|State :||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Entity :||Federation of BiH|
|Canton :||Central Bosnia|
|Area :||361 km²|
|Residents :||34,559 (2013)|
|Population density :||96 inhabitants per km²|
|Telephone code :||+387 (0) 30|
|Postal code :||70230|
|Structure and administration (as of 2016)|
|Structure :||27 local communities|
|Mayor :||Hasan Ajkunić (independent)|
|Postal address :||307. Motorizovane brigade 92
The city of Bugojno is one of twelve municipalities in the canton of Central Bosnia in Bosnia and Herzegovina . Almost 35,000 people live in the community today, 20,000 of them in the city proper. This makes Bugojno the second most populous city in the canton of Central Bosnia after Travnik . Bugojno is about 100 km from the Adriatic Sea .
The Bugojno municipality is located in the southwestern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The city itself is located in the “Skopaljska dolina” valley. This valley is located at approx. 570 m above sea level. NN and occupies an area of 361 square kilometers. The town of Bugojno is surrounded by the mountains Kalin (1530 m), Rudina (1385 m), Stozer (1662 m) and other smaller ones. The Vrbas River flows through the city and is complemented by numerous tributaries.
Alibegovići, Barbarići, Bašići, Bevrnjići, Bode, Brda, Bristovi, Brižina, Bugojno, Ceribašići, Crniče, Čardaci, Čaušlije, Čavići, Cojluk, Djelme, Dojnici, Donji Boganović, Gajnici, Donji Boganovci, Drvetine, Fakicolo, Glavici, Gvetine, Fakici, Glaviči, Gvetine, Bristovi, Brižina, Brda Gornji Boganovci, Goruša, Gračanica, Gredine, Grgići, Hadžialić Ograda, Hapstići, Harambašići, Hum, Humac, Ivica, Jagodići, Jazvenik, Jela, Jovanovici, Kadirovina, Kajici, Kandija, Kopićiš, Koadže, Karavlasići Kotezi, Kula, Kutlići, Lenđerovina , Lug, Ljubnić, Martici, Maslići, Medini, Mijatovici, Milanovići, Mračaj, Nuhići, Odžak, Okolište, Pavic Polje, Pavice, Pirići, Planinica, Podripijci, Poriče, Potacani., Rovani , Sabljari, Seferovići, Servani, Skrte, Stojici, Stolac, Šići, Udurlije, Vedro Polje, Vesela, Vileši, Vrbanja, Vrpeć, Vrucanji, Vučipolje, Zanesovići, Zlavast, Zlokuće and Zurovina Uldralovi, Žovina.
In the continental part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the climate is similar to that of Central Europe: warm summers, cool spring and autumn times and cold winters with lots of snow. Mediterranean and continental climates meet in central Bosnia and thus form a diverse ecosystem. The mountains have their own climate. The mountain climate comes from 1700 m above sea level. d. M. on the mountain landscape of the high Dinarides to the fore. It is characterized by harsh winters that last longer than six months, with temperatures well below 0 degrees.
Population in the municipality of Bugojno according to the 1991 census:
- Total 1991: 46,889
Even in Roman times, today's Bugojno was an important junction in the Roman road network from Dalmatia and today's Herzegovina to central Bosnia and Pannonia. Archaeological finds indicate human activities from the Bronze and Iron Ages . The Illyrian tribe of the Sardinians settled in this area . Avars and Celts invaded the area in the 6th century . The fortified complex Ad Matricem also existed in the late Roman period and was used to manage the gold mines in Dalmatia. It is mentioned in the Tabula Peutingeriana , also Peutinger table.
The Skopaljska dolina is mentioned in a document from the Hungarian King Béla IV. 1244. In medieval independent Bosnia, the entire area is under the reign of the Bosnian kings. The tombstones Stećci of the Bogomils on the Rostovo mountain pass and in front of the former Hotel Kalin and several other villages in the area still bear witness to this today .
With the conquest of Bosnia by the Ottomans in 1463, the region was subordinated to the Sanjak Klis. The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, built in 1693 in the center of the city, still bears witness to the Ottoman rule. This mosque is one of the oldest mosques in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Modern times to the present
With the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary in 1878 and the annexation in 1908, a new administrative unit for the entire region was established in Bugojno. Numerous innovations have been introduced from the government to the education system. The first railway line Lešva-Bugojno provided for the slowly increasing economic boom. This should make it easier to transport the coal from the surrounding mines. After the end of the First World War, the city found itself in the SHS state, the later Kingdom of Yugoslavia .
