List of Graecisms
This is a list of German words borrowed from the Greek ( Graecisms ). Completeness is not sought, the claim would also be unrealistic: The German language has adopted so many loan and foreign words from Greek - mostly the ancient Greek language - that it is impossible to make a list that is even halfway complete.
In addition to traditions since ancient philosophy (including their natural-looking expressions) and words of Christian origin, there are many educational neologisms that were only formed in modern languages on the basis of Greek words or morphemes - especially in the sciences, which are mostly through Differentiation developed from philosophy and whose names themselves are predominantly of Greek origin. Many Graecisms also reached the German language via ancient Latin , which usually means that the basic word is still of Greek origin, but the spelling has been Latinized (example: " Stadium ", from Greek στάδιον stádion to Latin stadium ; for the Graecism of the same origin without the Latin stopover, see " Stadium ").
Many more words can be found in the very extensive list of Greek word stems in German foreign words .
Abaton - Aeon - Aerodynamics - Aesthetics - Ether - Agnosticism - Agony - Agonist - Air - Academy - Meticulousness - Acrobatics - Acronym - Acoustics - Allegory - Alphabet - Amphibian - Anemia - Anesthesia - Anagram - Analogy - Illiteracy - Analysis - Anarchy - Anatolia - Anatomy - androgyn - story - anion - anode - anomaly - anonymity - anorexia - antagonist - Antarctica - anthropology - anti Christ - antipathy - antonym - aorta - apathy - aplasia - apodictically - Revelation - Apokryphen - apology - Aporie - Apostasie - Acts - apostrophe - Pharmacy - apse - arachnophobia - archeology - archeopteryx - architecture - archive - aristocracy - arithmetic - arctic - doctor - asbestos - asceticism - asphalt - astigmatism - astrology - astronaut - astronomy - asylum - asymmetry - atheism - athlete - atlas - atmosphere - atom - Autarky - autism - auto - autobiography - autochthonous - autodidact - autognosy - autocrat - automatism - automatism - autonomy - autopsy - axiom
Bacteria - ballistics - bar - barbarian - baritone - barometer - basilica - base - Bible - library - biography - biology - biotope - bishop - blasphemy - botany - bronchial system - bronchitis - butter
Demon - Deka - Decade - Delta - Demagogy - Democracy - Demoscopy - Dermatology - Despot - Dia - Diabetes - Diadoche - Diet - Diagnosis - Diagonal - Deacon - Dialect - Dialectic - Dialogue - Diamond - Diaphragm - Diarrhea - Diaspora - Didactics - Dilemma - Dinosaur - Diode - Diphthong - Diptych - Discotheque - Discography - Discus - Dogma - Drama - Dynamics - Dynamite - Dynamo - Dynasty - Dysgraphy - Dyslexia - Dysmorphia - Dyspnea - Dystopia
Egoist - Ekklesia - eclampsia - eclecticism - Eclipse - ecstasy - Elephant - electron - Ellipse - empathy - empiricism - endemic - energy - Enigma - enthusiasm - Encyclopedia - epidemic - Epigone - epigram - epigraphy - Epilepsy - Epitaph - epithet - era - eponym - Epic - Hermit - Ergonomics - Erotic - Archbishop - Esoteric - Ethics - Ethnology - Ethnos - Etymology - Eunuch - Euphemism - Euphoria - Euthanasia - Evangelical - Gospel - Exodus - Exophthalmus - Exorcism
Galaxy - gastronomy - gene - genealogy - genesis - genetics - geography - geology - geometry - glossary - glossary - glyptotheque - grammar - grammatology - gramophone - graphics - graphology - high school - gynecology - gyros
