Kašperské Hory

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Kašperské Hory
Kasperske Hory coat of arms
Kašperské Hory (Czech Republic)
Paris plan pointer b jms.svg
Basic data
State : Czech RepublicCzech Republic Czech Republic
Region : Plzeňský kraj
District : Klatovy
Area : 4412.5655 ha
Geographic location : 49 ° 9 '  N , 13 ° 34'  E Coordinates: 49 ° 8 '38 "  N , 13 ° 33' 34"  E
Height: 758  m nm
Residents : 1,449 (Jan 1, 2019)
Postal code : 341 92
License plate : P
Street: Vimperk - Sušice
Status: city
Districts: 9
Mayor : Petr Málek (as of 2018)
Address: Náměstí 1
341 92 Kašperské Hory
Municipality number: 556432
Website : www.sumavanet.cz/khory
View from Lišák to Kašperské Hory
Church of St. Margarethe
town hall
Market fountain and statue of St. John of Nepomuk
St. Nicholas Church
Chapel of St. Anna
Maria Schnee church

Kašperské Hory (German: Bergreichenstein , formerly Reichenstein ) is a city in the Czech Republic . It is located eleven kilometers south of Sušice and belongs to the Okres Klatovy . Kašperské Hory is the highest Gothic town in Bohemia .


Geographical location

Kašperské Hory is located in the Bohemian Forest on a saddle between the Losenice valleys and their tributaries Zlatý potok and Opolenecký potok ( Oppelitz brook ). The Zámecký vrch ( Castle Hill , 921 m) rises to the northeast, the Ždánov ( Zosumberg , 1064 m) and the Chlum ( Holm , 962 m) to the east, the Suchý vrch (958 m) to the south-east and the Lišák ( Füchselberg , 794 m) to the south m) and the Lídlovský Kopec (834 m), west of the Šibeniční vrch ( Galgenberg , 805 m) and the Vinice (812 m) and northwest the Borovina (729 m). The city is located in the Šumava Protected Landscape Area , with the Kašperská vrchovina Nature Park stretching to the north . To the east of Kašperské Hory lies the Nebe nature reserve, while the Amálino údolí nature reserve extends to the south . State road II / 145 runs through Kašperské Hory between Vimperk and Hartmanice .

Community structure

The town of Kašperské Hory consists of the districts Červená ( Rothsaifen ), Dolní Dvorce ( Unterhöfe ), Kašperské Hory ( Bergreichstein ), Kavrlík ( Gaierle ), Lídlovy Dvory ( Liedlhöfe ), Opolenec ( Oppelitz ), Podlesí ( Vogelsang ), Tuškov ( Duschkovice ) and Žlíbek ( Rindlau ). Basic settlement units are Cikánka, Červená, Dolní Dvorce, Kašperské Hory, Kavrlík, Lídlovy Dvory, Opolenec, Tuškov and Žlíbek. To Kašperské Hory also include Stamp České Domky and Trnové Dvory (Dornhof) and the monolayer Bajerov or Na Šobru ( Bayerhof ) Bilý Potok ( Weißenbacherhof ) Císařský Dvůr ( imperial ), Hutašín ( Hutischin ) Karlina Pila ( Karlsmuhle ) Nový Dvůr ( Neuhof ), Příčná ( beds ), Svatá Anna ( St. Anne ), U Jakubů, U Janoty and V Nebí ( Kingdom of Heaven ).

The municipality is divided into the cadastral districts of Červená u Kašperských Hor, Dolní Dvorce u Kašperských Hor, Kašperské Hory, Kavrlík, Lídlovy Dvory, Opolenec, Tuškov and Žlíbek. The deserted areas of Buzošná ( giant stream ), Flusárna ( river house ), Russen, Stará Huť u Podlesí ( old huts on Vogelsang ) and U Matesa ( Steindl ) are located on the municipal corridors .

Neighboring communities

Neighboring towns are Tuškov, Dolní Dvorce, U Janoty, U Jakubů, Nový Dvůr and Žlíbek in the north, České Domky, Nezdice na Šumavě and Kavrlík in the northeast, Cikánka, Ždánov, Peklo and Řetenice in the east, Nicov , Studenec, and Bajerovená in the southeast , Hutašín, Lídlovy Dvory, Císařský Dvůr and Podlesí in the south, Malý Kozí Hřbet, Velký Kozí Hřbet and Svojše in the south-west, Rejštejn and Klášterský Mlýn in the west and Radešov and Opolenec in the north-west.