After the end of the Second World War, Bugojno experienced an economic boom and rose as the economic, cultural and political center of the region. This region with the cities of Bugojno, Gornji Vakuf and Donji Vakuf had around 100,000 inhabitants in the 1960s. The economic upswing was brought about by new branches of industry (metal processing, electronics, leather processing, textile industry, etc.) and tourism.
In addition to the strong industrialization in the second half of the 20th century, Bugojno was particularly noticeable in the domestic political scene of socialist Yugoslavia in 1972. After the government put down the " Croatian Spring " in 1971, a group of exiled Croatian terrorists invaded Yugoslavia with the aim of sparking a popular uprising in the Bugojno area. Seven of the 19 terrorists had previously lived in the Federal Republic of Germany, most of them were members of the Hrvatsko revolucionarno bratstvo .
When war broke out in Slovenia and Croatia in 1991, the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina became increasingly critical. In May 1992 the Yugoslav People's Army took the city under artillery fire; Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats banded together to defend the city. Shortly after the JNA attack, the Croatian-Bosniak war broke out in May 1992. This is also known as the “war in war” between Bosniaks, as both sides had previously had a joint defense agreement. The city was under Croatian attack from May 1992 to July 1993. In July 1993 soldiers and units of the HVO invaded Bugojno and carried out a massacre of the Muslim population of the Vrbanja district. Every year on July 17th, a memorial service in the same district commemorates this crime. After the liberation offensive, Bosnian-Herzegovinian government troops arrested several Croatian soldiers and armed civilians. The captured Croatians were taken to nine prison camps, most of which were tortured and killed in the city's sports stadium. In addition, a large part of the surviving Croatian civilian population was killed by supporters of the ABiH .
During the Bosnian War , many Bosnian Croats and Serbs left the city, which is predominantly inhabited by Muslims. Due to the poor economic situation and poor educational opportunities in the region, many of the refugees who found refuge outside of Bosnia and Herzegovina have not returned to this day. Most of the Bosnian Croats who fled Bugojno in the spring of 1992 live in Croatia, Austria, Germany or Switzerland. The traces of the war are still omnipresent. The hospital, which was never completed, stands as a skeleton on a small hill above the city.
After the 1995 Dayton Agreement , an industrial facility in Bugojno was converted into the SFOR central helicopter base . Due to the steadily improving internal stability in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and especially in the Federation, the SFOR base was relocated to Banja Luka , which belongs to the Republika Srpska .
Economic development until 1991
In socialist Yugoslavia, Bugojno rose to become a flourishing city. New industries sprang up across the area. Companies for metal processing and electronics were established. The PROIZVODNJA KOŽNE OBUĆE DD, a leather factory that is still active today, was put into operation. In the Vrbanja district, the MLINEX DOO flour mill was built and is still in operation today. The "Stolarija", a wood processing company, grew into a large company due to the rich forests. The traditional economic sectors (agriculture and forestry) continued to play an important role. With tourism, a large leisure area was also created in the mountains. The Yugoslav arms manufacturer RODIĆ DD had a large production facility in Bugojno and was one of the largest employers in the region. The social standards for Bosnia and Herzegovina and Yugoslavia were above average. Other companies were the explosives manufacturer BINAS DD and the shipping company ŠPEDICIJA ATP DD, which were founded in Bugojno at the time of Yugoslavia.
Economic development after 1995
Today, apart from the leather factory and the flour mill, Bugojno no longer has any large industrial plants from the Yugoslav era. Almost all of the former state-owned companies were closed after the wave of privatization around the turn of the millennium. Even the two remaining companies are far below the production level of 1991. Due to a lack of investment and poor management, the systems are outdated and do not meet the European standards to cope with regional and international competition. Instead, many small and medium-sized companies have taken the place of large companies.
Bugojno, 20 years after the dissolution of Yugoslavia, represents a large concentration of commercial branches. The city serves as an agglomeration for various furniture and textile stores such as B. "Kašmir" or "Ideal". In addition to the green market and the cattle market, the numerous small retail stores, as well as the buvljak flea market every Friday, ensure a lively urban climate. Since the turn of the millennium, the trend towards large shopping centers has been reflected in Bugojno. Several of these centers were built along the transit route. The wholesale chain “Interex doo” is currently located in one of these properties as well as various domestic wholesale markets for food, electronics and textile trade.
