List of specialty encyclopedias

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A special Encyclopedia (also Specialencyklopädie , Special Encyklopädie , partikular-Encyklopädie , Partikularenzyklopädie ) is a Encyclopedia that a portion of the knowledge is with great detail. It is often the area of ​​one or more individual sciences . Other special encyclopedias limit the subset of knowledge according to special content-related criteria. B. a period. In any case, the special encyclopedia claims a comprehensive and complete presentation of the respective area of ​​knowledge.


One of the oldest encyclopedias: Historia animalium et al. , Constantinople, 12th century ( Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana , pluteo 87.4)

The term is already described in 1840 in the general encyclopedia of the sciences and the arts by Erf and Gruber (1. Section Th. 34 p. 206). It does not appear as the title of a work.

The universal encyclopedia covers all areas of knowledge. The technical lexicon does not claim to provide a comprehensive and complete presentation of the respective area of ​​knowledge. The boundaries between the manual and the manual are fluid. Manuals are listed here which, due to their size and the associated depth of detail, have the character of an encyclopedia.

Regarding its structure, two basic types of special encyclopedia can be recognized:

First special encyclopedias

In 335 BC, Aristotle created the Historia animalium animal encyclopedia, one of the oldest special encyclopedias. Of the 549 vertebrate species mentioned, over 300 were so precisely described that modern zoologists could identify them.

The universal scholar Conrad Gessner (1516–1565) from Zurich took up the title Historia animalium and described all animal and plant species known around the year 1550 on 4500 pages. He described each of the species in eight sections, including appearance, behavior, and usefulness in nutrition and medicine.

Alongside Conrad Gesner, Ulisse Aldrovandi is considered to be one of the founders of modern zoology . Above all, his very detailed systematic investigations made him known. The main work of Ulisse Aldrovandi is the Historia animalium, which consists of eleven volumes , of which the three volumes on birds (ornithologia) became famous as a supplement to Gesner's work, also known as Historia animalium .

List of specialty encyclopedias

This list contains printed special encyclopedias and is sorted chronologically within the sections.

Library science

  • Miriam Drake (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science . New York, 2nd edition 2003, 4 volumes, 1 supplement 2005



Biographies, national biographies

See list of national, regional, and local biographies


middle Ages

Modern times

Countries / regions

  • Encyclopedia of German History . (110 volumes planned, 16 volumes still missing in 2012, S)
  • Handbook of German History (Gebhardt). 1st edition ed. by Bruno Gebhardt, Stuttgart 1891/92 (2 vol., p.), 9th revised edition, ed. by Herbert Grundmann, Stuttgart 1970–1976 (4 vols. in 5 subvols., S), 10th completely revised edition, ed. by Alfred Haverkamp, ​​Wolfgang Reinhard, Jürgen Kocka, Wolfgang Benz, Stuttgart 2001– (24 vols., 19 vols. published until 2010)
  • Handbook of European History , Stuttgart 1968–1987 (7 vols. In 8 part vols., S)
  • The Modern Encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet History. ed. by Joseph L. Wieczynsk, Gulf Breeze, Fla. : Acad. Boarding school Press, 1976–
  • Handbook of the History of Russia , Stuttgart 1981-2004 (6 vols. In 10 parts., S)
  • Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz (13 volumes planned, 12 volumes published by 2013, volume 13 to appear in autumn 2014, A) - also online ( German , French , Italian ).
  • Herwig Wolfram (Ed.): Austrian History , Vienna 1994–
  • Handbook of the History of Europe , Stuttgart 2002–2012 (9 Vols., S)
  • The Cambridge History of Russia , Cambridge 2006–2009 (3 vols., S)

See also: Encyclopedias from Chinese culture

  • Encyclopedia Africana , 2nd edition 2005 - Special encyclopedia on Africa and the African diaspora ( African American etc.)
  • Encyclopaedia Aethiopica (5 vols. A – Z, planned, 4 vols. Published by 2010), prepared at the University of Hamburg, Research Center Ethiopian Studies. The Encyclopædia Aethiopica focuses on the history, culture, languages, ethnicities, geography, politics and literature of the peoples and states of the entire Ethiopian region ("Orbis Aethiopicus" including Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia and parts of Northern Sudan) and on their interactions with other regions .
  • Handbook of the history of Latin America , Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta 1992–1996 (3 vols., P.)
  • Encyclopedia of Latin American history and culture , ed. by Jay Kinsbruner, 6 volumes, Detroit [u. a.]: Gale, Cengage Learning, 2nd edition 2008
Australia and Oceania

Love and sexuality

  • The Greenwood Encyclopedia of love, courtship & sexuality through history , ed. by James T. Sears, 6 volumes, Westport, Conn. [u. a.]: Greenwood, 2008
  • Lexicon of images, cultural history, literature and art, sexology . 3 volumes and supplementary volume. Verlag für Kulturforschung, Vienna 1931; New edition 1963 Verlag für Kulturforschung, Hamburg, in eight volumes and two volumes by Armand Mergen: Sexualforschung, keyword and image .

Medical history

  • Encyclopedia History of Medicine , edited by Werner E. Gerabek ; Bernhard D. Haage; Gundolf Keil; Wolfgang Wegner, Berlin [a. a.]: de Gruyter, 2005

Military history

  • Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: a political, social, and military history. ed. by David S. Heidler, Santa Barbara, Calif. [u. a.]: ABC-CLIO, 2000, 5 volumes
  • The encyclopedia of the Cold War: a political, social, and military history. ed. by Spencer C. Tucker, Santa Barbara, Calif. [u. a.]: ABC-CLIO, 2008
  • The Oxford encyclopedia of medieval warfare and military technology. ed. by Clifford J. Rogers, Oxford [u. a.]: Oxford Univ. Press, 2010, 3 volumes
  • The encyclopedia of Middle East wars: the United States in the Persian Gulf, Afghanistan, and Iraq conflicts. ed. by Spencer C. Tucker, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, Calif. [u. a.] 2010, 5 volumes
  • The encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: a political, social, and military history. ed. by Spencer C. Tucker, Santa Barbara, Calif .: ABC-CLIO, 2nd Edition 2011, 4 volumes

