1974, pp. 97, 192.
- Petra Herterich: Liudgeri Foundation established with 25,000 euros. In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung. December 24, 2008.
- Smid: East Frisian Church History . 1974, p. 554.
- www.selk-hesel.de: Short chronicle of the Kreuzgemeinde Bagband-Hesel , viewed January 30, 2012.
- www.hesel.feg.de (Free Evangelical Congregation Hesel): Homepage , as seen on December 29, 2011.
- Smid: East Frisian Church History . 1974, p. 598.
- Theodor Schmidt: Analysis of the statistics and relevant sources on the federal elections in East Frisia 1949-1972 . Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1978, p. 54, for the following statistical information on the Bundestag elections up to 1972 see the cartographic appendix there.
- Ostfriesen-Zeitung, September 19, 2005, p. 9.
- Klaus von Beyme : The political system of the Federal Republic of Germany: An introduction , VS Verlag, Wiesbaden 2004, ISBN 3-531-33426-3 , p. 100, limited preview in the Google book search, May 22, 2011.
- Wolfgang Malzahn: "So far klamm, now klammer" , Ostfriesen-Zeitung, June 22, 2011, accessed on December 29, 2011.
- www.nds-voris.de (Lower Saxony Regulations Information System): Lower Saxony Municipal Constitutional Law ( NKomVG) in the version of December 17, 2010; Section 46 - Number of MPs , accessed on February 3, 2017.
- www.sghesel.de: Overall results of the 2016 municipal council election (PDF file; 17 kB), accessed on February 3, 2017.
- The CDU gets the most votes nationwide. September 12, 2016. Retrieved February 3, 2017 .
- Joint mayor election 2006 ( memento from January 5, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on November 24, 2011.
- 2006 election results ( memento of September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on January 6, 2012.
- Individual results of the direct elections on May 25, 2014 in Lower Saxony , accessed on November 8, 2014
- District administration Leer: State election 2017 constituency 83 first votes
- Results of the 2017 Bundestag election in the constituency, broken down by cities and municipalities
- Nordwest-Zeitung: Bundestag election: These members represent our region . In: NWZonline . ( nwzonline.de [accessed September 29, 2017]).
- Wolfgang Malzahn: Hartmut Junge criticizes the Hesel community. In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung. July 5, 2011, accessed December 29, 2011.
- Partnership relationships ( Memento from March 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on November 14, 2011.
- Paul Weßels: Holtland, Samtgemeinde Hesel, district of Leer (PDF file; 475 kB), viewed December 29, 2011.
- NOMINE e. V .: Organ in Holtland , seen December 29th 2011.
- Bernhard Berends: Ev.-luth. Andrew's Church in Firrel , seen December 29, 2011.
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- Print Article - East Frisian newspaper. Retrieved January 7, 2020 .
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- Carsten Ammermann: Closure hits Brinkum hard. In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung. October 2, 2008, accessed January 1, 2012.
- Labor market Employment Agency Emden-Leer, December 2015 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , P. 37 (PDF file; 1.4 MB).
- www.arbeitsagentur.de: Commuter statistics. Excel file, lines 2204 ff.
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- Leer ranks eighth with 384,000 tons (survey year: 2006). For comparison: the three highest values were determined in the district of Cuxhaven (564,000 tons), in the district of Unterallgäu (451,000 tons) and in the district of Schleswig-Flensburg (448,000 tons). Source: Lower Saxony State Office for Statistics, quoted in: Ostfriesischer Kurier, August 14, 2008, p. 12.
- Petra Herterich: The falling butter price brings a lot of unrest. In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung. February 5, 2010, accessed January 1, 2012.
- Petra Herterich: The dispute over the chicken coop continues. In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung. January 20, 2010, accessed January 1, 2012.
- Wolfgang Malzahn: Passing through is often "a torture". In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung. June 11, 2011, accessed December 29, 2011.
- Tautz: Steerner Chronicle. 2002, pp. 59-62.
- www.jan-klein.de: regular service , accessed on January 2, 2012.
- www.weser-ems-bus.de: timetable download, accessed on January 1, 2012.
- www.anrufbus-leer.de Rufbus -Leer , accessed on January 2, 2012.
- Hesel Police Station ( Memento from March 31, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on February 2, 2012.
- Wolfgang Malzahn: Drinking water quality is considered "excellent". In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung. July 13, 2011, accessed December 29, 2011.