Hagiography - halo - hematoma - haptics - harmony - hedonism - hectic rush - helicopter - hemisphere - hermeneutics - heroic - hieroglyphics - hippodrome - history - holocaust - holography - homonym - horizon - hormone - horoscope - hybrid - hydrant - hydrology - hygiene - hygroscopy - Hypnosis - Hypnotherapy - Mortgage - Hypothesis - Hysteria
Cacophony - calligraphy - canon - cardiology - cardiogram - cartography - catalog - catalyst - catapult - catarrh - catastrophe - catechism - category - cathode - catholic - cation - cenotaph - ceramic - kilometer - kinetics - cinema - kleptomania - climate - climax - clinic - Coma - comet - comedy - luminary - cosmetics - cosmonaut - cosmos - crater - crisis - criterion - criticism - cryonics - crypt - cryptography - cybernetics
Magma - Martyr - Mania - Mass - Mathematics - Mechanics - Megalith - Megaphone - Melancholy - Mesopotamia - Metal - Metamorphosis - Metaphor - Meteorite - Meteorology - Meter - Method - Metropolis - Microphone - Microscope - Microtome - Mimic - Mimosa - Misanthropy - Monarchy - Monogamy - Monogram - Monolith - Monologue - Monopoly - Monopteros - Morphology - Museum - Music - Myriad - Mystery - Myth
Odyssey - Ecology - Economy - Oligarchy - Olympics - Olympics - Omega - Oncology - Optics - Orchestra - Orchid - Organ - Organization - Organism - Orgasm - Orgy - Orthodoxy - Orthography - Orthopedics - Ocean
Pedagogy - paleontology - palindrome - pandemic - panic - panorama - pantomime - paper - parable - paradigm - paradox - paragraph - parallel - paralogy - parameter - parenthesis - parody - pathology - pathos - patriarch - patriot - patriotism - pause - pentagon - pentagram - Period - Periphery - Peristalsis - Phenomenon - Phalanx - Fantasy - Phantom - Pharmacy - Phase - Philanthropy - Philosophy - Phlegmatic - Phobia - Phonetics - Phonon - Photon - Photosynthesis - Phrase - Physics - Physiognomy - Pinakothek - Planet - Plasma - Plastic - Plectrum - Plutocracy - Pneu - Poetry - Pol - Polemics - Polyclinic - Poliomyelitis - Politics - Police - Polyandry - Polygamy - Polyglossy - Polygon - Polygyny - Polymer - Polymorphism - Polynomial - Pornography - Pragmatics - Pragmatism - Practice - Prism - Problem - Prediction - Program - Propaedeutics - Prophet - Prophecy - Prophylaxis - Propylaea - Protagonist - Protein - Proton - Prototype - Psalm - Pseudonym - Psychiatry - Psycholo gie - psychosomatic - pyramid - pyrolysis - pyromania - pyrotechnics
Sardonism - coffin - sarcasm - sarcophagus - dinosaur - scheme - schism - semaphore - scandal - skepticism - somatic - sphere - sporadic - stadium - statics - stigma - strategy - stanza - symbiosis - symbol - symmetry - sympathy - symphony - symposium - symptom - Synesthesia - synagogue - synchronization - syndrome - synergy - synonym - synopsis - synthesis - system - scene
Tachometer - Tachymeter - Tactics - Tautology - Technology - Technocracy - Technology - Tectonics - Telephone - Telescope - Theater - Counter - Topic - Theology - Theory - Therapy - Thermometer - Thermostat - Thesis - Throne - Topology - Tragedy - Trapezoid - Trauma - Trema - Trigonometry - Triptych - Tropics - Type - Typology - Tyrant
Many more examples can be found in the lists of the very productive formations with "-graphy / -graphy" - see in -graphy - and "-logie" - see in -logie ; to a lesser extent also “-philie” , see in -philie . However, mixed forms of Graecisms and Latinisms are also listed on the pages .