Legal history

Environmental history

  • Encyclopedia of world environmental history. ed. by Shepard Krech III, John Robert McNeill and Carolyn Merchant, Routledge, New York [u. a.] 2004, 3 volumes
  • Encyclopedia of American environmental history. ed. by Kathleen A. Brosnan, Facts On File, New York 2011, 4 volumes

Economic history

  • The Oxford encyclopedia of economic history , ed. by Joel Mokyr, Oxford [u. a.]: Oxford Univ. Press, 2003, 5 volumes


Anthropology and ethnology

  • Encyclopedia of anthropology. 5 volumes. Edited by H. James Birx. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA et al. a. 2006.
  • Routledge Encyclopaedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology. Edited by Alan Barnard and Jonathan Spencer. Routledge, London 2004. New edition 2012.
  • Concise dictionary of German superstition


  • Historical dictionary of pedagogy. ed. by Dietrich Benner and Jürgen Oelkers , Beltz-Verlag, Weinheim / Basel 2004, ISBN 978-3-407-83153-8
  • International encyclopedia of education , ed. by Penelope Peterson; Eva Baker and Barry McGaw, Amsterdam [u. a.]: Elsevier Academic, 3rd edition 2010

Social sciences

  • Concise dictionary of the social sciences: at the same time a new edition of the “concise dictionary of the political sciences” . Stuttgart u. a .: Fischer u. a. 1956–1968 (12 vols. And index volume, A). Successor: Concise dictionary of economics
  • International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences , ed. by David L. Sills, New York, NY [u. a.]: Macmillan [et al. a.], 1968
  • International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences , ed. by Neil J. Smelser and Paul Baltes , 26 volumes, Elsevier-Verlag, 2001
  • International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences , ed. by William A. Darity, Detroit [u. a.]: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008
  • Encyclopedia of race and racism , ed. by Patrick L. Mason, Detroit [u. a.]: Macmillan Reference USA, 2nd edition 2013 (4 volumes)

Political Science and Political Science

  • State Lexicon . Published on behalf of the Görres Society for the Maintenance of Science in Catholic Germany. 1st edition, Freiburg i. Br .: Herder, 1889–1897 (5 vols., A), 7th completely revised edition, Freiburg i. Br .: Herder 1985–1993 (5 + 2 Bde., A), 8th completely revised edition, ed. by Heinrich Oberreuter , Freiburg i. Br .: Herder 2017ff. (presumably 5 vols., 2 vols. published so far, A)
  • Concise dictionary of political science. ed. by Johannes Conrad, Jena: Fischer, 1890–1894 (6 volumes and 2 supplement volumes, A). 3rd, completely revised edition 1909–1911, ed. v. Joh. Conrad (8 vols., A). 4th, completely revised edition 1923–1929, ed. by Ludwig Elster (8 vols. and supplementary volume). Successor: Concise dictionary of the social sciences .
  • Encyclopedia of Law and Political Science 1922– (S)
  • Evangelisches Staatslexikon , 1st edition, Kreuz-Verlag, Berlin 1966 (1 vol., A), 3rd revised. Edition, Kreuz-Verlag, Stuttgart 1987 (2 vols., A), 4th fully. Revised. Edition, Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2006 (1 vol., A)
  • Lexicon of Politics. Munich: CH Beck, 1992–1998 (7 vols., S)
  • International encyclopedia of political science , ed. by Bertrand Badie, Los Angeles, Calif. [u. a.]: Sage, 2011 (8 volumes)
International Relations
  • The international studies encyclopedia , ed. by Robert A. Denemark, Chichester [u. a.]: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010–, 12 volumes
  • Franz Graeffer and Johann Jakob Czikann: Austrian National Encyclopedia or alphabetical presentation of the most remarkable peculiarities of the Austrian Empire . Vienna 1835–1837 (6 vols., 1 supplementary volume 1838). The work is considered the first nationally oriented Austrian encyclopedia.
  • Kronprinzenwerk (Vienna 1885–1902, 24 vols.)
  • Richard Bamberger , Franz Maier-Bruck (Ed.): Austria Lexicon. Vienna 1966–1967 (2 vol.)
  • Richard and Maria Bamberger, Ernst Bruckmüller, Karl Gutkas: Austria Lexicon . Vienna 1995. ISBN 3-95004-381-0 (2 vol.)
  • Lexicon for Austria . Largely identical to the Brockhaus with an additional reference to Austria (2005–2006, 20 vols.)
  • Johann Jacob Leu : General Helvetic, Federal, or Swiss Lexicon . Zurich 1747–1765 (20 volumes). It is considered to be the most important representative of the nationally oriented Swiss lexicons of the 18th century. Between 1786 and 1795, six supplement volumes were published by Blunschi in Zug, edited by the pharmacist Hans Jakob Holzhalb.



  • Johann Georg Krünitz : Economic Encyclopedia , 1773-1858, 242 volumes (A)
  • Floor plan of the social economy , Tübingen 1914–1930, 9 departments. in 12 volumes (S)
  • Encyclopedia of Law and Political Science 1922- (S). Also includes: Economics.
  • Encyclopedia of Business Administration , since 1926 (A and S)
  • Concise dictionary of economics: at the same time a new edition of the concise dictionary of social sciences . Stuttgart u. a .: Fischer u. a. 1977–1983 (9 vols. And register volume, A)
  • The new Palgrave dictionary of economics , ed. by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume, Basingstoke, Hampshire [u. a.]: Palgrave Macmillan, 2nd edition 2008

