Aviation chronology

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article gives a strictly chronological overview of the development of aviation . The chronology of the first flight dates of aircraft can be viewed in the list of first flights . A presentation based on individual topics can be found in the article History of Aviation .


Until 1782: the beginning of aviation

The "ride on a bird", an element of the Etana myth from the 24th century BC. Chr. (Illustration of the clay unwinding of a cylinder seal )
The bird of Saqqara from the 2nd century BC
Flight spiral by Leonardo da Vinci ( Manuscript B , Folio 83v), dated around 1487–1490
Francesco Lana's draft of an airship moving through vacuum buoyancy (see 1670)
Contemporary representation of Gusmão's flying machine (see 1709)
Cover of Bauer's airplane manuscript (see 1765)
Flying machine by Carl Friedrich Meerwein (see 1782)
  • 24th century BC Chr.
In the Etana myth , the shepherd Etana wants to bring “the herb of childbirth” down from heaven for his childless wife, but when he had almost reached his goal fell down with his eagle into the depths.
  • 5th century BC Chr.
Kites are the first historically verifiable, man-made flying devices (China 5th century BC).
  • 2nd century BC Chr.
The bird of Saqqara , a wooden artifact from a tomb in Saqqara, Egypt, could be a model of an aircraft.
  • 2nd century
The Roman writer Aulus Gellius describes in his Noctes Atticae the " Dove of Archytas ", a flightable wooden replica of a dove from the 4th century BC. Chr.
  • 9th century
The Muslim poet, scholar and scientist Abbas ibn Firnas is credited with building an aircraft that enables him to fly.
  • 10th century
The fettered kite is believed to be spread across the Pacific region and is used for manned, military, religious and ceremonial purposes.
  • 1000-1010
The English monk Eilmer of Malmesbury is credited with gliding over two hundred meters.
  • circa 1260
Roger Bacon describes an ornithopter in his work De secretis operibus artis et naturae .
  • 1282
Marco Polo reports on manned and ritual dragon ascents.
  • 1326
Depiction of a winged airbag kite in Walter de Milemete's font “De nobilitatibus”.
  • 1486-1513
Aeronautical and mathematical studies by Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519). In his records, such as the “ Codex on Bird Flight ” and the so-called “ Paris Manuscripts ”, there are among others: a parachute draft, a helicopter, drafts for swing planes, flow studies and streamlined bodies.
  • circa 1500
On his triptych “The Temptations of St. Anthony ”, Hieronymus Bosch depicts two airships fighting over a burning city.
  • 1589
Giambattista della Porta published in Volume 20 of his Magiae naturalis the specifications of a tethered kite .
  • 1616
Fausto Veranzio publishes a drawing of a parachutist known as Homo volans ("flying man").
  • 1644
The Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli succeeds in proving the air pressure and creating a vacuum , the "Torricellian void".
  • 1654
The physicist and mayor of Magdeburg Otto von Guericke measures the weight of the air.
  • 1670
The Jesuit Francesco Lana Terzi describes in his work “Prodromo” (“Harbinger”) a vacuum airship project that is considered the first realistic technical draft for an airship . However, Lana writes: "God will never allow such a machine to come about ... because who does not see that no city is safe from raids ...".
  • 1676
The physicist and mathematician Philipp Lohmeier , professor at the University of Rinteln , publishes his dissertation De artificio navigandi per aërem (From the art of sailing through the air). The presumed idea generator Francesco Lana Terzi (see 1670) is not mentioned in the publication.
  • 1709
August: The Brazilian Augustinian Father Bartolomeu Lourenço de Gusmão completes several hot air balloon attempts in Lisbon .
  • 1765
Melchior Bauer describes in his aircraft handwriting, illustrated by construction drawings, a glider with rigid V-shaped wings.
  • 1782
Carl Friedrich Meerwein , a builder from Baden, publishes a study with the title “Man! shouldn't he also be born with the ability to fly? " . Based on detailed measurements on various bird species, he uses it to calculate the size and weight of a flying machine that he believes a person can fly with. He also adds detailed drawings of his machine to this work and specifies the materials for the construction.

