Today's Franco-German relations are the result of the reconciliation between Germany and France after the Second World War . In the previous centuries there were several (sometimes decades) phases in which these relationships were hidden or openly hostile. In view of this past, the term “ Franco-German hereditary enmity ” was and is often used.
It was marked by revolutionary unrest ( 1830 , 1848 ), by the question of German unification , the incorporation of Alsace-Lorraine into the first German nation-state founded in 1871, and phases of fierce competition for hegemony in continental Europe during the period of the war in 1870/71 about the First to the Second World War . Only after this last devastating war could the “hereditary enmity” be overcome. It gave way to Franco-German friendship and European integration , which should make a new war unnecessary and impossible. To this day, the European core states France and Germany are among the most committed supporters of further EU integration, which is why they are sometimes referred to as the “Franco-German engine”.
The areas of both today's states were part of the Frankish Empire of Charlemagne in the 9th century . After the later division, its eastern part ( Eastern Franconia ) became the medieval German Empire ( Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation ) and the western part became France. The middle kingdom of Lothar I , the origin of what later became Lorraine, was still divided among the other two kingdoms in the 9th century. The dispute between the Holy Roman Empire and France over parts of the Middle Kingdom continued as so-called Franco-German hereditary enmity into the 20th century. The Habsburg-French conflict repeatedly led to conflicts and armed conflicts, for example in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648), the Palatinate War of Succession (1688-1697), the Spanish War of Succession (1701-1703) and the first two Silesian Wars (1740 -1745). After the end of this antagonism, it was continued as the Franco-Prussian antagonism since the Seven Years' War .
At the time of absolutism from the second half of the 17th century, the “Sun King” Louis XIV pursued an expansive foreign policy. French troops conquered parts of the Holy Roman Empire , especially in Alsace and Lorraine, which changed affiliations several times in the following centuries. Most of this area was gradually annexed as part of the reunification policy . Strasbourg was occupied by the troops of Louis XIV in 1681. Despite these hostile actions towards the German states, the leading French culture in Europe at the time also had an enormous influence on the neighboring German culture. The German princely courts were based on the French model of Versailles .
After Louis XIV had expelled the Protestant Huguenots from the country with the Edict of Fontainebleau , tens of thousands found refuge in German territories, for example Brandenburg or Hesse-Kassel , and became an important social and economic factor in these areas. Only the newly acquired territories in Alsace, where the Protestant Church remained widespread, were excluded from the rigorous designation.
In 1789 the French Revolution began , which also had a significant impact on the German states. As early as 1792, Prussia and Austria formed a coalition against revolutionary France to defend the monarchy ( Pillnitzer Declaration ). The declaration of war, however, came from France. In 1794 French troops occupied the left bank of the Rhine (" French period "). After France emerged successfully from this First Coalition War , the areas on the left bank of the Rhine were finally annexed by the Peace of Campo Formio in 1797. This annexation was confirmed with the Peace of Lunéville in 1801 after the Second Coalition War . Napoleon , who ruled since 1799, however, compensated by the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss circuit 1803, the prince, who had lost the peace provisions areas, with spiritual areas that now secularized ( secularization ) were. Furthermore, numerous imperial estates directly under the Empire , i.e. H. Areas that were directly subordinate to the emperor , including almost all imperial cities , were mediatized and thus added to the areas of other princes ( mediatization ). In this way so-called medium - sized states such as Bavaria, Baden and Württemberg came into being and the “patchwork quilt” of the Holy Roman Empire was brought into order.
In 1806, on the initiative of Napoleon, the Confederation of the Rhine was founded: 16 southern and central German states united under the protection of France and left the Holy Roman Empire, which thus came to an end; accordingly, Emperor Franz II laid down the crown. Some territories emerged as vassal states such as the Grand Duchy of Berg or the Kingdom of Westphalia . In 1810 Napoleon incorporated a large part of northwest Germany into the French Empire .
In addition to territorial changes, the upheavals of these years also had lasting effects on the legal system, administration and the mentality of the Germans. “New ideas” entered the public consciousness. In 1794, with the proclamation of the Republic of Mainz , it became the first republic on German soil, even though it was not permanent. Some German princes, who feared leaping the revolutionary spark, reacted with fundamental reforms of their own state system and a change in the exercise of rule in the direction of a constitutional monarchy . In the German areas under French rule and the French vassal states, the Civil Code was introduced from 1806 . After the defeat in the Fourth Coalition War and great losses in the Peace of Tilsit in 1807, Prussia reacted with far-reaching reforms that also included ideas from the French Revolution in its core areas of peasant liberation, industrial reform , emancipation of Jews and educational reform.