Philosophy and religion


See also: Portal: Philosophy / Philosophy Bibliography


See also: List of Theological Reference Works

  • Encyclopedia of religion , 15 volumes, ed. by Lindsay Jones, Detroit [u. a.]: Macmillan Reference USA, 2nd edition 2005
  • Hubert Cancik et al. (Ed.), Handbook of Basic Concepts for Religious Studies , 5 vols. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1988–2001, ISBN 3-17-010531-0 .
  • Metzler Lexicon Religion: Present - Everyday Life - Media , ed. by Christoph Auffarth, Stuttgart [u. a.]: Metzler, 1999–2002, 4 volumes
  • Encyclopedia of Buddhism , ed. by Robert E. Buswell, Jr., New York [u. a.]: Macmillan Reference USA, Thomson Gale, 2004, 2 volumes
  • Encyclopedia of Buddhism , ed. by Damien Keown, London [a. a.]: Routledge, 2007
  • Encyclopaedia of Tibetan Buddhism , ed. by Kuldeep Chand Agnihotri, New Delhi: Anmol Publ., 2012, 5 volumes
  • Encyclopaedia of Buddhist world , hrg. by Ranjana Rani Singhal, New Delhi: Centrum Press, 2012, 10 volumes
  • Encyclopedia of Hinduism. ed. by Denise Cush, Catherine A. Robinson and Michael York, London [u. a] 2007 and 2009 (paperback)
  • Brill's encyclopedia of Hinduism , ed. by Knut A. Jacobsen, Leiden [u. a.]: Brill, 2009– (part of the Handbook of Oriental Studies )
  • Isaac ben Samuel Lampronti : Awe of Isaac . Real lexicon on rabbinical literature (Hebrew Sefer Paḥad Yiṣḥaq) . Enṣiqloppedya la-talmud we-la-halaka (Venice, Lyck, Berlin 1750–1888; ND in Salmon Verlag, Yerušalayim 1970/1971). See also the later digitization of the Munich digitization center (In Iwrith)
  • Franz Gräffer, Simon Deutsch (Ed.), Jüdischer Plutarch: or biographical lexicon of the most striking men and women of Jewish descent (of all classes, times and countries), with special consideration of the Austrian Empire, Vol. 1–2, Vienna 1848. Digitized
  • Heinrich Graetz , History of the Jews . From the oldest times to the present. Revised from the sources, Vol. 1–11, Leipzig 1853–1875. Digital copies of all 11 volumes as a facsimile Freimann collection or as text-recognized by the full-text library
  • Jacob Hamburger : Spirit of the Hagada . Collection of Hagadian sayings from the Talmuds and Midrashim on biblical, dogmatic, moral and antiquarian subjects. Edited in alphabetical order. Verlag Leopold Schnauß, Leipzig, 1857. (= Institute for the Promotion of Israelite Literature 2 (1856/1857)) (The Strelitz rabbi published the first lemmas of a Jewish encyclopedia in this volume: Aaron – Leprosy). The following titles follow the endeavor to take full account of Jewish reference works in chronological order. In addition, those works that are already digitally accessible should be linked to each other on this page.
  • Jacob Hamburger : Real Encyclopedia for the Bible and Talmud : Dictionary for manual use by Bible lovers, theologians, lawyers, community and school leaders, teachers, etc. "; edited by Jacob Hamburger and Johann Carl Samuel Steiner, Issue 1: A – Eideformel, self-published, Strelitz 1866.
  • Jacob Hamburger : Real Encyclopedia for the Bible and Talmud (with Section III (= Volume III) in the first edition continued as Real Encyclopedia of Judaism ). Dictionary for hand use by Bible lovers, theologians, lawyers, statesmen, community and school leaders, teachers and the like. a. m., Vol. I – III (including 6 supplements), Schletter'sche Buchhandlung H. Skutsch, KF Koehler commission and self-published by the author, Breslau / Strelitz / Leipzig 1870–1901. (= 1st edition)
  • Adolf Neubauer (ed.), Mediaeval Jewish Chronicles and Chronological Notes , edited from printed books and manuscripts, Vol. 1–2, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1887–1895. (In Iwrith, with an introduction in English) Digitized
  • Jacob Hamburger : Real Encyclopedia of Judaism . Dictionary for hand use by Bible lovers, theologians, lawyers, statesmen, community and school leaders, teachers, school inspectors and the like. a. m., Vol. I – III (including 6 supplements), Schletter'sche Buchhandlung H. Skutsch, KF Koehler on commission and self-published by the author, Leipzig 1896–1901. (= 2nd edition, identical page numbers)
  • Adolph Kohut : Famous Israelite Men and Women in Human Cultural History . Life and character images from the past and present. A guide for the home and family. With numerous portraits and other illustrations. Vol. 1–2, Verlag AH Payne, Leipzig-Reudnitz 1900–1901. Digitized
  • Jacob Hamburger : Real Encyclopedia of Judaism. Dictionary for hand use by Bible lovers, theologians, lawyers, statesmen, community and school leaders, teachers, school inspectors and the like. a. m., Vol. I-III (including 6 Supplements) , Schletter'sche Buchhandlung H. Skutsch, KF Koehler in commission and self-published by the author, Neustrelitz 1905. (= 3rd new, improved edition, like the 2nd and 1st page numbers - but not always text identical (with German and Hebrew register in the III. supplement of the III. section))
  • Cyrus Adler, Isidore Singer (Ed.): The Jewish Encyclopedia : A Descriptive Record of the History, Religion, Literature, and Customs of the Jewish People from the Earliest Times to the Present Day , Vol. 1–12, Funk and Wagnalis, New York / London 1901–1906.