1783–1890: Balloons and flying devices

Depiction of the first manned tethered balloon ascent on October 19, 1783 in Paris.
The hydrogen balloon of the Parisian
Jacques Charles, which burst near Gonesse in 1783
Cover of the balloon " Ad Astra ", which rose on January 28, 1784 in Braunschweig .
Charles Green's balloon in Weilburg, 1836
  • 1784
    • January 28: The Ad Astra balloon rises in Braunschweig for its first flight in Germany. His second and last flight will follow on February 8th.
  • 1797
October 22nd: André-Jacques Garnerin jumps off a balloon with a parachute and becomes "official French state airman".
  • 1799
The Englishman Sir George Cayley (1773-1857) sketched a glider with a rudder and horizontal stabilizer. His manuscript is the starting point for the scientific study of the aircraft “heavier than air”. Orville Wright : “It was Cayley who helped clear up the confusion then. [...] He knew more than any of his predecessors [...] and successors until the end of the 19th century. "
  • 1804
Sir George Cayley , the "father of aeronautics ", is building a successful unmanned glider model based on his aircraft concept from 1799 .
  • 1807-1816
Jakob Degen designed a flapping wing aircraft in 1807 , an aircraft with a hydrogen balloon in 1808, and a clockwork propeller in 1816 (helicopter model).
  • 1811
May 31: Master tailor Albrecht Ludwig Berblinger from Ulm , who goes down in history as the “Tailor of Ulm”, tries - in the presence of the royal family - to fly over the Danube with a flying machine from the eagle bastion . The flight fails.
  • 1821
July 19: Charles Green uses coal gas to fill gas balloons .
  • 1836
7th and 8th November: Balloon flight over 722 km from London to Weilburg by Charles Green, Robert Hollond and Thomas Monk-Mason .
  • 1839
Charles Green and the astronomer Spencer Rush rise in a free balloon to 7,900 m.
  • 1842
November: First full draft of a power driven airplane with steam engine drive by the English engineer William Samuel Henson . The patent picks up on the work of Cayley. The founding application for an “Aerial Transport Company” (stock corporation) is rejected in the English House of Commons amid loud laughter.
  • 1844
The introduction of the tear strip, which is still in use today, by the American John Wise enables safe balloon landings.
  • 1848
June: John Stringfellow manages a successful flight over 40 yd (36.58 m) in a large room of a factory with a steam-powered monoplane model (wingspan 3 m).
  • 1852
    • September 24th: The first motorized airship voyage: Henri Giffard's steam-powered construction reaches a speed of around 10 km / h.
    • September: Sir George Cayley publishes a report on a glider , his "Governable Parachute", which has been successfully tested extensively without a pilot with ballast.
    • Creation of the first society to promote aviation (Societe Aerostatique de France).
  • 1857
    • After successful model tests, the French brothers du Temple de la Croix received a patent for a powered airplane.
    • Following bird studies (albatross), the French captain Jean Marie Le Bris undertakes flight attempts with a tow start, which are said to have been successful.
  • 1859
The French aviator and photographer Nadar takes the first aerial photos from a balloon at the Battle of Solferino .
  • 1859
July 1st and 2nd: balloon flight over 1,292 km through John Wise with three companions (St. Louis-Henderson, USA).
  • 1862
September 5: The aeronaut Coxwell and the English physicist James Glaisher climb an altitude of 9000 m.
  • 1865
    • September 20: Jacob Brodbeck , unmanned, motorized flight, heavier than air. A metal spiral similar to a pocket watch was used as a drive.
    • October 25: Jules Verne's novel Journey to the Moon is published as a book. The novel describes the launch of a moon projectile from Florida, from where the American rocket launches actually take place many years later.
    • The French d'Esterno writes in his book On the Flight of Birds : “Gliding seems to be characteristic of heavy birds; there is nothing to prevent humans from imitating these birds when the wind conditions are favorable. "
    • The French painter and farmer Louis Mouillard makes a successful attempt at gliding . After years of studying birds, he published his book Das Reich der Lüfte ( L'empire de l'air ) in 1881 , in which he believes that it is possible to imitate the gliding and gliding of birds, but not the wing flight.
  • 1867
Henri Giffard installs a giant tethered balloon for 20 people at the Paris World Exhibition .
The Albatros II by Jean Marie Le Bris in Brest in 1868. The first photograph of an airplane.
  • 1870/1871
Franco-Prussian War : A total of 66 balloons are launched in besieged Paris to overcome the siege ring.
  • 1872
    • February 2: The French naval engineer Henri Dupuy de Lôme reaches a speed of 9 to 11 km / h with a muscle-powered airship.
    • December 13th: Testing of the first airship with a gas engine by the German engineer Paul Haenlein in Brno. His airship Aeolus reaches 18 km / h. The attempts are canceled due to lack of money.
A series of measurements by Lilienthal from 1874.
  • 1874
    • July 5: Belgian Vincent de Groof had a fatal accident while attempting to fly with the arms when the arms, which were operated by the arms, collapsed after taking off from the balloon.
    • Lift and drag measurements on airfoils by Otto and Gustav Lilienthal , which are not published until 1889. Exploration & a. the advantage of the curved surface.
Thomas Moys air steamer from 1875
  • 1875
    • April 15th: The scientific high altitude flight of the Zenith balloon at 8000 m ends with the death of two pilots and the deafness of Gaston Tissandier .
    • The Englishman Thomas Moy is testing a tied up powered airplane model with a steam engine drive and a 4 m wingspan.
  • 1876
The French Alphonse Pénaud and Paul Gauchot take out a patent for a motorized airplane with retractable landing gear, wing V-shape and control stick.
  • 1877
First flight of a steam-powered model helicopter by Enrico Forlanini .
  • 1881
    • The Russian Alexander Fyodorowitsch Moshaiski receives a patent for a motorized airplane powered by a steam engine.
    • The French Louis Mouillard published the essay "The Empire of the Skies" (L'empire de l'air), in which he described gliders with a fixed wing.
  • 1882
The “ German Association for the Promotion of Airship Travel ”, founded in Berlin, publishes the first German specialist magazine on aviation.
  • 1883
The German Gottlieb Daimler invents the high-speed internal combustion engine , which is suitable for aviation due to its more favorable ratio between power and weight.
The airship La France 1885 in hangar Y
  • 1883/1884
The airship La France by Renard and Krebs performed the first fully controlled flight of an airship on August 9, 1884, traveling in a closed orbit.
  • 1886
September 12th and 13th: balloon flight over 24 hours by the French Hervé and Alluard.
  • 1888
August 10: 1. Ascent of an airship with a gasoline engine (motorized aviation), the power source that made aviation possible in the first place. The airship was designed by Friedrich Wölfert and Georg Baumgarten , who died in 1884, and the engine by Gottlieb Daimler. The start was at Daimler's factory yard in Cannstatt . The airship landed on the parade ground in Aldingen , after about 10 km. Further starts took place in Augsburg, Munich and Vienna.
  • 1889
November: Otto Lilienthal publishes his book Der Vogelflug as the basis of the art of flying . His measurements on wings, shown in so-called polar diagrams , form the basis of our current system of terms and demonstrate the advantages of wing curvature.
  • 1890
October 9: Clément Ader's steam-powered airplane Eole flies around 50 meters once.