Since 2008, the federal government has taken several soil samples in the region. In the village of Kotezi, for example, a large amount of hard coal could be found. Preparations for underground mining and plans for a thermal power plant in the region are now underway.
Since October 2010 the region seems to have become attractive again for foreign investments in the field of metal processing. The Slovenian company MLM (metal processing company Mariborska livarna Maribor) from Maribor has opened the subsidiary MLM Alutec in Bugojno.
The Koprivnica area is located to the west towards Kupres . This forest area was one of the preferred hunting grounds of the Yugoslav President in Tito's time. The dense forests and the thin population ensured the continued existence of this habitat for bears, wolves, deer, wild boars and other wild animals. The hunting societies are very active in this area and the forests are home to numerous hunting lodges and mountain huts. Duboka Dolina is a hunting reserve and is rich in red fir. It is on the territory of the Koprivnica forest enterprise and was one of Josip Broz Tito's favorite hunting grounds . The Kalin Mountains are a popular place for hikers and nature lovers on weekends. The Rostovo mountain pass is located on the Kalin mountain , 12 kilometers from Bugojno. Historical excavations have been taking place there since 2010.
Little by little, the mountain region around the ski hotel also became a versatile leisure area in summer. the hotel also includes the Babići ethno village in the complex. In addition to many hiking and biking trails, the area also offers a motorcross track and a hunting lodge. The many mountain streams are full of trout and attract anglers. After 2000, the mountain plateau was the scene of impressive bullfights under the name "Korida" for several years. A horse ranch is currently being built.
The only lake in the area is on the Bugojno-Gornji Vakuf route and is artificially created. Zanesko Lake was formed on part of the Gračanica mine and is now a popular bathing resort rich in fish and various species of birds. For mountain enthusiasts, the PD Koprivnica hiking club has a rich offer with many hiking trails around Bugojno.
After 2000, the old ski area on the Rostovo mountain pass was put back into operation, which has three ski lifts, the “Ski Hotel Rostovo”, a ski hut and an ethno village. This makes this area a popular destination for the local population even in winter. In addition to catering, the ski hut also offers ski equipment.
Pilgrimage and historical cities
On the Bugojno-Donji Vakuf route is the village of Prusac , which is remarkable for its age. The building of the place goes back to the Romans, who gave it the name kastel bianco ("white castle"). At the time of King Tvrtko I. Kotromanić, the name of the city was accordingly Biograd . The Ottomans called the city by its current name. This name has also found its way into the history of the last 450 years. The city itself did not have any water resources nearby. Therefore the precious elixir of life had to be brought down from the mountains through pipes. According to legend, an elderly gentleman went to pray on the top of a rock wall for 40 nights before the Muslim festival of sacrifice. On the fortieth night he fell asleep and dreamed of two rams hitting their heads together, and he woke up. When he looked at the rock wall, he saw that a wide gap had formed and water was flowing down the walls. So the city was given water. This old man was called Ajvet-dedo . The Ajvatovica pilgrimage was named after him. Thousands of Muslims make pilgrimages to this place every summer to pray. It is a great spectacle for the entire region. Every year people from all parts of Bosnia, neighboring countries and Turkey set out on horses and in old Ottoman costume to take part in this ceremony.
The Potočani Tourist Resort is located seven kilometers from the town. This facility houses a hotel, swimming pools, sports facilities and a camping facility on 200,000 m². The facility includes a hunting reserve and fishing waters.
Bugojno Municipality has several interesting sights from different periods.
On the way out of the city towards the Rostovo mountain pass there are naturally formed stone pillars that tower into the sky. They are known as Kameni svatovi (stone wedding guests), behind which a dramatic legend is hidden. They are part of the canyon of the Bunta River.
In addition to the new medieval finds on the Rostovo mountain plateau, there are also 50 Stećak monuments in the village of Bristovi-Bare . In addition, 18 other Stećak monuments have also been freely dug in the suburb of Vesela-Kućetine.
The rule of the Ottomans also left important cultural buildings. One of the oldest mosques in Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in the city center. The Sultan Ahmed Mosque was built in 1693 and named after the 14th Ottoman Sultan, Ahmed II . He ruled the empire from 1643 to 1695. During his reign, the Hungarian empire had to cede to the Habsburgs.
