This article gives a strictly chronological overview of the development of aviation . The chronology of the first flight dates of aircraft can be viewed in the list of first flights . A presentation based on individual topics can be found in the article History of Aviation .
Until 1782: the beginning of aviation
- 24th century BC Chr.
- In the Etana myth , the shepherd Etana wants to bring “the herb of childbirth” down from heaven for his childless wife, but when he had almost reached his goal fell down with his eagle into the depths.
- 5th century BC Chr.
- Kites are the first historically verifiable, man-made flying devices (China 5th century BC).
- 2nd century BC Chr.
- The bird of Saqqara , a wooden artifact from a tomb in Saqqara, Egypt, could be a model of an aircraft.
- AD 1 to 8
- The Roman poet Ovid documented in his Metamorphoses the Greek legend about Daedalus and Icarus , with home-made wings of feathers and wax flying from captivity of the Minotaur flee.
- 2nd century
- The Roman writer Aulus Gellius describes in his Noctes Atticae the " Dove of Archytas ", a flightable wooden replica of a dove from the 4th century BC. Chr.
- 9th century
- The Muslim poet, scholar and scientist Abbas ibn Firnas is credited with building an aircraft that enables him to fly.
- 10th century
- The fettered kite is believed to be spread across the Pacific region and is used for manned, military, religious and ceremonial purposes.
- circa 1260
- Marco Polo reports on manned and ritual dragon ascents.
- Aeronautical and mathematical studies by Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519). In his records, such as the “ Codex on Bird Flight ” and the so-called “ Paris Manuscripts ”, there are among others: a parachute draft, a helicopter, drafts for swing planes, flow studies and streamlined bodies.
- circa 1500
- On his triptych “The Temptations of St. Anthony ”, Hieronymus Bosch depicts two airships fighting over a burning city.
- Giambattista della Porta published in Volume 20 of his Magiae naturalis the specifications of a tethered kite .
- The Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli succeeds in proving the air pressure and creating a vacuum , the "Torricellian void".
- circa 1650
- The physicist and mayor of Magdeburg Otto von Guericke measures the weight of the air.
- The Jesuit Francesco Lana Terzi describes in his work “Prodromo” (“Harbinger”) a vacuum airship project that is considered the first realistic technical draft for an airship . However, Lana writes: "God will never allow such a machine to come about ... because who does not see that no city is safe from raids ...".
- The physicist and mathematician Philipp Lohmeier , professor at the University of Rinteln , publishes his dissertation De artificio navigandi per aërem (From the art of sailing through the air). The presumed idea generator Francesco Lana Terzi (see 1670) is not mentioned in the publication.
- August: The Brazilian Augustinian Father Bartolomeu Lourenço de Gusmão completes several hot air balloon attempts in Lisbon .
- Melchior Bauer describes in his aircraft handwriting, illustrated by construction drawings, a glider with rigid V-shaped wings.
- Carl Friedrich Meerwein , a builder from Baden, publishes a study with the title “Man! shouldn't he also be born with the ability to fly? " . Based on detailed measurements on various bird species, he uses it to calculate the size and weight of a flying machine that he believes a person can fly with. He also adds detailed drawings of his machine to this work and specifies the materials for the construction.
1783–1890: Balloons and flying devices
- June 4th: The French brothers Joseph Michel and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier present their Montgolfière for the first time in Annonay .
- November 21: François d'Arlandes and Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier manage the first free manned trip in a Montgolfière from La Muette Castle to the Butte aux Cailles , which takes 25 minutes.
- December 1st: Jacques Charles developed gas balloons - encouraged by the Montgolfier brothers - and carried out the first manned gas balloon flight. The air journey takes about two hours and leads to an altitude of 3467 m.
- Louis-Sébastien Lenormand performs parachute jumps from the tower of the Montpellier observatory.
- October 22nd: André-Jacques Garnerin jumps off a balloon with a parachute and becomes "official French state airman".