In 1812 Napoleon started a campaign in Russia . For his 500,000-strong Grande Armée, troops were gathered from all states occupied and controlled by France. The result of the campaign, however, was devastating: Although France won a victory, only a few thousand soldiers returned after hunger and cold had killed large parts of the army. Under the impression of these losses and the Napoleonic rule, a German national consciousness and a feeling of belonging among the Germans increasingly developed . The result was the Wars of Liberation , which ended Napoleon's rule over large parts of Europe. At the beginning of 1813 Prussia became the first German country to terminate its alliance with France and allied itself with Russia and Sweden. In the summer, Austria joined this alliance, which Napoleon's army decisively defeated in the Battle of Leipzig from October 16 to 19, 1813 . Saxony also switched sides during the battle. After the Allied invasion of France, Napoleon felt compelled in March 1814 to abdicate and go into exile on the island of Elba . After his return and the rule of 100 days , he was finally defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815 and banished to the island of St. Helena in the Atlantic.
Meanwhile, at the Congress of Vienna , the winners began to reorganize Europe. Tsar Alexander I , Emperor Franz I of Austria and King Friedrich Wilhelm III. of Prussia formed an alliance between Russia, Austria and Prussia ( Holy Alliance ) with the aim of guaranteeing this new order. In France, which received the borders of 1792, returned with Louis XVIII. the Bourbons returned to the throne.
The July Revolution of 1830 and the February Revolution of 1848 resulted in considerable political upheavals in Germany, as in the rest of Europe, which strengthened liberal forces in the long term. After 1830, numerous Germans were also attracted to the liberal intellectual climate of France, such as Heinrich Heine and Ludwig Börne . After the fall of the last Bourbon in 1848, Louis Napoléon was elected President of the Second Republic , but in 1852 he became Emperor Napoleon III. appointed ( Second Empire 1852–1870). The relationship between Prussia and France deteriorated during the time of the German unification. The question of the Spanish succession sparked a conflict that led to the French declaration of war in 1870. After the defeat in the Battle of Sedan during the Franco-German War (1870/71) Napoleon III. deposed and made way for the Third Republic . In the Peace of Frankfurt , Alsace-Lorraine was ceded to Germany against the overwhelming will of the population, which was the only area that was not a federal state of the German Empire, but was administered by a governor appointed by the Kaiser . The latent resistance of the population was intensified by events such as the Zabern affair in 1913.
After this war, revanchism spread in France against the victors, who in January 1871 in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles demonstratively proclaimed the Prussian King Wilhelm I as German Emperor, which was regarded by the defeated as a deep disgrace. The goal of the new Chancellor Otto von Bismarck was to isolate France in terms of foreign policy in order to prevent another war against Germany. Until his dismissal by the new Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1890, Bismarck's alliance policy was successful. The foreign policy of Wilhelm II, however, led to the formation of two new power blocs: on the one hand the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, on the other hand the Triple Entente of France, Great Britain and Russia. This constellation led to the First World War (1914–1918). German and French troops fought bitterly; on the western front there were millions of dead on both sides in a four-year trench war . The Battle of Verdun in 1916 in particular became a symbol of the horrors of war.
After the end of World War I when Germany surrendered on November 11, 1918, the victorious powers negotiated the Treaty of Versailles . France in particular was interested in imposing the hardest possible peace on Germany and weakening it in such a way that the Germans could never again pose a threat. Germany itself was not involved in the negotiations. The content of the contract included a. the return of Alsace-Lorraine to France and the obligation to pay reparations. When this did not take place on time in 1923, French and Belgian troops took this as an opportunity to occupy the Ruhr .
Under the era of Foreign Minister Gustav Stresemann , the Franco-German relationship relaxed noticeably. In the Locarno Treaties in 1925, he and his French counterpart Aristide Briand agreed on the recognition of the Franco-German border, as laid down in the Treaty of Versailles. Both politicians were then awarded the Nobel Peace Prize . A Franco-German study committee , mainly from business circles , endeavored to improve relationships, also in the cultural field through intellectual exchange.
In the Versailles Treaty, the Saar area was separated from the German Empire against the will of the population and placed under the administration of the League of Nations for 15 years . In 1935, a large majority of the population decided to return to the German Reich, despite the Nazi dictatorship that began in 1933. After Hitler came to power, the relationship deteriorated again. In 1938 France was one of the signatory powers of the Munich Agreement , which enabled Hitler to separate the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia .
After Nazi Germany started World War II with a blitzkrieg against Poland on September 1, 1939, France, allied with Poland, declared war on the German Reich, but initially avoided all hostilities. Hitler achieved an unexpectedly quick victory over France in the western campaign (May 10 to June 22, 1940); the border security ( Maginot Line ), which was elaborately designed in the interwar period, had proven ineffective. The German Empire occupied northern France and the Atlantic coast. In the southern part of France, which was not occupied until 1942, the Vichy regime , collaborating with the Reich, established itself , while Charles de Gaulle formed a government in exile in Great Britain. The Resistance emerged as a reaction to the occupation . With the landing of Allied troops in Normandy in June 1944, France became a major combat zone in World War II.
After the capitulation of the German Reich in May 1945, there were initially three zones of occupation ; According to the Berlin Declaration of June 5, 1945, the French occupation zone was formed as the fourth from areas of the British and American occupation zones . In 1946 the Saarland was separated from this as a French protectorate with its own citizenship. After a referendum, Saarland joined the Federal Republic of Germany on January 1, 1957. The 448 km long common border between Germany and France remained unchanged after the Second World War.
Germany and France are the two EU states that have often been referred to in the media as the “engine” of European unification . Statesmen from both countries have in some cases presented far-reaching ideas for European unification. Since Jean Monnet and Robert Schuman 's Declaration of Europe on May 9, 1950, France and Germany have been the driving forces behind European integration. Cities, including Brussels , Luxembourg and Strasbourg , that are close to the Franco-Germanic linguistic border were selected as locations to house the most important European institutions .
When, after the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany, it was expected to make a contribution to defense policy, Adenauer only wanted to create armed forces on the condition that they were not under the sole national German control. At the suggestion of the French Prime Minister, the European Defense Community (EVG) was founded in 1952 , in which there would have been a European army with a German contingent. After the German Bundestag and other states had ratified the treaty, it ultimately failed at the French National Assembly. The result was the establishment of a purely German Bundeswehr and the accession of the Federal Republic to NATO in 1955.
Due to the strong position of the French President in the Fifth Republic since 1958, in particular his competence in guiding foreign policy, he is the German Chancellor's natural political partner. Since the beginning of the Franco-German cooperation, “pairs” have been formed from the heads of state or government of the two countries, some of whom have achieved great progress for Europe and for Franco-German relations. Together with Italy and the Benelux countries, Germany and France founded the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC or Mining Union) in 1952 .
Further steps towards integration are largely based on Franco-German initiatives.
After the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany, Chancellor Konrad Adenauer embarked on a clear course of integration with the West and endeavored to draw closer to France. Its aim was to rehabilitate Germany and regain sovereignty. Confidence-building measures such as the establishment of the ECSC and the EEC also served this purpose . In close collaboration with the French President Charles de Gaulle , relations between the two countries improved noticeably and finally led to the Élysée Treaty of January 22, 1963, which institutionalized the good relations and "friendship" between Germany and France. The political structure of the treaty provides for regular consultations with the German and French governments. De Gaulle saw Germany as a means to an end to create a united Europe under French leadership and to reduce the influence of the USA in Europe. The office of authorized representative for Franco-German cultural relations was created.
Since the contacts between Chancellor Ludwig Erhard (1963–1966) and President de Gaulle (1958–1969) and between Chancellor Willy Brandt (1969–1974) and President Georges Pompidou (1969–1974) remained rather frosty, the cooperation was mainly limited on school policy measures. The reason for this reluctance was, on the one hand, Germany's economic strength and, on the other, Willy Brandt's new Ostpolitik . On the French side, people feared the new self-confidence and were worried about “German imponderables”.
With the inauguration of Helmut Schmidt (1974–1982) and Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (1974–1981) in 1974, Franco-German relations became more cordial and productive again: together, the two stimulated the formation of the European monetary system and the direct election of the European one Parliament 1979.
It was similar with Helmut Kohl (1982–1998) and François Mitterrand (1981–1995), although they belonged to different political camps. In 1984 they visited the emblematic battlefield of Verdun , where both countries once fought against each other. Furthermore, both worked towards the establishment of the Franco-German Security and Defense Council and the Economic and Financial Council and advocated a uniform European foreign and security policy. Kohl and Mitterrand also made an important contribution to the creation of the Single European Act in 1987 with the aim of a European internal market by 1993 and the establishment of the EU with the Maastricht Treaty in 1993.