1891–1899: First controlled flights

Lilienthal 1891 on the Spitzberg between Krielow and Derwitz
This is where mankind learned to fly
At the beginning of August 1895 Lilienthal demonstrates his double-decker glider to the visitor Samuel Pierpont Langley on the
Fliegeberg . The picture shows Lilienthal on October 19, 1895.
The Chanute-Herring double-decker glider 1896
  • 1891
Spring: Otto Lilienthal begins his systematic flight attempts with the Derwitz apparatus and reaches a maximum flight distance of 25 meters. These flights are now considered to be the first safe, repeatable glide flights in history.
  • 1893
The Australian Lawrence Hargrave demonstrates the box kite at an aeronautical congress in Sydney . He became a model for numerous scientific kites up to and including aircraft.
  • 1894
    • January: The book "Progress in Flying Machines" by Octave Chanute (USA) appears as a summary of a series of articles in the "American Engineer and Railroad Journal". It is a comprehensive representation of the global stage of development on the way to aircraft.
    • December 4th: The Polish meteorologist Arthur Berson rises in a free balloon to an altitude of 9155 m.
    • Otto Lilienthal starts the first series production of an airplane with the “ normal sailing apparatus ”. With various aircraft designs, he can reach flight distances of up to 250 m.
    • The American Hiram Maxim's large airplane is damaged during taxi attempts that showed sufficient lift. He then stopped his experiments, which had already devoured hundreds of thousands.
  • 1898
September 20: Alberto Santos Dumont's first flight with his airship “No. 1 ”, which is powered by a 2.6 kW (3.5 HP) De-Dion petrol engine.
  • 1899
September 13: Alberto Santos Dumont goes with his airship “No. 3 “20 minutes and goes around the Eiffel Tower for the first time. He made a dozen trips in the airship and set a record with 23 hours in the air.