- The Englishman Sir George Cayley (1773-1857) sketched a glider with a rudder and horizontal stabilizer. His manuscript is the starting point for the scientific study of the aircraft “heavier than air”. Orville Wright : “It was Cayley who helped clear up the confusion then. [...] He knew more than any of his predecessors [...] and successors until the end of the 19th century. "
- Sir George Cayley , the "father of aeronautics ", is building a successful unmanned glider model based on his aircraft concept from 1799 .
- Jakob Degen designed a flapping wing aircraft in 1807 , an aircraft with a hydrogen balloon in 1808, and a clockwork propeller in 1816 (helicopter model).
- May 31: Master tailor Albrecht Ludwig Berblinger from Ulm , who goes down in history as the “Tailor of Ulm”, tries - in the presence of the royal family - to fly over the Danube with a flying machine from the eagle bastion . The flight fails.
- 7th and 8th November: Balloon flight over 722 km from London to Weilburg by Charles Green, Robert Hollond and Thomas Monk-Mason .
- November: First full draft of a power driven airplane with steam engine drive by the English engineer William Samuel Henson . The patent picks up on the work of Cayley. The founding application for an “Aerial Transport Company” (stock corporation) is rejected in the English House of Commons amid loud laughter.
- The introduction of the tear strip, which is still in use today, by the American John Wise enables safe balloon landings.
- June: John Stringfellow manages a successful flight over 40 yd (36.58 m) in a large room of a factory with a steam-powered monoplane model (wingspan 3 m).
- September 24th: The first motorized airship voyage: Henri Giffard's steam-powered construction reaches a speed of around 10 km / h.
- September: Sir George Cayley publishes a report on a glider , his "Governable Parachute", which has been successfully tested extensively without a pilot with ballast.
- Creation of the first society to promote aviation (Societe Aerostatique de France).
- After successful model tests, the French brothers du Temple de la Croix received a patent for a powered airplane.
- Following bird studies (albatross), the French captain Jean Marie Le Bris undertakes flight attempts with a tow start, which are said to have been successful.
- The French aviator and photographer Nadar takes the first aerial photos from a balloon at the Battle of Solferino .
- July 1st and 2nd: balloon flight over 1,292 km through John Wise with three companions (St. Louis-Henderson, USA).
- September 5: The aeronaut Coxwell and the English physicist James Glaisher climb an altitude of 9000 m.
- September 20: Jacob Brodbeck , unmanned, motorized flight, heavier than air. A metal spiral similar to a pocket watch was used as a drive.
- October 25: Jules Verne's novel Journey to the Moon is published as a book. The novel describes the launch of a moon projectile from Florida, from where the American rocket launches actually take place many years later.
- The French d'Esterno writes in his book On the Flight of Birds : “Gliding seems to be characteristic of heavy birds; there is nothing to prevent humans from imitating these birds when the wind conditions are favorable. "
- The French painter and farmer Louis Mouillard makes a successful attempt at gliding . After years of studying birds, he published his book Das Reich der Lüfte ( L'empire de l'air ) in 1881 , in which he believes that it is possible to imitate the gliding and gliding of birds, but not the wing flight.
- The French captain Jean Marie Le Bris undertakes gliding attempts with his Albatros II in Brest . The flying machine is in an early photograph by Pépin jun. from Brest occupied.
- Matthew Piers Watt Boulton is granted an English patent for the use of ailerons .
- First aeronautical exhibition hosted by the Royal Aeronautical Society in London's Crystal Palace .
- Franco-Prussian War : A total of 66 balloons are launched in besieged Paris to overcome the siege ring.
- February 2: The French naval engineer Henri Dupuy de Lôme reaches a speed of 9 to 11 km / h with a muscle-powered airship.
- December 13th: Testing of the first airship with a gas engine by the German engineer Paul Haenlein in Brno. His airship Aeolus reaches 18 km / h. The attempts are canceled due to lack of money.
- July 5: Belgian Vincent de Groof had a fatal accident while attempting to fly with the arms when the arms, which were operated by the arms, collapsed after taking off from the balloon.
- Lift and drag measurements on airfoils by Otto and Gustav Lilienthal , which are not published until 1889. Exploration & a. the advantage of the curved surface.