Jacques Chirac (1995–2007) and Gerhard Schröder (1998–2005) continued what had been started. On November 29, 1999, Schröder was the first Federal Chancellor to address the French National Assembly. The meetings of the two heads of state and government have become more frequent - the informal, so-called Blaesheim meetings have initially taken place every six to eight weeks since 2001 (later much less frequently). In the context of the Iraq war , both positioned themselves against American policy; In October 2003, Gerhard Schröder was even represented by Chirac at a meeting in the European Council .
The cooperation between the two successors Angela Merkel (since 2005) and Nicolas Sarkozy (2007–2012) was characterized in particular by the joint coordination of the further actions of the European heads of state and government during the euro crisis . The decisions made in the joint meetings between Merkel and Sarkozy usually only had to be approved by the other heads of state and government. During the reporting, the media created the suitcase word Merkozy consisting of the two names .
François Hollande Sarkozy succeeded him in May 2012 . In the course of the euro crisis , cooperation is particularly close. On the day of his inauguration, the new French President François Hollande visited Berlin. In July 2012, 50 years ago, the Reconciliation Mass was commemorated, which was celebrated in Reims in 1962. Merkel and Hollande also met in Reims. On September 22nd, 2012 the two opened a “Franco-German year” in Ludwigsburg .
Gestures of reconciliation by the heads of state and heads of government
- July 8, 1962: Konrad Adenauer and Charles de Gaulle attend a reconciliation mass together in Reims Cathedral .
- September 9, 1962: Charles de Gaulle gives a speech in Ludwigsburg to the German youth in German.
- January 22, 1963: Konrad Adenauer and Charles de Gaulle embrace on the occasion of the signing of the Élysée Treaty .
- September 22nd, 1984: Helmut Kohl and François Mitterrand hand in hand in front of the Douaumont ossuary near Verdun on the occasion of a large ceremony in memory of the victims of the wars between France and Germany.
- June 6, 2004: Gerhard Schröder and Jacques Chirac embrace at a commemoration ceremony for the 60th anniversary of the Allied landing in Normandy, to which a German Chancellor is invited for the first time.
- September 4, 2013: Federal President Joachim Gauck and President François Hollande visit Oradour , where SS soldiers carried out the Oradour massacre on June 10, 1944, killing 548 of 642 residents.
Overview of the French Presidents and German Chancellors
Élysée Treaty: How it came into being and how it evolved to this day
In the "Agreement on Franco-German Cooperation", known as the Élysée Agreement , signed on January 22nd, 1963, intensive consultations and agreements in the fields of foreign, defense, educational and youth policy were agreed between the two contracting parties. In particular, it was agreed that the Federal Chancellor and the President of the Republic would meet in person every six months.
In the background of the treaty stood France's fears that the Federal Republic of Germany might be drawn into the pull of the Soviet Union , and the Federal Republic of Germany that there might be a French policy of detente at the expense of Germany. France was assumed to want to pull Germany out of the US's sphere of influence and to re-establish itself as a “Grande Nation”. Germany's approval of the treaty led to strong criticism from the opposition in the German Bundestag , but also from the USA. The reason for this was the simultaneous refusal of British accession to the EEC by the French government .
At the German request, the treaty was preceded by a preamble in which the aim was to maintain close political, economic and defense relations with the USA, Great Britain and NATO, as well as to restore German unity.
The consultations essentially concern four points. You want:
- come to a common position on foreign policy issues (e.g. within the framework of the EC (later EU ) or NATO )
- draft common strategies and exchange military personnel within the framework of defense and armaments policy
- work more closely together in the field of youth and education, for example in school and student exchanges .
- work more closely together in the field of economic policy .
The text of the law was only revised (on January 22, 1988) when two new councils were created: the Franco-German Finance and Economic Council (DFFWR) and the Franco-German Defense and Security Council (DFVSR).
The treaty led to an upswing in Franco-German relations and strengthened the negotiating position with the USA in the context of European policy. Success has been achieved, for example, in agreeing a common internal market . Many points of the contract are now regulated by the EU.
In the area of security and defense policy there was initially only very hesitant cooperation, as De Gaulle pursued an emphatically national, NATO-critical defense policy, while Adenauer and his successors wanted to maintain rapprochement with the USA. Later, however, the French intensified their cooperation, fearing that Germany would turn to Eastern Europe. Today the connection between France and Germany in the field of defense is very close and institutionalized with the Franco-German Brigade and the Eurocorps .