1900–1909: First powered flight

  • 1900
LZ 1 on its maiden voyage over Lake Constance on July 2, 1900
July 2nd: First ascent of Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin's LZ 1 rigid airship .
Airship No. 6, with which Alberto Santos-Dumont won the German Prize on October 19, 1901.
  • 1901
    • July 31: The German meteorologists Arthur Berson and Reinhard Süring reach an altitude of 10,800 m in an open gondola on the Prussian free balloon .
    • August 14: Allegedly first stable powered flight by German-American Gustav Weißkopf over half a mile in Bridgeport / Connecticut. Flight is controversial in aviation history and has not influenced the development of powered flight.
    • October 1: The Austrian Wilhelm Kress's seaplane is destroyed while attempting to take off from Lake Wienerwald.
    • October 19: The Brazilian Alberto Santos-Dumont circumnavigates the Eiffel Tower with his airship No. 6 coming from St. Cloud and returns to the launch site in 30 minutes. These were the conditions for the German Prize, endowed with 100,000 francs .
    • First flights of a powered airplane model with a gasoline engine by Samuel Pierpont Langley .
    • The Wright brothers optimize their wings using wind tunnel measurements.
Rear view of Wilbur Wright on October 24, 1902 making a right turn with the double-decker glider.
December 17, 1903: Orville Wright flies on the Flyer
  • 1903
    • March 31: Allegedly first manned powered flight by New Zealander Richard Pearse over 100 m in Waitohi . The flight is not documented by any independent source and has not influenced the development of powered flight.
    • August 18: Allegedly first manned powered flight of the German Karl Jatho over 60 m in Hanover on the Vahrenwalder Heide . The flight is not documented by any independent source and has not influenced the development of powered flight.
    • October 8th and December 8th: Prof. Samuel Pierpont Langley's motorized aircraft The Great Aerodrom crashed on both flight attempts immediately after the catapult launch from a floating ramp in the Potomac near Washington.
    • December 17: Four successful flights, which the Wright brothers alternate in the dunes near Kitty Hawk (North Carolina) with their Wright Flyer , are now considered to be the beginning of controlled motorized flight . After a flight of more than 59 seconds, the biplane is damaged on the ground by gusts, so that the tests will not be continued until the following year.
    • The Russian Konstantin Ziolkowski derives the basic rocket equation in his contribution: “Exploring space using reaction apparatus ”.
  • 1906
    • March 18: Romanian Traian Vuia is the first to make a short flight without starting help.
    • Franz Wels and Igo Etrich build the first flying wing, which is modeled on the flying seeds of the Zanonia.
    • September 3, October 23 and November 12: Alberto Santos-Dumont undertakes the first motorized flights in front of a knowledgeable audience in Paris with his 14-bis . He doesn't need a catapult or a hill to take off. These flights are considered to be the first controlled flights with an airplane in Europe and the first motor flights in the world certified by the FAI.
The 1907 Voisin Standard biplane with Farman on January 13, 1908 on the flight to the Grand Prix d'Aviation
Farman on October 30, 1908 with his Voisin on the first overland flight from Chalons to Reims (27 kilometers in 20 minutes).
Blériot crossing the canal on July 25, 1909

1910–1919: Aviation industry

  • 1914
    • July 11, 1914: The German Reinhold Böhm achieves the endurance flight world record of 24 hours and 10 minutes with an Albatros biplane without refueling or landing in between (start July 10th, 5:53 p.m., landing July 11th, 3:00 p.m., always in Johannisthal ).
Industrial series production of fighter aircraft at Sopwith in 1918.
  • First World War
Already in the First World War are fighters by the thousands produced. Special reconnaissance , bomb and fighter types are built according to the intended use ; but their use has only a limited influence on the war. Since the Spanish Civil War are planes to the main weapon in warfare and develop after the Second World War to skyrocket.
The Junkers J 1 from 1915, the world's first all-metal aircraft .
  • 1915
December 12th: Hugo Junkers tests the world's first cantilever all-metal aircraft , the Junkers J 1 .
  • 1916
July 15: One month after the successful maiden flight of his first aircraft, the B&W Seaplane , William Boeing founds the Pacific Aero Products Company , renaming it the Boeing Airplane Company in 1917 , and begins manufacturing aircraft.
  • 1917
November 25th: The German naval airship L 59 will operate from November 21st to 25th for 95 hours. This non-stop journey is the longest flight in military history to this day.
Alcock and Brown's Vickers Vimy taking off from St. John's , Newfoundland on June 14, 1919