- The French Alphonse Pénaud and Paul Gauchot take out a patent for a motorized airplane with retractable landing gear, wing V-shape and control stick.
- First flight of a steam-powered model helicopter by Enrico Forlanini .
- The “ German Association for the Promotion of Airship Travel ”, founded in Berlin, publishes the first German specialist magazine on aviation.
- The German Gottlieb Daimler invents the high-speed internal combustion engine , which is suitable for aviation due to its more favorable ratio between power and weight.
- The airship La France by Renard and Krebs performed the first fully controlled flight of an airship on August 9, 1884, traveling in a closed orbit.
- September 12th and 13th: balloon flight over 24 hours by the French Hervé and Alluard.
- August 10: 1. Ascent of an airship with a gasoline engine (motorized aviation), the power source that made aviation possible in the first place. The airship was designed by Friedrich Wölfert and Georg Baumgarten , who died in 1884, and the engine by Gottlieb Daimler. The start was at Daimler's factory yard in Cannstatt . The airship landed on the parade ground in Aldingen , after about 10 km. Further starts took place in Augsburg, Munich and Vienna.
- November: Otto Lilienthal publishes his book Der Vogelflug as the basis of the art of flying . His measurements on wings, shown in so-called polar diagrams , form the basis of our current system of terms and demonstrate the advantages of wing curvature.
- October 9: Clément Ader's steam-powered airplane Eole flies around 50 meters once.
1891–1899: First controlled flights
- Spring: Otto Lilienthal begins his systematic flight attempts with the Derwitz apparatus and reaches a maximum flight distance of 25 meters. These flights are now considered to be the first safe, repeatable glide flights in history.
- The Australian Lawrence Hargrave demonstrates the box kite at an aeronautical congress in Sydney . He became a model for numerous scientific kites up to and including aircraft.
- January: The book "Progress in Flying Machines" by Octave Chanute (USA) appears as a summary of a series of articles in the "American Engineer and Railroad Journal". It is a comprehensive representation of the global stage of development on the way to aircraft.
- December 4th: The Polish meteorologist Arthur Berson rises in a free balloon to an altitude of 9155 m.
- Otto Lilienthal starts the first series production of an airplane with the “ normal sailing apparatus ”. With various aircraft designs, he can reach flight distances of up to 250 m.
- The American Hiram Maxim's large airplane is damaged during taxi attempts that showed sufficient lift. He then stopped his experiments, which had already devoured hundreds of thousands.
- August: Otto Lilienthal flies his normal sailing apparatus and the biplane on the fly mountain Samuel Pierpont Langley . Langley informed his assistant Augustus Herring about it on August 6th .
- 1895 to 1899: The English engineer Percy Sinclair Pilcher works successfully in the field of gliding and powered flight . He had a fatal accident on September 30, 1899 during a gliding demonstration.
- January: Herring moves to Chicago and works for Chanute .
- May 6th: First flight of the powered airplane model Number 5 with steam engine drive of the American Prof. Samuel Pierpont Langley over a distance of 1 km.
- June: Octave Chanute organizes an air camp with his son Charley, Augustus Herring and William Avery on Lake Michigan. To be tested u. a. a replica of a Lilienthal glider and a double - decker glider built by Chanute and Herring , which became the basis for the further development of flight technology.
- August 9th: Otto Lilienthal "overturns" during a routine flight in the Stöllner Mountains and dies the following day of a spinal injury as a result of the crash .
- Invention of the kite balloon for observation purposes in higher winds by the Germans August von Parseval and Hans Bartsch von Sigsfeld .
- June 12: Friedrich Hermann Wölfert and his mechanic are killed in a fire in a demonstration over the Tempelhofer Feld with their gasoline-powered airship.
- July 11th: Salomon August Andrée , N. Strindberg and K. Fraenkel start their North Pole expedition in a gas balloon on Spitzbergen . They are not found dead until 1930. The found footage could still be developed.
- November 3rd: Ascent of an aluminum airship belonging to the Hungarian David Schwarz in Berlin.