The Church of St. Anthony is the largest Catholic church in the city and one of the largest in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in the center of the city. Construction began in 1879 and ended in 1886. The church is a result of independence from the Catholic community of Gornji Vakuf in 1844. The bell tower was built in 1936 by the Austro-Hungarian architect Karel Pařík . The altar was made by the Tyrolean Franz Schmalzl. The church was badly damaged during the Bosnian War, the bell tower burned down. It was rebuilt after the war.
One of the many villas of the long-time head of state Josip Broz Tito can also be found in Bugojno. Although Tito has a residence in almost every city in Yugoslavia, it was in Bugojno that he most visited. It is located on the territory of the Koprivnica forest enterprise and also houses a hunting reserve. The statement of a city official during one of Tito's many visits, which read as follows in German: “As long as there are bears in Bugojno, there will also be Bugojno” was curious and at the same time legendary . The background to this is that the word bear in connection with humans has a negative connotation in the Bosnian language. In addition, Tito was an avid hunter and could therefore have spent most of the time in Bugojno.
In the 21st century, the Princess Dževher Mosque was built by a Saudi Arabian foundation . It was the first major multi-million dollar project in this region after the war.
The KSC was created during the socialist era. It is a cultural and sports center and serves as an event location for basketball and handball games and other sports matches, as well as concerts and theater performances. The rooms offer space for 500 to 2,500 guests.
In addition to the “(Ski) Hotel Rostovo”, the municipality also has the “Hotel Heko” in the city. Before the war the “Hotel Kalin” also existed in the city center. During the great wave of privatization around the turn of the millennium, it was sold from state ownership. Today the former hotel is a luxury residential building with a few shops on the ground floor. The city also has several guest houses.
School system and education
The city of Bugojno has a kindergarten, six elementary schools, two secondary schools, a music school and a high school. There are three other primary schools in Gračanica, Bristovi and Drvetine. The grammar school operates a regular exchange with the Martineum grammar school in Halberstadt .
Bugojno has no hospital with around 40,000 inhabitants. The lower floors of the newly built hospital, which were put into operation shortly before the outbreak of war, were destroyed by JNA artillery fire in the first days of the war. The original outpatient department in the city center was converted into a small hospital in several phases after 2001. The city currently has a mental health center, health center, community hospital and associated pharmacy. There are also numerous private practices for general medicine and dentists here. Since 1996 many private pharmacies have also opened in Bugojno.
Bugojno has had its own radio and television station, RTV Bugojno, since 1970. The station is owned by the state, i. H. owned by the municipality. The current managing director is Ms. Azra Karalić.
The city also operates its own online portal ( www.bug.ba ).
The city has a bus station and several private bus routes. The European roads and the motorway under construction in Bosnia and Herzegovina do not run through the city. The European route E761 runs through Donji Vakuf and is only a 20-minute drive from Bugojno. The only trunk road is the M16 as part of Magistralstrasse 5 (M5), which runs through the city.
There are many small taxi companies in the city. Due to the great competition, the kilometer prices are relatively low and are fixed at a flat rate by agreement.
During the Austro-Hungarian rule, the Bosnian-Herzegovinian State Railway (BHStB) put the narrow-gauge line Lašva – Donji Vakuf – Bugojno / Jajce into operation, so that Bugojno got a train station in 1894. The Hungarian government prevented a continuation of the narrow-gauge railway from Bugojno via Sinj or Aržano to Split because it feared competition with its Zagreb – Rijeka line . Before 1914, the Austro-Hungarian administration planned the construction of a standard gauge line from Banja Luka via Bugojno and Mostar to Ploče in order to develop a planned Adriatic port. However, this plan was prevented by the outbreak of the First World War .
In 1945 the railway with a Bosnian gauge of 760 mm was extended from Bugojno to Gornji Vakuf . The narrow-gauge trains or their locomotives were affectionately called "Ćiro" in the Yugoslav vernacular. In 1972 the narrow-gauge railway was stopped and the tracks dismantled.
Theater and music
In addition to the music school, there is also the “Fedra” theater. It has existed since 1963 and has also organized the "Fedra Theater Festival" in Bugojno since the year it was founded. Every year there is a seven-day amateur competition organized in cooperation with the KSC.
The Bugojno Spring event takes place every year from the end of April to the end of May and offers a great cultural program for the younger generations. The demonstrations take place in the Culture and Sports Center (KSC).