1920–1929: passenger aviation

The Dayton-Wright RB-1 from 1920 with retractable landing gear
A Junkers F13 as used by Junkers Luftverkehr AG from 1921
1922: Königsberg-Devau airfield - silhouette of a bird ready to take off
  • 1921
Junkers founded its own airline, Junkers Luftverkehr AG .
  • 1922
    • August 18th: On the Wasserkuppe ( Rhön ) Arthur Martens achieved the first hour flight with a glider with the HAWA Vampyr .
    • For Konigsberg was the architect Hanns Hopp the airport Devau , the first airport complex, which was designed specifically for commercial civil aviation operations, designed and built. The building arrangement - 50 m wide halls flanked the reception and administration building - resulted in the silhouette of a bird ready to take off.
    • December 27th: Air traffic from Berlin (Staaken) to London (Croydon) starts with a Dornier Komet II with four passengers from Berlin.
  • 1924
Huff Daland Dusters , the predecessor of Delta Airlines , was founded.
  • 1925
In Germany, silent films were shown for the first time during a passenger flight .
  • 1929
    • July 12: First flight of the twelve-engined flying boat Dornier Do X . On October 21st, the Do X made a flight with 169 people on board. The record lasted 20 years.
    • November 6th: The largest land plane in the world, the Junkers G 38 , took off on its maiden flight and set several world records.
    • LOT Polish Airlines, Cubana de Aviacion and Pan Am were founded.

1930–1939: long-distance flights

Junkers Ju 52 from 1932
Douglas DC-3 , first flight in 1935
The Focke-Wulf Fw 61 was the world's first usable helicopter in 1936.
  • 1938
    • March 27-29: A Dornier Do 18 hit the long-distance world record with a catapult launch from the catapult ship Westfalen , which lay in front of Plymouth , England , to Caravelas on the coast of Brazil. In 43 hours and 10 minutes, the flying boat covered 8,392 kilometers. In the same year, two Vickers Wellesley flew non-stop in 48 hours 11,525 kilometers from Egypt to Australia.
    • August 10: A Focke-Wulf Condor flew over the Atlantic as the first land-based passenger aircraft on a non-stop flight from Berlin to New York.
    • 28-30 November: A Focke-Wolf Condor flew in 46 hours and 18 minutes with stops in Basra, Karachi and Hanoi from Berlin to Tokyo (14,278 kilometers).
    • December 31: First flight of the Boeing 307 Stratoliner , the first civilian aircraft to be equipped with a pressurized cabin.

1939–1945: Second World War

The Me 262 , first flight in 1941 (with jet engines in 1942), was the first aircraft to be built in series with jet engines.
The B-29 , first flight in 1942, was the largest and most powerful bomber of the Second World War.
  • 1942
    • July 18: First flight of the Me 262 , the first series-built aircraft with jet engines, in which the later series engines were used.
    • September 21: First flight of the B-29 , the largest and most powerful bomber of the Second World War.
    • September: With the Messerschmitt Me 323 "Gigant" , the first transport aircraft went into series production. The six-engine machine had the same cargo space as a railroad car and could carry 20 tons as a maximum payload.
    • October 3: An A4 rocket , also known as a V2, reached a top speed of almost Mach 5 (4,824 km / h) and a peak altitude of 84.5 km. The first step into space was taken.
  • 1943
January 13th: First emergency exit in aviation history with an ejection seat, from a Heinkel He 280 , the first aircraft in the world with an ejection seat.
  • 1944
    • February 4: The Arado 234 C made its maiden flight as the world's first four-engine aircraft.
    • JULY 27: The Gloster Meteor , the only aircraft with jet engine, which on the side of the Allies was used during World War II in combat was for the first time against V1 - cruise missiles used.

1945–1949: The first post-war years

The Bell X-1, which made the first supersonic flight on October 14, 1947.
De Havilland Comet, first flight July 27, 1949.
  • 1949
July 27th: The world's first series-produced passenger aircraft with jet engines , the De Havilland DH.106 Comet , completed its maiden flight.

Alouette II, first flight March 12, 1955
Boeing 707, first flight December 20, 1957

1950–1959: Gas turbine drives - jets, turboprops and turbine helicopters

With the introduction of gas turbines in civil aviation, flight performance has increased significantly. For example, air travel has been cut by around half with jets .

  • 1952
May 2, 1952: The British Overseas Aircraft Corporation (BOAC) began the world's first jet airliner service between London and Johannesburg with the De Havilland Comet .
  • 1953
April 17: The first airliner with turboprop propulsion, a Vickers Viscount of the BEA , began service.
July 7th: The Federal Agency for Air Traffic Control took over the implementation of civil air traffic control services after the Allies had placed air traffic control under their control in German hands. It was the forerunner of today's Deutsche Flugsicherung GmbH (DFS)
  • 1954
The German Lufthansa AG was again by renaming from the previously established one year "LUFTAG (Public Company for air traffic demand)."
  • 1955
March 12, 1955: First flight of the Alouette II , one of the first series-produced helicopters with a gas turbine engine.
April 1, 1955: First scheduled flight of Deutsche Lufthansa.
June 17, 1955: First flight of the Tu-104 , which was already in regular service a year later with the Soviet Aeroflot .
Tupolev Tu-144 , first flight December 31, 1968
Boeing 747 , first flight February 9, 1969
  • 1957
December 20: First flight of the Boeing 707 , which began scheduled service on Pan Am in 1958 .
  • 1958
May 30: First flight of the Douglas DC-8 . In service with United Airlines and Delta Airlines from September 18, 1959 .