- The first use of light alloy in aerospace found in the existing largely of aluminum sheet rigid airship of David Schwarz instead.
- September 20: Alberto Santos Dumont's first flight with his airship “No. 1 ”, which is powered by a 2.6 kW (3.5 HP) De-Dion petrol engine.
- September 13: Alberto Santos Dumont goes with his airship “No. 3 “20 minutes and goes around the Eiffel Tower for the first time. He made a dozen trips in the airship and set a record with 23 hours in the air.
1900–1909: First powered flight
- July 31: The German meteorologists Arthur Berson and Reinhard Süring reach an altitude of 10,800 m in an open gondola on the Prussian free balloon .
- August 14: Allegedly first stable powered flight by German-American Gustav Weißkopf over half a mile in Bridgeport / Connecticut. Flight is controversial in aviation history and has not influenced the development of powered flight.
- October 1: The Austrian Wilhelm Kress's seaplane is destroyed while attempting to take off from Lake Wienerwald.
- October 19: The Brazilian Alberto Santos-Dumont circumnavigates the Eiffel Tower with his airship No. 6 coming from St. Cloud and returns to the launch site in 30 minutes. These were the conditions for the German Prize, endowed with 100,000 francs .
- First flights of a powered airplane model with a gasoline engine by Samuel Pierpont Langley .
- The Wright brothers optimize their wings using wind tunnel measurements.
- August 28: The Frenchman Léon Levavasseur patents the first V8-cylinder engine especially for aircraft. It should weigh only 100 kg and produce 59 kW (80 hp). However, the values are not achieved.
- First balloon flight in Antarctica
- The Wright brothers discover in the test flights with its double-decker slider , the adverse yaw and cause the movable cornering flight rudder one that synchronously with the wing twist is deflected. The aerodynamic flight control around all three axes that they invented is now complete.
- March 31: Allegedly first manned powered flight by New Zealander Richard Pearse over 100 m in Waitohi . The flight is not documented by any independent source and has not influenced the development of powered flight.
- August 18: Allegedly first manned powered flight of the German Karl Jatho over 60 m in Hanover on the Vahrenwalder Heide . The flight is not documented by any independent source and has not influenced the development of powered flight.
- October 8th and December 8th: Prof. Samuel Pierpont Langley's motorized aircraft The Great Aerodrom crashed on both flight attempts immediately after the catapult launch from a floating ramp in the Potomac near Washington.
- December 17: Four successful flights, which the Wright brothers alternate in the dunes near Kitty Hawk (North Carolina) with their Wright Flyer , are now considered to be the beginning of controlled motorized flight . After a flight of more than 59 seconds, the biplane is damaged on the ground by gusts, so that the tests will not be continued until the following year.
- The Russian Konstantin Ziolkowski derives the basic rocket equation in his contribution: “Exploring space using reaction apparatus ”.
- September 20: Wilbur Wright completes the first controlled circular flight with the Flyer II . To make the launch easier, the Wrights used a catapult device.
- The Frenchman Léon Levavasseur developed the 18 kW (24 hp) 8-cylinder Antoinette engine , which Capitaine Ferdinand Ferber was the first to acquire.
- Robert Esnault-Pelterie was the first to use ailerons on a non-powered biplane glider .
- APRIL 29: Daniel J. Maloney transferred to Santa Clara (California) by balloon in 1220 m height with the Montgomery Airplane starting a sliding and gliding of 20 minutes. In a subsequent take-off on July 18, 1905, he had a fatal accident.
- October 5th: Orville Wright flies his Flyer III in Dayton 39 km in 39 minutes 23 seconds in front of an audience.
- October 14: Foundation of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI), which is still active today, in Paris.
- The Frenchman Léon Levavasseur developed an improved 37 kW (50 hp) V8 Antoinette engine , the Capitaine Ferdinand Ferber 1905 for his flight plan Ferber VIII , Alberto Santos-Dumont 1906 for his 14-bis and the Voisin brothers 1907 for their Voisin standard biplane use.
- The helicopter of the engineer Maurice Léger lifts a person vertically into the air in Monaco.