On January 22, 2019, the 56th anniversary of the Élysée Treaty, Chancellor Merkel and President Macron will sign the Treaty on Franco-German Cooperation and Integration, or the Treaty of Aachen , in the coronation hall of the historic Aachen City Hall . The aim of the treaty is, among other things, to strengthen cultural diversity and to align the security interests of both states. In addition, cooperation in defense policy between the two states, including mutual aid in crisis situations, is being intensified. Other points are the creation of a Franco-German digital platform for audiovisual content and information as well as the improvement of cross-border rail connections.
School policy measures and university policy
The Franco-German Youth Office , which has existed since 1963, enabled more than eight million young Germans and French to take part in around 270,000 exchange programs by 2011. School partnerships enable stays abroad.
The introduction of French as a foreign language in primary schools is very important. French is taught in elementary schools in particular in the border areas, i.e. in Saarland , in Rhineland-Palatinate in the Trier and southern Palatinate regions, and in Baden-Württemberg on the southern Upper Rhine between Karlsruhe and Lörrach , but also at some elementary schools in Berlin.
In France, German is the second most popular foreign language after English and Spanish . On the other hand, however, there is France's restrictive policy towards minority languages and thus also towards German, which was decisively pursued despite the reconciliation after the war.
The Erasmus program promotes student exchanges between the two countries.
Franco-German institutions and projects
- The partnership between Le Mans and Paderborn is considered to be the oldest German-French tradition still in existence today . It emerged from the fraternization of the two Franconian bishops' seats in 836. As the first town twinning in the modern sense, the town twinning between Ludwigsburg and Montbéliard was decided in 1950 , as both towns shared a Württemberg and Protestant past.
- The Eurocorps (1992) and the Franco-German Brigade (1989) are military units that can be traced back to Franco-German initiatives. The Eurocorps is based in Strasbourg (France), and the units of the Franco-German Brigade are stationed in southwest Germany.
- The German-French parliamentary internship, which takes place in Germany as part of the international parliamentary grant . The program has been running since 1989 and is reciprocal, so that every year 5 French people in Berlin and 5 Germans in Paris can take part. In contrast to Germany, this program is unique in France.
- Translation grants , the so-called "Rilke Program", for publishers who have books from France translated in the fields of fiction , social sciences or humanities, from 2017. In another program, publishers can receive grants to acquire licenses. The cultural department of the French embassy in Berlin is responsible and makes decisions twice a year.
- The Georges Arthur Goldschmidt program is aimed at young literary translators from Switzerland, France and Germany who want to get to know the German-French translation trade and publishing, in both language directions. A three-month program for 5 people per year, the Franco-German Youth Office is responsible for applications.
- ARTE (1991) is a public television broadcaster operated in German-French cooperation.
- Comité français d'échanges avec l'Allemagne nouvelle (1948)
- Franco-German Youth Office , DFJW / OFAJ (1963)
- Franco-German secretariat for exchanges in vocational training
- Franco-German University (1999)
- German-French high schools
- Histoire / Geschichte is a German-French history textbook with the same content for senior levels , published in two language versions since 2007 , written by teams from both countries
- The Franco-German Chamber of Commerce and Industry (AHK France), based in Paris, promotes Franco-German economic relations and helps German companies enter the French market. (since 1955)
- The "Franco-German Internet portal" with a focus on mutual diplomacy is operated by the foreign ministries of both countries. (Link to the French version: in the emblem)
- Fondation Entente Franco-Allemande (1981)
- The Association of German-French Societies for Europe (1957) provides an umbrella organization for a large number of cultural initiatives.
- The Franco-German Society was founded in Berlin in 1928 by the German cultural historian Otto Grautoff and has existed to this day, divided into local associations that often have different names.
- Carolus Magnus Circle. Cercle Carolus Magnus. Association for Franco-German pedagogical and cultural cooperation , Association pour la coopération franco-allemand pédagogique et culturelle. German headquarters in Mönchengladbach , founded in 1954 in Freiburg im Breisgau
- André Gide Prize , from 1998 to 2011, for literary translators in both directions
- Joseph Rovan Prize (since 2006)
- Franco-German Youth Literature Prize , for the first time in 2013, a project under the patronage of the “Representatives of the Federal Republic of Germany for cultural affairs within the framework of the treaty on Franco-German cooperation” and the “French Minister of Culture”. Location: European Children's and Youth Book Fair in Saarbrücken
- Prix de l'Académie de Berlin , funded by the Robert Bosch Foundation until 2013, and since 2014 by the Würth Group . The award recognizes people or projects who have an extraordinary way of stimulating and deepening the relations between Germany and France.