  • Marcus Jastrow : A Dictionary of the Targumim , The Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature , Vol. 1 (Alef – chav, with an index of scriptural quotations, 683 pp.) - 2 (Lamed – tav, p. 686– 1736), Luzac et al. a., London 1895-1903. (engl.)
  • Lev I. (Ieguda-Lejb-Ven'jamin) Kacenel'son: Evrejskaja ėnciklopedija : Svod znanij o evrejstvĕ i ego kul'turĕ v prošlom i nastojaščem, vol. 1–16, izdatel'stvo Brokgauz-Efron, S.-Peterburg 1908-1913. (Reprints: 1. Facsimile-ND: Mouton, Europe Printing, The Hague / Paris / Vaduz 1969–71 (= Slavistic Printings and Reprintings 193, Vol. 1–16); 2. Facsimile-ND: izdatel'stvo Terra, Vol . 1–16, Moskva 1991; 3. Evrejskaja ėnciklopedija. 4 CD-ROM (2003), izdatel'stvo Diskaveri, Moskva 2003, ISBN 5945226327 (Only PC compatible, from Windows 98); text identical to the Russian-Jewish encyclopedia (1908 –1913), each page as a PDF facsimile, together with illustrations and maps as well as the export function of the modern Russian text in contrast to the spelling before the last font reform). (In Russian). (= Russian-Jewish encyclopedia Brockhaus-Jefron (1908–1913): collection of knowledge about Judaism and its culture in the past and present). Another digitization is available here , both Russian versions allow a full-text search. The basis is the facsimile digitized version provided by the Russian State Library (formerly the Lenin Library), which can be accessed volume by volume via the links on the Wikisource page . The complete index of the paper edition of the "Russian-Jewish Encyclopedia Brockhaus-Jefron (1908–1913)" begins with digital page 223 in the last 16th volume ; Retrieved April 28, 2014. (In Russian)
  • Salomon Wininger: Great Jewish National Biography: with more than 13,000 biographies of well-known Jewish men and women of all times and countries. A reference work for the Jewish people and their friends, Vol. 1–7, Orient-Verlag et al., Cernăuţi 1925–1936.
  • Georg Herlitz, Bruno Kirchner, Ismar Elbogen (eds.): Jewish Lexicon . An encyclopedic handbook of Jewish knowledge, founded by Georg Herlitz and Bruno Kirchner. Vol. I-IV / 2, Berlin 1927-1930. (ND Jüdischer Verlag, Berlin 1982; ND Athenäum-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1987; ND Jüdischer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1992). Access to the five individual volumes: Vol. I: A – C (1927) , Vol. II: D – H (1928) , Vol. III: Ib – Ma (1928) , Vol. IV / 1: Me – R (1930) ; Vol. IV / 2: S – Z (1930)
  • Jakob Klatzkin , Ismar Elbogen (eds.): Encyclopaedia Judaica: Judaism in Past and Present, Vol. 1–10, Eschkol Publikations Gesellschaft, Berlin 1928–1934.
  • Péter Ujvári (Ed.): Magyar Zsidó Lexikon, Budapest 1929, 1028 S. The digital edition of the Hungarian-Jewish Encyclopedia (1929) can be browsed through pages and keywords , its full text can be searched and downloaded in various formats , ISBN 963-200- 519-8 ; ISBN 963-200-520-1 (In Hungarian).
  • Emanuel bin Gorion, Alfred Loewenberg , Otto Neuburger, Hans Oppenheimer (eds.): Philo-Lexikon. Handbook of Jewish Knowledge . Handbook of Jewish Knowledge, Philo Verlag, Berlin 1935, VII S., 830 Sp. (1st edition); Unchanged reprint of the 3rd increased and improved edition from 1936: Jüdischer Verlag im Suhrkamp Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1992.
  • Isaac Landman (Ed.): The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia : An Authoritative and Popular Presentation of Jews and Judaism since the Earliest Times, Vol. 1–10, University of the Jewish Encyclopedia, New York 1939–1943. (1st edition) Of the ten volumes, only five are digitally available, including the register volume (in English). (2nd edition 1948)
  • Harry Schneidermann / Itzhak J. Camin (Eds.): Who's who in World Jewry : A Biographical Dictionary of Outstanding Jews, Who's who in World Jewry, New York 1955. (In English)
  • David Bridger, Samuel Wolk (Eds.): The New Jewish Encyclopedia . Foreword by Abba Eban , Behrman House, New York 1962. (2nd edition 1976) (In English)
  • Rambi: The Index of Articles on Jewish Studies, founded by Dr. Issachar Joel in 1966. This is a selective list of articles in various fields of Jewish studies and the study of Eretz Israel and the State of Israel. Rambi based largely on the collections of the National Library. The articles listed Rambi Nlktim from thousands of journals - whether in print or electronically, and from collections of articles, in Hebrew letters, Latin or Cyrillic - and of reprints are sent to by the researchers. The database is updated every day. By the end of 2007 were recorded in about 300,000 records, out of about 20,000 different sources. Rambi appeared in print from 1966 until 2000, volume 50-1. Project conversion of printed booklets (volume 28-1) to the Internet was made possible by the contribution of the Littauer Foundation. With all the material Rambi Elevation computer stopped printing the booklets. Rambi record includes - the abbreviated form: author, title, bibliographic information and access to the full text. This online access is in English
  • John F. Oppenheimer, Emanuel bin Gorion (ed.): Lexikon des Judentums , Bertelsmann-Lexikon-Verlag, Gütersloh, Berlin / Munich / Vienna 1967, 928 Sp.
  • Cecil Roth , Geoffrey Wigoder (Eds.): The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia, Doubleday, Garden City, New York 1970. ISBN 1135727589 ISBN 978-1135727581 .