1960–1969: supersonic jets

  • 1962
Cuba crisis and use of the Lockheed U-2 .
  • 1963
April 10th: The world's first supersonic vertical take-off aircraft, the German EWR VJ 101 machine , began its flight tests.
July 19: Joseph Albert Walker reached an altitude of 100 km in the North American X-15 rocket plane .
  • 1967
October 3, 1967: The X-15 set a new speed record with 7,274 km / h ( Mach 6.1).
December 28, 1967: First flight of the British vertical take-off aircraft Hawker Siddeley Harrier .
  • 1968
December 31: First flight of the Tupolev Tu-144 supersonic passenger plane .
  • 1969
February 9, 1969: First flight of the Boeing 747 jumbo jet .
March 2nd, 1969: First flight of the Concorde .

1970–1979: wide-body jets

In the 1970s, flying became cheaper and affordable for everyone.

  • 1970
August 29, 1970: First flight of the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 .
November 16, 1970: First flight of the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar .
  • 1972
May 25, 1972: The first digital fly-by-wire flight was carried out with the Apollo Guidance Computer , installed in a Vought F-8 "Crusader" .
October 28, 1972: First flight of the Airbus A300 .
  • 1974
March 31, 1974: British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) and British European Airways (BEA) merged to form the new airline British Airways .
  • 1976
December 22, 1976: First flight of the Ilyushin Il-86 .
  • 1978
October 28, 1978: The Airline Deregulation Act was passed in the USA, which led to the deregulation of commercial passenger aviation in the USA. This law leads to a complete reshaping of the American flight market. Companies that did not merge were threatened with bankruptcy.
  • 1979
June 12, 1979: For the first time a pedal-powered, ultra-light muscle- powered aircraft crossed the English Channel.