Reichenstein was founded in the 13th century as a settlement for miners after gold deposits had been discovered in the area. The first written mention comes from the year 1337. At this time the gold mining was already in full bloom. According to Kaspar Maria von Sternberg , over 300 quick and gold mills are said to have been in operation; The rich mountain settlement is said to have supported King John of Luxembourg with 600 men in a campaign against the Landshut fortress . In 1345 Johann von Luxemburg elevated the settlement to a mountain town and granted it duty and toll exemption as well as a coat of arms showing an arm with a hammer and two mountain irons; today this forms the coat of arms of Rejštejn . Even before 1345 the mountain settlement was owned by the villages of Haidl ( Zhůří ) and Innergefild and held shares in Nezditz , Ostružno , Pohorsko and Mitsch ( Damíč ).

Between 1360 and 1365 Charles IV had the royal castle Karlsberg built north of the town and in 1366 the Goldener Steig took a new route via Reichenstein to Passau and the Salzkammergut . From Karlsberg and the associated rule, the Czech place name Karlspersky Hory developed into today's Kašperské Hory through corruption .

In the 15th century, 40 mines were in operation, and mining continued to take place only at a shallow depth. King Maximilian II in 1572 gave the town of Bergreichenstein its own coat of arms. In 1580 the town bought the village of Schröbersdorf ( Radešov ) including the mill and inn for 1450 Schock Meissen Groschen from Albrecht von Seeberg. In 1584 King Rudolf II raised Bergreichenstein and Unterreichenstein to royal mining towns and sold the rule of Karlsberg to the town of Bergreichenstein for 4450 shock Bohemian groschen, but he kept Karlsberg Castle as property. With this purchase, the rule of Karlsberg expired, but the name was still used for the rule of Bergreichenstein until the 18th century. From King Matthias II , the town of Bergreichenstein finally acquired Karlsberg Castle, including the village of Gayerle ( Kavrlík ) and four desolate courtyards, for 4,200 shock Meißnian groschen in 1617 . In the 17th century an increasing exhaustion of the near-surface gold deposits became noticeable; mining came to a complete standstill due to the Thirty Years' War. This led to the decline of the city, in which only about 100 people lived in 1654. New sources of income were found in wood processing, in the trade in glass, wood and paper, but also through cattle breeding. Gold mining was later resumed by the kk Aerar, but remained unprofitable. In 1805 the last bear was shot in the castle grounds.

In 1838 the royal mountain town and Dominium Bergreichenstein comprised a usable area of ​​16912 yoke 430 square fathoms ; Of this, 11491 Joch 624 square fathoms were accounted for by the town of Bergreichenstein and 5420 Joch 1406 square fathoms by the Reichensteiner villages. The forest holdings contained therein totaling 8763 yoke 658 square fathoms were cultivated in four forest districts; part of the felled wood was contractually handed over to the princely Schwarzenberg floodplain for shipping to Prague . On the territory of the town of Bergreichenstein, the villages of Gayerle, Rindlau ( Žlíbek ), Duschowitz ( Tuškov ), Unterhöfe ( Dolní Dvorce ), Oppellitz ( Opolenec ), Pilsenhof ( Plzenec ), Liedlhöfe ( Lídlovy Dvory ), Vogelsang ( Podlesí ), Rothseifen ( Červená ), Nitzau , Jettenitz , Millau , Brunn- und Stüberhäuser , Reckerberg , Goldbrunn , Innergefield , Haidl, Zwoischen ( Svojše ), Groß-Ziegenruck ( Velký Kozí Hřbet ), Klein-Ziegenruck ( Malý Kozí Hřbet ) and Schröbersdorf as well as 26 Houses from Nezditz, eight houses from Ostružno and seven houses each from Pohorsko and Mitsch included, 4593 mostly German-speaking people lived. Of the six Meierhöfen , four (Dornhof, Neuhof, Kaiserhof, Buchingenhof) were emphyteutized and the other two (Haidlerhaus, Neuhaus) were leased. The largest companies on the Dominium were two glassworks with a total of 106 employees and the paper mill at Liedlhöfen with 14 employees. The two non-submissive fiscal free farms Höllhof ( Peklo ) and Bayerhof ( Bajerov ) were on the estate . The royal gold mining town Bergreichenstein or Kassperské Hory consisted of 199 houses with 1752 inhabitants. It was administered by a magistrate consisting of the mayor, a council and secretaries. The church of St. Margaretha and a three-class school with a female industrial class were under the patronage of the city. In addition, there was a town hall in Bergreichenstein, a municipal brewery with brewing rights divided among 123 citizens and a kk shift office . To the west of the city was the old church of St. Nicholas, surrounded by a cemetery and three chapels. To the south, on the Zollerbach , were the Häuselmühle and Mittermühle, both of which belonged to the city, as well as a hammer forge and to the east of it two glass grinding shops. A kk gold mine with almost 30 miners was operated near the city. The inhabitants of the city lived from farming and raising livestock; there were also 80 businesses. Four annual markets were held in Bergreichenstein, but they were of no great importance. The dean church of St. Margaretha was the parish church of the city and the villages of Gayerle, Rindlau, Duschowitz, Unterhöfen, Oppellitz, Liedlhöfen, Vogelsang, Rothseifen, Zosum , Höllhof and the houses of Pilsenhof to the right of Losnitz. Until the middle of the 19th century, the town of Bergreichenstein was the seat and official seat of the Dominium Bergreichenstein.