The town folklore ensemble Bugojno , which is known both nationally and internationally. The ensemble has received several honors since 1984. At the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, the team participated in the opening ceremony. At the international folklore festival in Fondremand, France, the group achieved 2nd place in 1986. A year later, at the Balkan Festival "Ohrid 87", the gold plaque. After 1995, a number of international appearances in Austria, Norway, Italy, France, Turkey and Spain again brought international fame. Every year on May 20th, during Bugojno Municipality Day, the International Folklore Festival is held at which the Bugojno Ensemble presents traditional dances, songs and costumes.
The Puppet Theater of Bosnia and Herzegovina is held in Bugojno every year. During the multi-day event, other countries are always represented with their performances. The puppet theater always takes place in the second half of September.
Bugojno has a football club. The NK Iskra Bugojno , whose home is the 12,000-seat Jaklići Stadium , won the Mitropa Cup in 1985 . The club produced several well-known talents such as Ermin Zec , Mehmed Alispahić , Vlatko Glavaš or Tomislav Piplica . In 1994 the club was also one of the founding members of the Bosnian-Herzegovinian Premijer Liga , the top division of professional football in the country. After relegation in 1996, the club played one season in the first division of the BiH Federation before being promoted back to the first division. Since the 2002/2003 season, the NK Iskra has been playing in the second division again and was third in the final table of the 2009/2010 season. Thus, the team missed the renewed promotion to the top division in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Other clubs are the disabled volleyball club "Vrbas", table tennis club Bugojno, karate club Bugojno, water sports club "Vrbas", handball club "Iskra", hiking club "Koprivnica", karate club "Futura", Bugojno hunting association, Bugojno basketball club and the Tekwondo club "Hamza".
- Alen Orman (born 1978) - football player
- Branko Mikulić (1928–1994) - politician
- Ermin Zec (* 1988) - football player for the Turkish first division club Gençlerbirliği Ankara and Bosnian-Herzegovinian national team player
- Jasmin Duraković (* 1966) - journalist, film director, screenwriter and playwright.
- Mehmed Alispahić (* 1987) - football player for the Croatian first division club HNK Rijeka and Bosnian-Herzegovinian national team player
- Mustafa Mlivo - writer and literary scholar, first translated the Koran into Bosnian in the 1990s .
- Stjepan Tomas (* 1976) - football player and former Croatian national team player
- Tomislav Piplica (1969) - soccer player, former goalkeeper of FC Energie Cottbus and current goalkeeping coach of the national soccer team of Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Vlatko Glavaš (* 1962) - former footballer and Bosnian-Herzegovinian national player, former coach of the Bosnian-Herzegovinian first division club FK Sloboda Tuzla
- Vlatko Marković (1937–2013) - former president of the Croatian Football Association
- Filip Jazvić (* 1990) - football player
- Almir Velagic (* 1981) - German sports soldier and multiple German snatch champion
- Zukan Helez (* 1964) - politician ( Socijaldemokratska partija Bosne i Hercegovine )
- Veljko Paskvalin: BUGOJNO Bosnia-Herzegovina, Yugoslavia . In: Richard Stillwell et al. a. (Ed.): The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ 1976, ISBN 0-691-03542-3 .
- Community website
- Bugojno information portal
- Teater Fedra
- NK Iskra Bugojno
- Information from the Federal Commissioner for Bosnia (1998) ( Memento from June 12, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Ethno village Babići
- Bugojno Catholic Community
- Općina Bugojno: Osnovne informacije
- zupa-bugojno.org ( Memento of the original from February 15, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Verfassungsschutz , year 1975, p. 133.
- ZLOÈINI HVO-a POÈINJENI U JULU 1993. GODINE - Bosnjaci.Net
- Visit to former Bugojno detention camps ( Memento of the original from July 1, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Balkan Investigative Reporting Network, June 6, 2008.
- Ratni zločini u BiH, Bugojno ( Memento of the original from May 14, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- MLM opens plant in Bugojno
- tourism in BiH - Bugojno
- Helga Berdan: The power politics of Austria-Hungary and the railway construction in Bosnia-Herzegovina 1872-1914. (PDF; 8.3 MB) Diploma thesis at the University of Vienna , accessed on March 1, 2016 .
- Teatar FEDRA Bugojno
- Gradski Folklorni Ansambl Bugojno ( Memento of the original from August 21, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.