1980–1989: Deregulation in the USA

  • 1981
September 26: The Boeing 767 , the first commercial aircraft to be equipped with FMS , completes its maiden flight.
The US air traffic controllers went on strike. The government fired the strikers and replaced them with military personnel and newly hired personnel.
The US government deregulated fuel prices, thereby increasing airline costs.
The first airlines introduced business class .
The XV-15 tilt-rotor test aircraft flew at the Paris Air Show.
  • 1982
April 3: First flight of the Airbus A310 .
  • 1983
September 1: All 269 passengers on Korean Air Lines flight 007 died when the aircraft flew over Soviet restricted area and was shot down by a Soviet Su-15 fighter.
The last DC-10 was built; McDonnell Douglas gave up the type name DC (Douglas Commercial) and called his aircraft from then on MD (McDonnell Douglas).
The space shuttle "Enterprise" was shown on the Boeing 747 transporter at the air show in Paris .
  • 1984
December 23: Pan Am used the twin-engine Airbus A300 / A310 for the first time for the non-stop transatlantic flights from Hamburg to New York. Because it was equipped with fewer than three engines, a detour along the coastline had to be flown for safety reasons in the first few years.
  • 1985
The Soviet Antonov An-124
April: TWA was the first airline to start operations across the North Atlantic with twin-engine aircraft ( Boeing 767-200 ER) that travel a maximum of 75 minutes from an alternate airport.
May: Daimler-Benz took over the Dornier company .
The Soviet Antonov An-124 (take-off weight 405 tons) was presented to the West at the Paris Air Show.
The ATR 42 , an Italian-French project by Aeritalia and Aérospatiale, was also presented here .
Pan Am sold the Pacific routes built in 1937 to United Airlines.
  • 1986
Boeing bought De Havilland of Canada to enter the growing regional aircraft market.
The twin-engine Boeing 757 now also flew regularly over the North Atlantic.
People Express , Frontier , Western Airlines , Republic , Pacific Southwest, and other American airlines have been bought out or gone bankrupt.
Texas Air became the largest western airline.
In June, MBB announced the German-Chinese development of the MPC 75 regional airliner .
In August, General Electric tested a UDF ( Engl. However unducted fan) engine, with free or open-lying propeller on a Boeing 727. Noise and vibrations caused problems.
Canadair completed the Challenger 601 business jet , and Gulfstream Aerospace completed the Gulfstream IV .
McDonnell Douglas officially started development of the long-haul MD-11 aircraft in December .
Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager flew the Voyager around the world in nine days without refueling.
  • 1987
Prototype of the Airbus A320 in September 1988, but already modified as the A320-200.
The British companies Rolls-Royce and British Airways were privatized. In February, Eastern Air Lines paid fines for 78,000 flight safety violations.
The Airbus A320 , the first civil aircraft with digital fly-by-wire control, was presented.
In March, the Dornier Seastar , an amphibian in plastic technology, was presented.
On May 28, Mathias Rust landed a Cessna 172 on Red Square in Moscow.
In July, the cryogenic wind tunnel for transonic experiments was opened in Cologne .
The first MD-82 , built under license in Shanghai, China , flew.
Five German astronauts were nominated in August .
The Italian Piaggio presented a business turboprop P.180 "Avanti" with plastic parts and duck wings.
  • 1988
The Antonov An-225, the largest aircraft in the world (1988)
3 July 1988: All 290 passengers of Airbus A300 of Iran Air were killed when the aircraft by the crew of a warship of the American US Navy was shot down.
December 21, 1988: Pan American Flight 103 was destroyed by a mid-air bomb over the Scottish town of Lockerbie .
A United Boeing 747 SP circled the earth in the record time of just under 37 hours.
The Daedalus muscle power plane flew 120 km from Crete to Santorini.
Dornier launched the 328 program , a regional turboprop aircraft using KfK technology .
The new six-engine Antonov An-225 with a maximum take-off weight of 600 tons became the largest aircraft in the world.
  • 1989
Eastern Air Lines filed for bankruptcy after a long and tough battle between the Pilots and Mechanics Union and board member Frank Lorenzo.
The Ilyushin Il- 96-300, a four-engine long-range aircraft with an electronic cockpit, began flight tests. Concepts for a space aircraft showed a "lifting body".
An MD-80 flew with the PW / Allison UHB (Ultra High Bypass) engine, but it did not go into production.
NASA completed a human factors study of 757 pilots. It remained questionable whether a highly automated cockpit would reduce the workload or increase flight safety.
The merger of Daimler-Benz and MBB was approved in September, making Deutsche Aerospace AG (DASA) , founded in May, the largest German group in the industry.
In December, all four engines on KLM Flight 867 failed when the machine flew into a cloud of volcanic ash. The crew managed to restart the engines.
The Soviet MiG-29 and Su-27 fighter planes were offered for sale at the Paris Air Show . The US Navy shot down two Libyan MiG-23s over the Mediterranean.

1990–2000: Europe's national airlines

  • 1990
McDonnell Douglas' new MD-520N notary helicopter was air-controlled and had no tail rotor. In March, Airbus Industries decided to build the Airbus A321 in Hamburg. This is the first time that a large aircraft will be built in Germany. In the US, the FAA ordered reviews and structural reinforcements of older jets (more than 20 years old). In May, BMW decided to work with Rolls-Royce to build engines. After German reunification on October 3rd, the German Air Force took over the NVA's MiG-29 . Boeing officially launched the 777 program in December , which is set to become the largest twin-engine aircraft in the world.
  • 1991
Air traffic fell sharply because of the Gulf War . Most of the world's airlines went into the red. Pan American Airlines, founded in 1927, is taken over and dissolved by Delta. USAir, Delta, United and American Airlines increased their presence in Europe. On December 4th, Pan American World Airways , founded in 1927, had to cease flight operations with immediate effect.
  • 1992
The world economy fell into recession. The new Munich Airport opened on May 17th . All airlines except British Airways lost money. In collective bargaining with Lufthansa, a wage freeze and job cuts were approved in order to relieve the loss-making airline.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union on January 1st, Aeroflot formed individual national airlines for the countries now organized in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Aeroflot, as a registered Russian company with headquarters in Moscow, became the legal successor to the previous Soviet aviation company in Russia.
Deutsche British Airways (DBA), which was founded more than a year ago, took over Friedrichshafen-based Delta Air, which had previously only been active in regional air traffic. DBA, in which the British parent company held a 49 percent stake, acquired the whole Delta Air shares from its previous owners. Upon completion of the transaction, Delta Air was to be renamed Deutsche BA . According to press reports, British Airways wanted to develop the German subsidiary DBA into a downright low-cost airline . DBA wanted to serve domestic as well as international routes with a fleet of new Boeing 737-300s.
May 11th, The new Munich airport , named Franz Josef Strauss, officially went into operation after 38 years of planning and construction work. As the first passenger flight, a Lufthansa Boeing 747 took off punctually at six o'clock with numerous guests of honor for the opening flight . Hours earlier - shortly after the last Lufthansa flight with a Boeing 737-500 baptized “Freising” - the lights at Riem Airport had gone out forever.
November 2nd, first flight of the Airbus A330
  • 1994
June 12, maiden flight of the Boeing 777 , the largest twin-engine airliner in the world
  • 1995
Foundation of the low-cost airline Easyjet . A Concorde set a new record for the fastest circumnavigation of the world with 31 hours, 27 minutes and 40 seconds.
  • 1996
The German-American agreement in air transport was agreed by the Transport Ministers Matthias Wissmann and Frederico Pena in April 1996 , following the transitional agreement of May 24, 1994 . It opened up the liberalization of the transatlantic air transport market.
  • 1997
Foundation of the Star Alliance
  • 1999
Foundation of the Oneworld Alliance
  • 1999
Non-stop circumnavigation of the world with a balloon .