After the abolition of patrimonial Bergreichenstein / Kašperské Hory formed a municipality in the judicial district Bergreichenstein from 1850. The city became the seat of a district court. The match industry found its way into the second half of the 19th century. From 1868, Bergreichenstein belonged to the Schüttenhofen district . In 1878 a technical school for wood processing was opened in the city. In the same year, the carpenter and businessman Franz Watzlawick acquired a wood turning shop in the lower Losnitz valley on the land border with Unterreichenstein , which he initially expanded under the name First Austro-Hungarian stroller wheel factory Franz Watzlawick and later renamed Bohemia Werke Bergreichenstein. In 1890 Bergreichenstein had 2,425 inhabitants, of which 93 were Czechs and in 1930 2,289 inhabitants, of which 186 were Czechs. The Bohemia works were during the Great Depression to one of the largest wood processing companies in Sumava consolidate and acquisitions still employees of the defunct glassworks in Klostermühle; the multiple efforts to establish a railway connection were unsuccessful. In the 1930s the company, which also had a sawmill in Ferchenhaid , had 230–250 employees. On Christmas Eve 1937, when the weather was bad on Knappenberg ( Huťská hora ) near Vogelsang, Air France's Wibault-Penhoet 282 F - AMYD on the flight from Bucharest via Vienna and Prague to Paris crashed, with the two crew members and the only passenger, the lawyer Karel Flanderka, died. This plane crash during the Sudeten crisis sparked public speculation in Czechoslovakia about sabotage on the part of the German Reich, since Flanderka was on the way to his brother Otakar, who was living in Paris and the chairman of the Czechoslovak colony abroad in France; however, it turned out to be an accident. After the Munich Agreement , Bergreichenstein was added to the German Empire and made a district town. At the same time, the district of Zosum was separated from Nezditz and incorporated into the city. From 1939 to 1945 the city was the seat of the Bavarian district of Bergreichenstein . In 1939 there were 2635 people living in Bergreichenstein with Zosum. During the Second World War, a large part of the workforce at Bohemia Werke was drafted into the Wehrmacht . The production switched to ammunition boxes was only maintained through the use of prisoners of war and forced labor.

After the Second World War , the city was assigned to Czechoslovakia, both the status as a district seat and the incorporation of Ždánov were lifted. The Bohemia Werke, which at that time only had 37 employees, were nationalized. Most of the German-speaking residents of Bergreichenstein were expelled . Her property confiscated by Beneš Decree No. 108 and expropriated the Catholic city churches in Czechoslovakia . The state administrator of the Bohemia Werke tried to delay this and to keep the specialists, because he feared that the new settlers would not do justice to the difficult working conditions and the situation as commuters . Eventually the production of baby carriages was stopped and the factory was converted into an assembly workshop for kitchen furniture; Later it was used as a factory by the Solo company . 1947 Kavrlík and Žlíbek were incorporated. In 1950 the city had 1539 inhabitants, in the course of the abolition of the Okres Sušice, Kašperské Hory was assigned to the Okres Klatovy in 1960. In 1960, the Geophysical Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences set up a seismological station in the former Mlýn Na rybníce ( pond mill ) on Zlatý potok ; between 1964 and 1989 the station with the international identifier KHC registered the most seismic events worldwide. In 1961 Červená (with Lídlovy Dvory and Podlesí ) and Tuškov (with Dolní Dvorce and Opolenec ) were incorporated. At the end of the 1980s, Solo gave up the factory at Kašperské Hory. In 1990 Kašperské Hory lived 1528 people.

Population development

Total population
year German Czechs Other
1890 2,425 2,332 93 0
1900 2,221 2,081 124 0
1930 2,289 2,103 186 0
1939 2,635 - - -
1950 1,539 - - -
1990 1,528 - - -

Town twinning

Due to the historical relationship across the Goldener Steig , there has been a town partnership with Grafenau in the Bavarian Forest since 1991 .