  • Raphael Patai (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Zionism and Israel , Vol. 1–2, Herzl Press MacGraw-Hill, New York 1971. (In English)
  • Cecil Roth , Geoffrey Wigoder (eds.): Encyclopaedia Judaica , Vol. 1–16 (A – Z), Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem / Macmillan, New York 1971–1972. (In English) (ND 1996 Vol. 1-16 & (17: Supplement) (& Decennial Book 1973-1982 (1982) and Decennial Book 1983-1992 (1994)); Encyclopaedia Judaica on CD-ROM (1997) English title: The most comprehensive authoritative source on the Jewish world; includes 26 printed volumes, updated text plus new feature articles, powerful search capabilities, interactive timeline, full multimedia program.Version 1.0, Publisher: Judaica Multimedia, Shaker Heights / Ohio 1997 Compatibility: Only PC compatible, Win 95. According to the German sales department, this CD is identical to the CD-ROM distributed by VVB Laufersweiler Verlag (Giessen) since 2004, despite its different ISBN 3896872362 : the world's most extensive Jewish reference work with the complete 26 Volumes and accompanying video and sound clips with multimedia effects as a modern interactive CD-ROM edition!). (In English); (2nd and improved and expanded edition of the paper edition: Michael Berenbaum, Fred Skolnik (Eds.): Encyclopaedia Judaica , Vol. 1–22, Macmillan Reference USA, Detroit, [inter alia] 2006–2007. 18.015S. ISBN 978-0 -02-865928-2 ). The digital edition of the complete 2nd edition is now freely accessible . The electronic edition of the updated 2nd edition (2007) offers over 21,000 entries on the topics of Jewish life, culture, history and religion in English. New subjects deal with the Bible, women, Jewish law and community life, and the Holocaust. It also contains numerous figures, maps, diagrams, tables and photos. eISBN 978-0-02-866097-4 (In English)
  • Icchak Oren (-Nadel ') (Ed.): Kratkaja evrejskaja ėnciklopedija , Vol. 1–11, izdatel'stvo Keter, Ierusalim 1976–2005. The eleven-volume “Small Jewish Encyclopedia” (1976-2005) is continued in Jerusalem as the Electronic Jewish Encyclopedia (Ėlektronnaja evrejskaja ėnciklopedija (ĖEĖ) 1976ff.). (In Russian)
  • Ze'ēv Dafnî (Ed.): Ôṣar hay-yahadût, mûśśegê yesôd bay-yahadût, Tefûṣā, Benê Beraq 1983. (In Iwrith)
  • Daniel Walden (Ed.): Twentieth century American Jewish fiction writers , Gale, Detroit / Michigan 1984 (= Dictionary of literary biography 28). ISBN 0810317060 (In English)
  • Manuel Aguilar and Jan Robertson (Eds.): Jewish Spain. A guide, Altalena, Madrid 1984. ISBN 8474751659 (In English)
  • Béatrice Philippe: Les juifs dans le monde contemporain, MA Ed., Paris 1986.
  • Refāēl Yehûdā Ṣevî Werblôwsqî (Ed.): The Encyclopedia of the Jewish Religion. Adama Books, New York 1986. (In English)
  • Min ham-massād, yalqût mûśśāgîm be-yahadût, Miśrad hab-Biṭṭāḥôn, Tel Aviv 1986. (In Iwrith)
  • Israel Gutman , Eberhard Jäckel , Peter Longerich (eds.): Enzyklopädie des Holocaust , Vol. 1–4, Piper-Verlag, Munich 1987. 1912 pp. (2nd edition 1998) ISBN 3492227007 ISBN 978-3492227001
  • Johann Maier, Peter Schäfer (Hrsg.): Kleines Lexikon des Judentums , Verlag Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 346032001X
  • Adel Theodor Khoury (Hrsg.): Lexicon of religious basic terms . Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Styria-Verlag, Graz 1987. 1175 pp. ISBN 978-3222117176
  • Sẹvî Loker: Pinqas haq-qehîllôt . Enṣîqlôpedyā šel hay-yîššûvvîm hay-yehûdiyyîm le-min hîwwasdām we- × ad le-aḥar šô'at milḥemet hā- × * ôlām haš-šeniyyā; Yûgôslâwyā, Yād wā-šēm, Yerûšālayim 1988. ISBN 9653080067 . (In Ivrith)
  • Gēršom Bader (Ed.): The encyclopedia of Talmudic sages , Aronson, Northvale, NJ / USA 1988, ISBN 0876689039 , ISBN 1568210361 (In English)
  • Moše Ze'ēv Sole (ed.): Leqsîqôn maḥaševet Yiśrā'ēl, îšîm û-mif × ālām. Mas, Yerûšālayim 1989. (In Iwrith)
  • Yô'ēl Rappel (Ed.): Mô × adê Yiśrā'ēl . Enṣîqlôpedyā šîmmûšît laš-Šabbāt we-la-ḥag; lam-me × ayyên, las-sṭûdenṭ, lat-talmîd Miśrad hab-Biṭṭāḥôn, Tēl-Āvîv 1990, ISBN 9650504540 (In Iwrith)
  • Yiśrael Guṭman (Ed.): Yād wa-Šēm 'Rāšût haz-Zîkkārôn laš-Šôā we-lag-Gevûrā , Vol. 1–2, Macmillan, New York 1990. ISBN 0028960904 (In Iwrith) (cf. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust 1987)
  • Alan Unterman (Ed.): Dictionary of Jewish lore and legend, Thames and Hudson, London 1991. (In English)
  • The "Working Group for Research into the History of the Jews in Southern Germany and the Adjoining Region" ( Alemannia Judaica ) is a history association founded in 1992 with its own reference work. The focus of her work area is the Alemannic area in the south-west of Germany (areas of Baden-Württemberg, Alsace, German-speaking Switzerland, Vorarlberg and Swabia). The working group includes numerous institutions in the region that have placed a focus on coming to terms with Jewish regional and local history, as well as private individuals who are interested in remembrance work on site. The working group maintains a website on which information on local Jewish history in southern Germany and neighboring areas is provided in encyclopedic form .
  • Geoffrey Wigoder (Ed.): The New Standard Jewish encyclopedia, Facts on File, New York 1992, ISBN 0816026904 (In English)
  • Dan Cohn-Sherbok: The Blackwell Dictionary of Judaica , Publisher Blackwell, Oxford 1992. (In English)