- Great Franco-German Media Prize, part of the Franco-German Journalism Prize (DFJP) (since 1983)
The political press has long noted major discrepancies between the ideal of Franco-German friendship and the reality of fierce competition between the two countries. The international cartel theory of international relations derives from this the finding that the Franco-German friendship is a strategic alliance, a calculated power alliance: it is “essentially an ideologically backed strategy for the domination of cartels” within the European Union.
France has an embassy in Berlin and consulates general in Düsseldorf , Hamburg , Frankfurt am Main , Munich , Saarbrücken and Stuttgart . Honorary consuls reside in Aachen , Bremen , Freiburg im Breisgau , Fürth , Hanover , Cologne , Mannheim and Saarlouis .
Germany has an embassy in Paris and consulates general in Bordeaux , Lyon , Marseille and Strasbourg . Honorary consuls are in Avignon , Bastia , Brest , Dijon , Baie-Mahault ( Guadeloupe ), Grenoble , Lamentin ( Martinique ), Lille , Matoury ( French Guiana ), Montpellier , Nantes , Nice , Nouméa ( New Caledonia ), Papeete ( Tahiti ), Perpignan , Reims , Rennes , Rouen , Saint-Denis ( Réunion ), Toulouse and Tours .
Both states are members of numerous supranational ( European Union , including the Eurozone ) and international organizations (e.g. NATO , OSCE , OECD , Council of Europe ). In addition, both belong to the G7 and the G20. Together with Poland , they form the states of the Weimar Triangle .
- Border between Germany and France
- List of German ambassadors in France
- List of French ambassadors in Germany
- List of Franco-German city and community partnerships
- Wilhelm Hausenstein
- Hanna Meuter : pioneer in the Weimar period with her Zs. "Rheinbrücke"
- Günter Hellwing , head of the Gestapo Marseille, involved in mass deportations to extermination camps, sentenced to death in F., then political (SPD) and civil service career in the FRG
- Romain Rolland , writer who advocated equalization
- Franz Hessel Prize to promote joint fiction in both countries; other similar prices
- " Kecker Spatz ": the 1st major Franco-German military maneuver in September 1987
- European Revue (1925–1944), young conservative magazine, the protagonists of which shaped Franco-German relations to varying degrees, particularly negatively (as Nazi occupiers during the war)
- Adenauer de Gaulle Prize
- Ansbert Baumann: Meeting of Nations? The Elysée Treaty and the Federal Republic of Germany. Franco-German cultural policy from 1963 to 1969 , Peter Lang, Frankfurt 2003.
- Ansbert Baumann: The organized collaboration. Franco-German relations on the eve of the Elysée Treaty 1958–1962 , Ludwigsburg 2002.
- Hans Manfred Bock : Tradition and Topic of the Popular France Cliché in Germany from 1925 to 1955. Avec résumé français, in: Francia . Edited by the German Historical Institute, Paris. Volume 14, 1986, p. 475 ff. ( Online ).
- Hans Manfred Bock, Reinhart Meyer-Kalkus, Michael Trebitsch (eds.): Entre Locarno et Vichy. Les relations culturelles franco-allemandes dans les années 1930 (2 volumes), 1993.
- Federal Agency for Civic Education (Ed.): From Politics and Contemporary History (B 03-04 / 2003): German-French Relations (online version)
- Nicole Colin, Corine Defrance , Ulrich Pfeil and Joachim Umlauf (eds.): Lexicon of Franco-German cultural relations after 1945 , Narr, Tübingen 2013 (2nd extended edition 2015)
- Lucien Calvié,
- Le Renard et les raisins. La Révolution française et les intellectuels allemands. 1789–1845 , Paris, Études et Documentation Internationales (ÉDI), 1989
- Aux origines du couple franco-allemand. Critique du nationalisme et révolution démocratique avant 1848. Arnold Ruge , Toulouse, Presses Universitaires du Mirail (PUM), 2004.
- Le Soleil de la liberté. Heinrich Heine (1797–1856), l'Allemagne, la France et les révolutions , Paris, Presses de l'Université Paris-Sorbonne (PUPS), 2006.
- Heine / Marx. Révolution, libéralisme, démocratie et communisme , Uzès, Inclinaison, 2013.
- La question allemande. Histoire et actualité , Paris, Éditions du Cygne, coll. «Frontières», 2016.
- Corine Defrance, Ulrich Pfeil (eds.): Le Traité de l'Élysée et les relations franco-allemandes 1945–1963 - 2003, CNRS Éditions, Paris 2005.