- March 18: Romanian Traian Vuia is the first to make a short flight without starting help.
- Franz Wels and Igo Etrich build the first flying wing, which is modeled on the flying seeds of the Zanonia.
- September 3, October 23 and November 12: Alberto Santos-Dumont undertakes the first motorized flights in front of a knowledgeable audience in Paris with his 14-bis . He doesn't need a catapult or a hill to take off. These flights are considered to be the first controlled flights with an airplane in Europe and the first motor flights in the world certified by the FAI.
- January 13th: Henri Farman flies a closed route over 1 km with his Voisin - Farman I at the Issy-les-Moulineaux airfield and wins the Grand Prix d'Aviation of 50,000 francs.
- May 11: The Wright brothers successfully fly in front of journalists from the New York Herald , the London Daily Mail and the New York American . The first photo of a powered flight by the Wright brothers was published on May 30, 1908 in Colliers´ . The photo in the New York Herald on May 14, 1908 turned out to be a forgery.
- MAY 14: Wilbur Wright leads with Charles W. Furnas the first passenger flight over 2.5 miles in its standard model Wright Model A by.
- June 28: The first public powered flight in Germany, a price flight with flying machines “heavier than air” , is organized by the Kieler Verkehrsverein on the occasion of the Kieler Woche 1908 on the Nordmarksportfeld . The only participant, the Dane Jacob Ellehammer , receives the prize money of 5000 gold marks for a flight of 11 seconds over 47 meters .
- July 8: Léon Delagrange and Thérèse Peltier conduct the first passenger flight with a female passenger in a Voisin machine in Turin .
- September 4: The Wright brothers published their flights before 1908, including their photos.
- September 9th: With the passenger Lt. Frank P. Lahm sets Orville Wright three new records. At 57 minutes flying time and with a height of 110 meters, the world record for each meant the Wright Model A .
- September 17: US First Lieutenant Thomas E. Selfridge falls first in an Orville Wright-controlled flyer in a crash in Virginia .
- September 28th: the Wrights flew 1 hour and 7 minutes. They flew 48 km and 120 m and won a prize of 5,000 francs from the flight commission of the Aéro-Club de France .
- October 30th: Henri Farman flew 27 kilometers in 20 minutes with his Voisin converted to ailerons from Chalons to Reims . This flight was reported by Scientific American as the first overland flight by a powered airplane (see picture).
- October: August Euler founds Euler-Flugmaschinenwerke and leases a small part of the Griesheim military training area , the foot parade ground, where he opened the first airfield in Germany in 1909 .
- November 2nd: Hans Grade starts his triple-decker flights on the Cracauer Anger in Magdeburg, which reach a height of 1.5 meters over 100 to 400 meters. At about 30 km / h it is essentially straight ahead.
- December 31: Wilbur Wright flies 2 hours and 18 minutes and wins the Michelin Cup Prize for 20,000 Francs and the Albert Triaca Prize for 500 Francs. He flies a new distance record with 123 km and 200 m.
- The United States Army announces the acquisition of flying machines.
- February 23: The first controlled powered flights are carried out in Canada with the AEA Silver Dart .
- April 1 (May 23): In Viry-Châtillon near Paris , the Port-Aviation, the first airport (fr. Aerodrome ) intended for permanent flight operations , opens.
- April 24th: The first film is made from an airplane ( Wright Model A ) on a balloon launch site near Rome . The aerial photos appear in the film " Wilbur Wright and his flying machine " in the same year .
- July 12: The French war ministry procures a Wright biplane as the first aircraft and, from December 1909, sends officers and non-commissioned officers of all branches to private flight schools as flight students ( élèves-pilotes ) .
- July 25th: The Frenchman Louis Blériot crosses the English Channel for the first time in an airplane.
- July 25: First flight of the successful Antoinette VII by Léon Levavasseur .
- August 8: Karl Illner flies 40 meters in the Etrich I Praterspatz from Igo Etrich at a height of around 4 meters.
- August 22nd to 29th: The Grande Semaine d'Aviation de la Champagne in Reims is the first public international air show in which many different types of aircraft are flown. The main prizes are won by Curtiss , Blériot , Farman and Latham .