  • Ellen Frankel / Betsy Platkin Teutsch (Eds.): The Encyclopedia of Jewish Symbols , Aronson Northvale / NJ 1992. (In English) ISBN 0876685947
  • Julius H. Schoeps, editor of the Moses Mendelssohn Center (ed.): Neues Lexikon des Judentums , Bertelsmann, Gütersloh 1992. (2nd revised new edition 1992)
  • Werner Weinberg: Lexicon on the religious vocabulary and customs of the German Jews, Frommann-Holzboog-Verlag, Frommann-Holzboog, Stuttgart / Bad Cannstatt 1994. 356S. ISBN 3772816215
  • Geoffrey Wigoder (Ed.): The New Encyclopedia of Zionism and Israel, Vol. 1-2, London and Toronto: Herzl Press 1994, ISBN 0838634338 . (in English)
  • Abraham J. Edelheit / Hershel Edelheit (Ed.): History of the Holocaust. A Handbook and Dictionary. Westview Press, Boulder 1994, ISBN 0813314119 & ISBN 0813322405 .
  • German G. Branover, Sir Isaiah Berlin , Zeev N. Wagner (eds.): Rossijskaja evrejskaja ėnciklopedija (REĖ), Vol. 1–5 (Vol. 1–3, biographies); Vol. 4–5 (Historiographische Heimatkunde), Ėpos, Moskva 1994ff. The Russian Jüdische Enzyklopädie, (REĖ 1994ff.) , Like the eleven-volume Electronic Jüdische Enzyklopädie (EJE, 1976ff), will be continued online as a Wiki , donated by the " Conference of Material Claims against Germany " (= Encyclopedia of Russian Jewry). (In Russian)
  • Chaim Pearl (Ed.): The Encyclopedia of Jewish Life and Thought . Rev. and expanded from the Hebrew, Carta, Jerusalem 1996, ISBN 9652202320 . (In English)
  • Jean-Christophe Attias, Esther Benbassa (eds.): Dictionnaire de civilization juive . Auteurs, oeuvres, notions, Larousse, Paris 1997, ISBN 2037203195 . (In French)
  • Norman Solomon: Historical dictionary of Judaism , Scarecrow Press, Lanham, Md./USA 1998. (= Historical dictionaries of religions, philosophies, and movements 19) (In English)
  • The Jewish Virtual Library sees itself with 16,000 articles and 7,000 images as the most comprehensive online encyclopedia of Judaism. It was founded in 1998 by the US non-profit organization American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE) and currently has the Alexa Rank 43,073, accessed on May 21, 2014. Thematically, it deals with: a. Israel, American-Israeli relations, Jewish history, the Holocaust, Zionism, and anti-Semitism. Encyclopedias, history books, journals, etc. are evaluated for archiving. There are cooperations with institutions such as the Anti-Defamation League, Library of Congress, the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Simon Wiesenthal Center. So far, some a. the Tanakh and the Babylonian Talmud. Jewish Virtual Library Online
  • Eric Joseph Epstein / Philip Rosen (eds.): Dictionary of the Holocaust . Biography, Geography, and Terminology, Greenwood, Westport, Conn 1997, ISBN 031330355X (In English)
  • Šemû'ēl Spector (Ed.): The Encyclopedia of Jewish life Before and During the Holocaust , New York University Press, New York 2001, ISBN 0814793568 (In English)
  • Norman Roth (Ed.): Medieval Jewish civilization . An encyclopedia, Routledge, New York 2003. (= Routledge Encyclopedias of the Middle Ages 7) (In English)
  • Zofia Borzymińska, Rafał Żebrowski (eds.): Polski słownik judaistyczny . Dzieje, kultura, religia, ludzie. Prószyński i S-ka, Warszawa 2003. (In Polish)
  • Mordekay Yônā (Ed.): Enṣîqlôpedyā šel yehûdê Kûrdîstân, Vol. 1–2,2, Yônā, Yerûšālayim 2003, ISBN 9653428535 (In Hebrew)
  • Jacob Neusner, Alan Jeffery Avery-Peck (eds.): The Routledge dictionary of Judaism , Routledge, New York 2004 (= Routledge dictionaries). ISBN 0415302641 (In English)
  • Niels-Peter Lemche (Ed.): Historical dictionary of ancient Israel , Scarecrow Press, Lanham / Md. 2004. (= Historical Dictionaries of Ancient Civilizations and Historical Eras 13) ISBN 0810848481 (In English)
  • Veronika R. Irina-Kogan (Ed.): Ėnciklopedija. Drevneevrejskie imena, familii, kolena ; v trëch tomach Vol. 1–3, izdatel'stvo Gosudarstvennoj klassičeskoj akademii imeni Majmonida, Moskva 2004. (In Russian)
  • Efraim Zadoff: Shoá : enciclopedia del Holocausto, EDZ Nativ ediciones, Jerusalén 2004. (In Spanish)
  • Dan Cohn-Sherbok: The dictionary of Jewish biography , Continuum, London a. a. 2005. LXVI, 308 pp. (In English)
  • Îtāmār Lēwîn (Ed.): Leqsîqôn haš-šôā, Miśkāl, Tēl-Āvîv 2005, ISBN 9655119297 (In Hebrew)
  • Johann Maier (ed.): Jewry from A to Z . Faith, history, culture, Herder-Verlag, Freiburg 2001. (= Herder spectrum 5169) ISBN 3451051699
  • Mordecai Schreiber, Leon Klenicki, Alvin I. Schiff (Eds.): The Shengold Jewish Encyclopedia , Schreiber Publishing, New York 2003. (In English) Reading samples
  • Glenda Abramson (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Modern Jewish Culture , Vol. 1-2, Routledge, London 2004-2005. 1600 p. (Print Edition) (2 vol set) Digitized ISBN 0-415-29813-X (In English)
  • Gershon D. Hundert: The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe , Yale University Press, New Haven, 2008, ISBN 978-0-300-11903-9 (In English). The digital version with various media is accessible via a website with a search function .
  • Dan Diner (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Jewish History and Culture , Metzler-Verlag, Stuttgart / Weimar, Vol. 1–7, 2011–2015, ISBN 978-3-476-02500-5 . (See also the website dedicated to the editorial project at the Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig )

Architecture, fashion, art, music and literature


  • Encyclopedia of Aesthetics , ed. by Michael Kelly, 4 volumes, New York, NY [u. a.]: Oxford University Press, 1998 - online at Oxford Art Online
  • Basic aesthetic terms: historical dictionary in seven volumes , ed. by Karlheinz Barck, Stuttgart [u. a.]: Metzler, 2000-2005

Architecture and horticulture

  • Wasmuths Lexikon der Baukunst , ed. by Günther Wasmuth, Berlin: Wasmuth, 1929–1937, 5 volumes
  • Encyclopedia of 20th-century architecture , ed. by R. Stephen Sennott, New York [u. a.]: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2004, 3 volumes
  • Encyclopedia of gardens: history and design , ed. by Candice A. Shoemaker, Dearborn, Chicago [u. a.] 2001, 3 volumes



  • Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion , ed. by Valerie Steele, 3 volumes, Detroit [u. a.]: Thomson Gale, 2005
  • Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion , ed. by Joanne B. Eicher, 10 volumes, Oxford [u. a.]: Berg, 2010 (also online)



  • Encyclopedia of Fairy Tales : Concise dictionary for historical and comparative narrative research. Edited by Rolf Wilhelm Brednich . de Gruyter, Berlin 1975 ff. (completed in 2015, 15 volumes including register volume) (A)
  • Real Lexicon of German Literary Studies : revision of the Real Lexicon of German literary history . 3 volumes, ed. by Klaus Weimar, Harald Fricke and Jan-Dirk Müller, 3rd edition, de Gruyter, Berlin [u. a.] 1997-2003.
  • Encyclopedia of African literature , ed. by Simon Gikandi, London [u. a.]: Routledge, 2003
  • Holocaust literature: an encyclopedia of writers and their work. Edited by S. Lillian Kremer, New York [u. a.]: Routledge, 2003
  • The Oxford encyclopedia of American literature. Edited by Jay Parini, Oxford [u. a.]: Oxford Univ. Press, 2004, 4 volumes
  • Mary R. Reichardt (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Catholic literature. Greenwood, Westport (Connecticut) 2004 (2 vol.)
  • The Oxford encyclopedia of children's literature. Edited by Jack Zipes, Oxford [etc.]: Oxford University Press, 2006, 4 volumes
  • The Greenwood encyclopedia of African American literature , ed. by Hans Ostrom and J. David Macey, Jr, Westport, Conn. [u. a.]: Greenwood Press, 2005, 5 volumes
  • Encyclopedia of erotic literature , ed. by Gaëtan Brulotte, Routledge, New York [u. a.] 2006, 2 volumes
  • Alpers / Fuchs / Hahn / Jeschke: Lexicon of Science Fiction Literature . Expanded and updated new edition in one volume. Heyne Verlag, Munich 1987. ISBN 3-453-02453-2
  • The Oxford encyclopedia of British literature , ed. by David Scott Kastan, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford [and a.] 2006, 5 volumes
  • Killy Literature Lexicon - Authors and Works from the German-speaking Cultural Area , ed. by Wilhelm Kühlmann [ao], Berlin [a. a.]: de Gruyter, 2008–2012, dictionary of authors, 12 volumes plus 1 register volume [1. Edition, edited by Walther Killy , Bertelsmann Gütersloh 1988–1993, 15 volumes, including 2 volumes. Glossary of terms and 1 volume. Register]
  • Kindler's literary dictionary . Edited by Heinz Ludwig Arnold . 3rd, completely revised edition. 18 vols. Metzler, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-476-04000-8 . [1. Edition Kindler, Munich 1965–1972; 2nd, revised and updated edition, ed. by Walter Jens under the title Kindler's New Literature Lexicon. Kindler, Munich 1988–1998. 22 volumes. (A); Work dictionary]
  • Lexicon of German-Jewish authors
  • Routledge Encyclopedia of Narrative Theory. Edited by David Herman, Manfred Jahn and Marie-Laure Ryan, Routledge, London [u. a.] 2010 (paperback edition), ISBN 0-415-77512-4
  • The encyclopedia of Romantic literature. Edited by Frederick Burwick, Malden, Mass. [u. a.]: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 3 volumes
  • Critical lexicon of contemporary German-language literature
  • Critical lexicon of contemporary foreign language literature
  • Author's Lexicon - The German literature of the Middle Ages

Linguistics, rhetoric and communication

Popular culture

  • Encyclopedia of African American popular culture. ed. by Jessie Carney Smith, 4 volumes, Greenwood, Santa Barbara, Calif. [u. a.] 2011

Theater, dance and performance

  • Piper's encyclopedia of musical theater: opera, operetta, musical, ballet. Piper, Munich a. a. 1986–1997 (7 vols. And register volume, A)
  • Manfred Brauneck : The world as a stage: history of European theater , Stuttgart [u. a.]: Metzler, 1993-2007,
  • International encyclopedia of dance , ed. by Selma Jeanne Cohen , New York: Oxford University Press, 1998, 6 volumes, ISBN 0-19-509462-X
  • The world encyclopedia of contemporary theater , ed. by Don Rubin, London [u. a.]: Routledge, 1994-2000, 6 volumes
  • The Oxford encyclopedia of theater & performance , ed. by Dennis Kennedy, Oxford [u. a.]: Oxford Univ. Press, 2003, 2 volumes
  • Encyclopedia of Latin American theater , ed. by Eladio Cortés. - Westport, Conn. [u. a.]: Greenwood Press, 2003
  • Metzler Lexikon Theater Theory , ed. by Erika Fischer-Lichte , Doris Kolesch and Matthias Warstat, Stuttgart 2005
  • Theater Lexicon of Switzerland , Zurich 2005, 3 volumes (also online)
  • Encyclopedia of Asian theater , ed. by Samuel L. Leiter, Westport, Conn. [u. a.]: Greenwood Press, 2007, 2 volumes



  • Michael F. Suarez and HR Woudhuysen (Eds.): The Oxford Companion to the Book. 2 volumes. Oxford University Press, Oxford et al. 2010, ISBN 978-0-19-860653-6 .
  • Karl Löffler , Joachim Kirchner (Hrsg.): Lexicon of the entire book system. 3 volumes. Hiersemann, Leipzig 1935–1937 (Severin Corsten et al. (Ed.): Lexicon of the entire book system. LGB. 2nd, completely revised edition. Hiersemann, Stuttgart 1985 ff., ISBN 3-7772-8527-7 (until March 2012 are 57 deliveries, = beginning of the 8th volume, published)).

watch TV

  • Encyclopedia of television , ed. by Horace Newcomb (Museum of Broadcast Communications), 4 volumes, New York, NY [u. a.]: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2004