- German: The Elysée Treaty and Franco-German relations 1945–1963–2003 , Oldenbourg, Munich 2005.
- Corine Defrance, Ulrich Pfeil (Eds.),
- La construction d'un espace scientifique commun? La France, la RFA et l'Europe après le “choc du Spoutnik” , Peter Lang, Brussels, 2012.
- La France, l'Allemagne et le traité de l'Élysée, 1963–2013 , CNRS Éditions, Paris 2012.
- Corine Defrance, Ulrich Pfeil: German-French history. A Post-War History in Europe 1945–1963 , WBG, Darmstadt 2011.
- Corine Defrance, Michael Kißener , Pia Nordblom (eds.): Ways of understanding between Germans and French after 1945. Civil society approaches , Narr, Tübingen 2010 (edition lendemains 7).
- Damien Ehrhardt: Les relations franco-allemandes et la musique à program 1830–1914 , Symétrie, Lyon 2009.
- Ralph Erbar (ed.): Sources on Franco-German relations 1919–1963 , WBG , Darmstadt 2003. Series: Sources on Germany's relations with its neighbors in the 19th and 20th centuries. Freiherr vom Stein memorial edition Volume 6.
- Wolfgang Geiger: The image of France in the Third Reich. (PDF file; 113 kB) Lecture at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University , 2000.
- Michel Grunewald, Hans-Jürgen Lüsenbrink, Reiner Marcowitz , Uwe Puschner (eds.): France-Allemagne au XXe siècle - la production de savoir sur l'autre = Germany and France in the 20th century - academic knowledge production about the other country . 4 volumes, Lang, Bern a. a. 2011 ff.
- Volume 1: Questions méthodologiques et épistémologiques (= Convergences . Vol. 64). 2011, ISBN 978-3-0343-1028-4 .
- Volume 2: Les spécialistes universitaires de l'Allemagne et de la France au XXe siècle (= Convergences . Vol. 69). 2012, ISBN 978-3-0343-1203-5 .
- Volume 3: Les institutions (= Convergences . Vol. 75). 2013, ISBN 978-3-0343-1293-6 .
- Volume 4: Les médias (= Convergences . Vol. 82). 2014, ISBN 978-3-0343-1572-2 .
- Dietmar Hüser, Ulrich Pfeil (ed.): Popular culture and Franco-German mediators / Culture de masse et médiateurs franco-allemands. Actors, media, forms of expression / Acteurs, médias, articulations (Yearbook of the France Center Saarbrücken 14/2014). Transcript, Bielefeld 2015, ISBN 978-3-8376-3082-4
- Anne Kwaschik, Ulrich Pfeil (ed.): The GDR in German-French relations . Peter Lang, Brussels, 2013.
- Ulrich Lappenküper: German-French relations 1949–1963. From the enmity to the entente élémentaire , 2 volumes, Oldenbourg, Munich 2001.
- Reiner Marcowitz, Hélène Miard-Delacroix (ed.): 50 ans de relations franco-allemandes . Nouveau monde éditions, Paris 2013, ISBN 978-2-36583-351-6 .
- Helène Miard-Delacroix: Under the sign of European unification 1963 to the present . Franco-German History, Volume 11, Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2011.
- Ulrich Pfeil: The "other" Franco-German relations. The GDR and France 1949–1990 (Contemporary History Studies by the ZZF Potsdam, Volume 26), Böhlau, Cologne 2004.
Robert Picht u. a. (Ed.): "Esprit - Geist." 100 key terms for Germans and French , with Jacques Leenhardt, Piper, Munich 1989 & 1993.
- change Version: Stranger friends. Germans and French before the 21st Century , ed. with Vincent Hoffmann-Martinot, René Lasserre & Peter Theiner, Piper, Munich 1997 & 2002.
- French Versions: with Jacques Leenhardt: Au jardin des malentendus. Le Commerce franco-allemand des idées , Actes Sud, Arles 1992 & ibid. 1997.
- Reiner Pommerin , Reiner Marcowitz (Ed.): Sources on Franco-German relations . Part: 1815–1919 (= sources on Germany's relations with its neighbors in the 19th and 20th centuries . Volume 5). Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1997, ISBN 3-534-12779-X .
- Stephen A. Schuker (ed.): Germany and France. From conflict to reconciliation. The design of Western European security 1914–1963 (= Writings of the Historisches Kolleg. Colloquia 46). Munich 2000, XX, 280 pp. ISBN 978-3-486-56496-9 ( digitized version ).