The range of borrowings can be illustrated very well with the verb ἄρχειν archein “to be the first, to lead” and its derivatives ἀρχαῖος archaios “[primordial], [primeval] old” and ἀρχή archē “beginning, origin; Rule, leadership "(and its derivation ἀρχι- archi- " leading, leading, supreme, superior "):
|anarchy||ἄναρχος anarchos||The introductory A (n) is an alpha privativum and turns domination into non-domination.|
|anarchism||ἀναρχία anarchia||Doctrine of ideas, state of anarchy|
|archaic||ἀρχαϊκός archaicus||Originally "ancient" in the narrow sense of "coming from antiquity", derived from it often in the broad sense of "apparently from antiquity and therefore out of date".|
|archaism||Noun to "archaic"; Meaning in lexicology : “Word that is felt by the majority of speakers in a language community to be old-fashioned”; Meaning in psychology : "Psychological perspective directed towards the beginnings of developmental history".|
|archeology||ἀρχαιολογία Archaiologia||Literally “doctrine of the old”, whereby “the old” means the “old time”.|
|Archeopteryx||ἀρχαιόπτερυξ archaiopteryx||Literally "ancient wing" or "primordial wing" ( πτέρυξ pteryx "wing, spring, wing"); a genus of archosaurs , commonly referred to as primitive birds .|
|Archetype||ἀρχέτυπος archetypos||An archetype is a type that was first coined.|
|Archimandrite||ἀρχιμανδρίτης archimandritēs||Head of a monastery in the Orthodox churches , in the ancient Oriental churches and in the Eastern Catholic churches , comparable to the abbot of a Roman Catholic monastery ( μάνδρα mandra "closed space", here: "monastery").|
|architect||ἀρχιτέκτων architectōn||Architect, the chief builder ( τέκτων tektōn "carpenter").|
|archive||ἀρχείον archeion||An archeion was originally the "official building". In the Latin borrowing from archivum , however , the meaning was later narrowed down to "storage location for official documents".|
|doctor||ἀρχίατρος archiatros||Doctor is an abbreviation of ἀρχί- archi- and ἰατρός iatros "healing, doctor", so initially only meant "senior doctor" (compare also psychiatrist : "soul doctor").|
|archbishop||ἀρχιεπίσκοπος archiepiskopos||The German prefix Erz- does not always have to do with metal. In a few words it stands for the Greek archi- . Bishop comes from the Greek ἐπίσκοπος episkopos (compare episkop ) and means "overseer". Archiepiskopos is therefore the "supervisor".|
|archangel||ἀρχάγγελος archangelos||Same prefix as for Archbishop , supplemented by the word ἄγγελος angelos ("messenger"; compare also the first name Angelika ). The three archangels named in the Bible are Michael , Gabriel and Raphael .|
|hierarchy||ἱεραρχία hierarchia||Just as hieroglyphs are the "holy signs", so the hierarchy is "holy rule".|
|Menarche||μηναρχή menarchḗ||The first occurrence of the menstrual period ( μήν mḗn "month").|
|monarchy||μοναρχία monarchia||A monk is someone who should actually live alone ( μοναχός monachos ), a monarch is someone who wants to rule “alone” ( μόνος monos ).|
|oligarchy||ὀλιγαρχία oligarchia||An oligarchy is the rule of the “few” ( ὀλίγοι oligoi ).|
|Patriarchy||πατριαρχία patriarchia||Literally "paternal rule"; Analogy formation from the 19th century: matriarchy (with Latin māter "mother"); Formation of analogy from the late 20th century: Kyriarchat (with Greek κύριος kyrios "Lord, master").|
|Synarchy||συναρχία synarchia||Several people exercise "together" ( σύν syn ) rulership.|
Further formations with “-archy” can be found in the list of forms of rule . It also contains many terms with the Greek root word “-kratie” .
- Karl-Heinz Best : Where do the German foreign words come from? In: Göttinger Contributions to Linguistics 5, 2001, 7–20.
- Helle Körner: On the development of the German (loan) vocabulary. In: Glottometrics Issue 7, 2004, online version , PDF , 3.6 MB). , 25-49 (
- Bernhard Kytzler , Lutz Redemund, Nikolaus Eberl: Our daily Greek: Lexicon of the Greek language heritage . Zabern , Mainz 2007 3 , ISBN 978-3-8053-2816-6 .
- Thomas Meyer, Hermann Steinthal: Basic and advanced vocabulary Greek . Klett, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-12-663210-6 .
- Katharina Ternes: Developments in German vocabulary. In: Glottometrics , Issue 21, 2011, online version , PDF , 2 MB). , pp. 25-53 (
- Harald Wiese: A journey through time to the origins of our language. How Indo-European Studies explains our words. Logos, Berlin 2007, 2010 2 , ISBN 978-3-8325-1601-7 .