Since 2000: modernization of aviation

  • 2000
Establishment of the SkyTeam Alliance. EADS emerged from Aérospatiale , Deutsche Aerospace and CASA .
  • 2001
Terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 in the USA. As a result, air traffic in the USA was paralyzed for a few days. The security precautions at airports have been increased. The number of passengers fell and a number of airlines fell into economic crisis.
  • 2002
First flight of the Embraer EMB 200 A (Ipanema) with an ethanol engine. As the first aircraft with an alcohol engine, the machine received approval in 2004. The aircraft was built by Vicente Camargo's team.
  • 2003
Last flight of a Concorde to the Aviation Museum in Filton .
  • 2005
A380-800 in Airbus factory livery (2005)
April 27, first flight of the Airbus A380 . At the time, the A380 was the largest mass-produced commercial airliner in aviation history.
  • 2009
December 15th, first flight of the Boeing 787 ("Dreamliner")
  • 2010
From April 15: The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 led to a cessation of air traffic over northern and central Europe for several days.
  • 2013
June 14th, first flight of the Airbus A350
  • 2016
September 29th, maiden flight of the HY4 , the world's first four-seat passenger aircraft with emission-free hydrogen fuel cell drive


Web links

See also

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Aulus Gellius , Martin Hertz, Carl Hosius: A. Gellii Noctium Atticarum Libri XX . BG Teubner, Stuttgart 1969, p. 352 : “Nam et plerique nobilium Graecorum et Favorinus philosophus, memoriam veterum exequentissimus, affirmatissime scripserunt simulacrum columbae e ligno ab Archyta ratione quadam discipziplinaque mechanica factum volasse; ita erat scilicet libramentis suspensum et aura spiritus inclusa atque occulta concitum. "
  2. Lynn White, "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition". In: Technology and Culture , Vol. 2, No. 2 (1961), pp. 97-111 (here: pp. 100-101), doi: 10.2307 / 3101411 .
  3. ^ J. Gordon Leishman: Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge NY 2006, p. 9, ISBN 0-521-85860-7 .
  4. Charles Nicholl : Leonardo da Vinci - The biography . S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2006, pp. 271-272, ISBN 978-3-10-052405-8 .
  5. Braunschweiger Luftfahrtgeschichte e. V. (Ed.): Braunschweigische Luftfahrtgeschichte. Appelhans Verlag Braunschweig 2010, ISBN 978-3-941737-18-1 , p. 48.
  6. August 10, 1888: First powered flight in history with a Daimler single-cylinder engine ( Memento from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  7. Joachim Wachtel: The Aviatiker . Mosaik Verlag, Munich 1978, ISBN 3-570-00837-1 , p. 83, 84 .
  8. Hans Grade - Triplane. (No longer available online.) In: Technikmuseum Magdeburg . Archived from the original on June 22, 2018 ; accessed on May 26, 2019 .
  9. Official homepage of the Swiss Air Force: The first Swiss military flight ( memento of August 14, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 26, 2019.
  10. V. Lougheed: The Secret Experiments of the Wright Brothers in Popular Mechanics, 12/1911 p. 797 ff. ( Memento from April 6, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 5.1 MB)
  11. ^ Johannisthal letter . From our Johannisthal correspondent. In: Carl Oskar Ursinus (Ed.): Flugsport . No. 15 . Verlag für Flugsport, Frankfurt am Main July 22, 1914, p. 631 ff . ( Aviation in the Luftfahrt-bibliothek.de [accessed on August 19, 2018]).
  12. ^ New York nonstop and in stages to Tokyo: The record flights of the Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor. Retrieved January 22, 2019 .
  13. Emission-free propulsion for aviation: First flight of the four-seater HY4 passenger aircraft at www.dlr.de , accessed on January 7, 2017.