- Heinz-Otto Sieburg : Germany and France in the historiography of the 19th century (1815-1848) . Wiesbaden 1954. Publications of the Institute for European History, Mainz; Volume 2.
- Heinz-Otto Sieburg: Germany and France in the historiography of the 19th century (1848–1871) . Wiesbaden 1958. Publications of the Institute for European History , Mainz; Volume 17.
- Gilbert Ziebura : German-French relations since 1945. Myths and Realities , Stuttgart 1997.
Magazines, series works
- Documents-Documents Journal for the German-French dialogue - Revue du dialogue franco-allemand, bilingual. Ed. Society for Supranational Cooperation GÜZ. Publishing documents, Bonn
- Trivium online magazine . Zs. For humanities and social sciences
- Villa Europa, Saarbrücken, Online Print. About French culture in the context of Europe.
- Beloved Enemy - 1000 Years of the Germans and the French , Complete Media 2014 ISBN 978-3-8312-8139-8 ZDF , ARTE 2013
- The Franco-German Cooperation Jointly designed website of the German Foreign Office and the French Ministère des Affaires étrangères
- Information from the French embassy in Berlin on relations with Germany
- University of Düsseldorf: Detailed literature directory on cultural relations in the 19th and 20th centuries. Century (DOC file; 397 kB)
- Association of Franco-German Societies for Europe
- Online magazine Le Forum, "Treaties" section All important bilateral and European treaties up to 2003
- Project Deuframat , Germany and France on the way to a new Europe , numerous materials, especially for history and geography lessons, also on cultural relations; bilingual selection
- German-French focus in research and teaching (PDF file; 228 kB) from the France Center of Saarland University , bilingual
- Cultural relations: Wolfgang Asholt, Henning Krauss, Michael Nerlich , Dietmar Rieger, Evelyne Sinnassamy, Joachim Umlauf: Pour un renouveau dans les rapports franco-allemands. Le Monde , June 28, 2012
- Official website, news from the German embassies in France
- Franco-German relations - 1,600 articles since 2006
Pictures of well-known politician gestures:
- Konrad Adenauer and General de Gaulle embrace in the Élysée Palace of Versailles
- Jacques Chirac and Gerhard Schröder on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the landing in Normandy
- Image: François Hollande and Angela Merkel in Paris; Süddeutsche Zeitung , June 27, 2012
- Wolfram Vogel: The German-French relations. In: Adolf Kimmel / Henrik Uterwedde (ed.): Country report France. Bonn 2005, pp. 418-435.
- bundesregierung.de ( Memento of the original from February 4, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .
- Merkel pays tribute to Franco-German friendship ( memento of the original from July 12, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .
- Archive link ( Memento of the original dated February 4, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .
- "We are united for our happiness" ( Memento of the original dated February 4, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- State Center for Civic Education Baden-Württemberg: Charles de Gaulle: Speech to the German Youth of September 9, 1962 ( Memento of October 2, 2018 in the Internet Archive ).
- Christoph Gunkel: Kohl and Mitterrand in Verdun: History to touch . One day series , Spiegel Online, accessed on October 11, 2012.
- spiegel.de September 4, 2013: Gauck's visit to France: The exhausting guest .
- German-French youth work (German, French and English) . Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Primary schools with bilingual teaching ( Memento of the original from December 9, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. on the website of the education server Rhineland-Palatinate, accessed on October 11, 2012.
- French in primary school. Brochure from the Baden-Wuerttemberg Ministry of Culture from 2003. Digital version , PDF file, 1.76 MB, accessed on October 11, 2012.
- Primary schools with French as the first foreign language ( Memento of the original from October 28, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. on the website of a Berlin association for the promotion of multilingual education, accessed on October 11, 2012.
- Sönke Lorenz, Peter Rückert: Württemberg and Mömpelgard - 600 years of meeting; 600 ans de relations entre Montbéliard et le Wurtemberg. Exhibition catalog. Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-87181-426-1 .
- Information ( Memento of the original from October 14, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. on the website of the German Bundestag, accessed on March 3, 2014.
- Portail franco-allemand, in German
- Holm A. Leonhardt: The European Union in the 21st century. A state cartel on the way to becoming a state? , in: Michael Gehler (Hrsg.): From the common market to the formation of European Union. 50 years of the Treaty of Rome 1957-2007. Vienna 2009, pp. 706–708.
- France in Germany - French Embassy in Germany (German and French) . Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- German Embassy Paris (German and French) . Retrieved November 12, 2011.
- Review (French)