Culture and sights



  • Dean church of St. Margaretha , it was built in the second half of the 14th century and has been documented as the parish church of St. Leonhard since 1396. The elevation to the deanery took place in 1796. In 1883 it was rebuilt in a neo-Gothic style and received a new tower.
  • Mountain Church of St. Nicholas , northwest of the town in Svatá Anna . The three-aisled building was built at the beginning of the 14th century and was the city's first parish church.
  • Burial chapel of St. Anne in Svatá Anna. It was probably built together with the St. Nicholas Church and was redesigned in baroque style in 1757.
  • Pilgrimage Church of Maria Schnee on the southern outskirts of the city, the neo-Romanesque building was built between 1850 and 1867 according to plans by the local master mason Johann Buchinger.
  • Statue of Saint John of Nepomuk in the market
  • Town hall, on the market. The former Freihaus of Karlsberg Castle was transferred to the city in 1551 by the widow of Georg von Loxan, who had received it as a gift from King Ferdinand I in 1539 . The Renaissance building has served as the town hall since 1597. The stucco facade was created during the last renovation in the 1770s and is attributed to the master builder Philipp Heger. Between 1850 and 1938, the council was also the seat of the district court.
  • Dean's office building on the market
  • Former gold smelter, archaeological site
  • Kašperk ( Karlsberg ) vrch on the Zámecký, north of the city
  • Castle ruins Pustý Hrádek ( Oedschlössel ) vrch on the Zámecký, north of the city
  • Stone pillory from 1630, west of the town at the foot of the Šibeniční vrch

Regular events

The historic city festival is held every two years at the beginning of September.


The place of the event is the city in the novels and stories of the writer Karel Klostermann , whose father worked in Bergreichenstein as a doctor and mayor. The family of the communication researcher Paul Watzlawick comes from Bergreichenstein on his father's side, the scientist's grandfather, the entrepreneur Franz Watzlawick, was mayor of the city at the end of the 19th century.

sons and daughters of the town


Web links

Commons : Kašperské Hory  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. http://www.uir.cz/obec/556432/Kasperske-Hory
  2. Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
  3. http://www.uir.cz/casti-obce-obec/556432/Obec-Kasperske-Hory
  4. http://www.uir.cz/zsj-obec/556432/Obec-Kasperske-Hory
  5. http://www.uir.cz/katastralni-uzemi-obec/556432/Obec-Kasperske-Hory
  6. Kaspar Sternberg : Outlines of a History of the Bohemian Mines. Volume 1, Department 1. Haase Sons, Prague 1836, p. 250 .
  7. Johann Gottfried Sommer: The Kingdom of Bohemia: represented statistically and topographically . JG Calve, 1840 ( google.de [accessed January 6, 2018]).
  8. Johann Gottfried Sommer : The Kingdom of Bohemia. Volume 8: Prachiner Circle. Calve, Prague 1840, pp. 264-272 .
  9. Vánoční let za smrti
  10. ^ Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Landkreis Bergreichen (Czech. Kasperské Hory). (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  11. ^ Alfred Schickel : The expulsion of the Germans. History, background, reviews. 2nd, expanded edition. MUT, Asendorf 1987, ISBN 3-89182-014-3 .
  12. Pul století seismické stanice v Kašperských Horách
  13. Vánoční let za smrti. Retrieved July 20, 2016 .
  14. ^ Rudolf Hemmerle : Sudetenland Lexicon. For everyone who loves the Sudetenland (=  German Landscapes in Lexicon . Volume 4 ). 2nd, expanded edition. Adam Kraft, Mannheim 1985, ISBN 3-8083-1163-0 , pp. 144 .
  15. ^ German administrative history. Retrieved July 20, 2016 .
  16. Pul století seismické stanice v Kašperských Horách. Retrieved July 20, 2016 .
  17. not assigned, according to the Wikipedia article "Kasperske Hory" and its author taken from the history section
  18. Arciděkanský kostel sv. Markéty
  19. ^ Kostel sv. Mikuláše v Kašperských Horách
  20. ^ Poutní kostel Panny Marie Sněžné v Kašperských Horách
  21. ^ Radnice v Kašperských Horách
  22. Kamenný pranýř v Kašperských Horách
  23. Šumavské Kašperské Hory aneb 100 let republiky na Šumavě
  24. Andrea Köhler-Ludescher: Paul Watzlawick - the biography. The discovery of the present moment. Huber, Bern 2014, ISBN 978-3-456-85412-0 , p. 20.