  • Contemporary photographers. ed. by Martin Marix-Evans and Andrej Baskakov, 3rd edition, XXV, 1234 p., numerous. Ill., St. James Press, New York [et al. a.] 1995
  • Hans-Michael Koetzle: The Lexicon of Photographers: 1900 to today , Munich: Knaur 2002, 512 S., ISBN 3-426-66479-8 .
  • John Hannavy (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography , 1736 S., Routledge, New York 2005, ISBN 978-0-415-97235-2 .
  • Lynne Warren (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century Photography , 1719 pp., Routledge, New York, New York [u. a.] 2006


  • Encyclopedia of journalism , ed. by Christopher H. Sterling, Thousand Oaks, Calif. [ua]: SAGE, 2009, 6 volumes
  • The encyclopedia of war journalism: 1807-2010 , ed. by Mitchel P. Roth, Amenia, NY: Gray House Pub., 2nd edition 2010


  • Encyclopedia of radio , The Museum of Broadcast Communications, ed. by Christopher H. Sterling, New York [u. a.]: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2004, 3 volumes

Health and medicine




  • Encyclopedia of Psychology , Göttingen: Hogrefe, since 1982
  • The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral science , ed. by W. Edward Craighead; Charles B. Nemeroff, New York [et al. a.]: Wiley, 3rd edition 2001, 4 vols.
  • Lexicon of Psychology , Ed. G. Wenninger, Heidelberg 2000–2002, 5 vols.
  • Manual of Psychology , Göttingen: Hogrefe, since 2005


  • International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis , ed. by Alain de Mijolla, 3 volumes, Detroit [u. a.]: Thomson / Gale, 2005 (MacMillan Reference Books)
  • The Edinburgh international encyclopaedia of psychoanalysis , ed. by Ross M. Skelton, Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 2006
  • Élisabeth Roudinesco: Dictionary of Psychoanalysis: Names, Countries, Works, Terms , Vienna [u. a.]: Springer, 2004

Math, science and technology

History of science


  • Encyclopedia of Mathematical Sciences
  • Encyclopaedia of Mathematics
  • Encyclopedic dictionary of Mathematics, MIT Press, 2 volumes, edited by Kiyoshi Ito and Mathematical Society of Japan (English edition: 1st edition 1987, 2nd edition 1993)
  • Siegfried Gottwald , Hans J. Ilgauds, Karl-Heinz Schlote : Lexicon of important mathematicians , Bibliographisches Institut 1990, Harri Deutsch, 2nd edition 2006
  • J. Naas, HL Schmid (editor): Mathematical dictionary with the inclusion of theoretical physics , 2 volumes, Berlin, Leipzig, Akademie Verlag and Teubner, 1972, 1974
  • Guido Walz (Ed.): Lexicon of Mathematics , 6 volumes, Spektrum Verlag 2001

Science, general


  • Paul Murdin (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Astronomy & Astrophysics . Institute of Physics, Bristol u. a. 2001 (4 volumes) (A)
  • Simon Mitton (ed.): Cambridge Encyclopedia of Astronomy . Bertelmann Lexikon Verlag, Gütersloh 1978. ISBN 3-570-06273-2 .




  • The Physics book
  • Hermann Franke (Ed.): Dtv Lexikon der Physik , 10 volumes, DTV 1970 (originally as Lexikon der Physik , 3 volumes, Stuttgart 1969, Franckhsche Verlagsbuchhandlung)
  • Oskar Höfling (Ed.): Lexicon of School Physics , 8 volumes, Aulis Verlag 1972, 1978
  • Walter Greulich (Ed.): Lexicon of Physics , 6 vols., Heidelberg: Spektrum Verlag, 1998–2000. Also as a CD-ROM.
  • Harry Paul (Ed.): Lexikon der Optik , 2 vols., Heidelberg 1999
  • Franco Bassani, Gerald Liedl, Peter Wyder (Eds.) Encyclopedia of condensed matter physics , 6 volumes, Elsevier, 2005
  • Modern Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics , ed. by Irina Aref'eva and Daniel Sternheimer, Springer Netherlands, 2010
  • Jean-Pierre Francoise, Gregory L. Naber, Tsou Sheung Tsun (editors) Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics , 5 volumes, Elsevier / Academic Press 2006

earth sciences

  • John H. Steele (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences . Academic Press, San Diego et al. a. 2001 (6 volumes) (A)
  • Vivien Gornitz (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments , Springer Verlag 2009
  • David Gubbins, Emilio Herrero-Bervera (Eds.): Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism , Springer Verlag 2007
  • Westermann-Lexikon der Geographie , Ed. Wolf Tietze - 2nd (partly 3rd) edition - Braunschweig: Westermann. - 5 vols. 1973-1975
  • Christiane Martin, Manfred Eiblmaier (Ed.): Lexicon of Geosciences: in six volumes , Heidelberg [u. a.]: Spectrum, Akad. Verl., 2000-2002
  • International Encyclopedia of Human Geography , 2009
  • Richard Selley, L. Robin M. Cocks, Ian Plimer (Editors): Encyclopedia of Geology , 5 volumes, Elsevier 2005
  • William A. Kidneyberg (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Earth System Science , 4 Volumes, Academic Press, 1992

Engineering and technology

  • Lexicon technicum , 1704 (A)
  • Luke Herbert: The Engineer's and Mechanic's Encyclopaedia . Kelly, London 1836-1837; 2nd edition 1849 (2 vols.) (A)
  • Charles Tomlinson: Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts and Manufactures . Virtue, London 1852 (2 vols., Supplement 1862) (A)
  • Lexicon of all technology
  • Victor von Röll : Encyclopedia of the entire railway system in alphabetical order, 1890–1895 in 7 volumes, Carl Gerold's Sohn publishing house, Vienna, 2nd edition 1912 to 1923 in 10 volumes, Urban & Schwarzenberg Verlag, Berlin / Vienna.

See also

Web links


  1. Michael Gleich, Dirk Maxeiner, Michael Miersch, Fabian Nicolay: Life Counts. A global balance sheet of life. Chapter: The great chroniclers of nature, p. 68 f., Berlin publishing house.
  2. Formally speaking, it is a story and not a specialty encyclopedia. Because of its size and quality, however, this work can be placed alongside the major English-language specialty encyclopedias.