- SEPTEMBER 7: de Caters lead with 35:06 minutes flying time with a Voisin Standard - Biplane the longest powered flight of the International Airship Exhibition Frankfurt 1909 by.
- September 26th: The Berlin-Johannisthal airfield goes into operation with an opening week, the "competition flying".
- September 27: The Frenchman Hubert Latham conducts the first overland flight in Germany. He transfers his Antoinette VII from Tempelhofer Feld to "competitive flying" to Johannisthal .
- October 30th: Hans Grade wins the “ Lanz-Preis der Lüfte ” with his dragonfly at the Johannisthal airfield, which opened in September 1909 .
- November 16: Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft (DELAG) , the world's first airline, is founded. It operates by the Zeppelin airship built GmbH transport airships .
1910–1919: Aviation industry
- February 1st: August Euler receives the pilot's license "Germany No. 1".
- FEB 1: Hugo Junkers reports its patent for self-supporting , unstrained wing with thick profile at.
- March 8: Élise Deroche , also known as Baroness Raymonde de Laroche , becomes the first woman in the world to pass the pilot's test.
- March 28: Frenchman Henri Fabre makes his first take-off in a seaplane .
- April 6th: The Etrich Taube , one of the most built aircraft before the First World War , has its maiden flight.
- May 1: The first German military aviation school of the German air force , which is currently under construction , opens at Döberitz airfield , whose take-off and landing area had been planed for this purpose since March 1910.
- August 28: Armand Dufaux takes off with the Dufaux 4 from the eastern end of Lake Geneva and flies around 66 kilometers to Geneva in 56 minutes and 5 seconds not far from the south bank . He wins the prize money of 5,000 Swiss francs advertised by the automobile pioneer Perrot Duval for crossing Lake Geneva along its entire length; at the time it was the world's longest flight over open water.
- Frederick Baldwin and John AD McCurdy are in a Curtiss - biplane , the first pilots to radio signals to send to Earth.
- May 20: First reliability flight ( Prinz Heinrich Flug ) for German aircraft under the patronage of Prince Heinrich ; the event was repeated annually until the First World War.
- June 11th: The first flight to Germany for the BZ price of the skies takes off from the Johannisthal airfield near Berlin.
- September 4th: Ernest Failloubaz (1892–1919) - at the age of 19 the youngest pilot in Switzerland - demonstrates the Dufaux 5 designed by Armand and Henri Dufaux from September 4th to 6th with reconnaissance flights during a maneuver for the Swiss army. These flights mark the beginning of Swiss military aviation .
- September 13th: Melli Beese is the first woman in Germany to pass the pilot's test (license no. 115).
- October 23: In the Italo-Turkish War , the Italian air forces use a Blériot XI aircraft to investigate an Ottoman position near Benghazi .
- October 24: The Wright brothers return to motorless flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina and remain motorless in the air for 9 minutes and 45 seconds.
- November 1st: In the Italo-Turkish War, the Italian air forces drop the first 2-kilogram bombs from an Etrich Taube near Tripoli as part of a “retaliatory action”.
- February 23: During the Italo-Turkish War , the Italian air forces use aerial photography on a reconnaissance flight .
- May 13: The British King George V approves the establishment of the Royal Flying Corps , the forerunner of the Royal Air Force of the United Kingdom .
- October 16: In the First Balkan War flying Bulgarian Air Force with an Albatros F-2 - aircraft a bomb attack on the station in the Turkish Karaağaç in Edirne .
- First World War
- Already in the First World War are fighters by the thousands produced. Special reconnaissance , bomb and fighter types are built according to the intended use ; but their use has only a limited influence on the war. Since the Spanish Civil War are planes to the main weapon in warfare and develop after the Second World War to skyrocket.
- December 12th: Hugo Junkers tests the world's first cantilever all-metal aircraft , the Junkers J 1 .
- July 15: One month after the successful maiden flight of his first aircraft, the B&W Seaplane , William Boeing founds the Pacific Aero Products Company , renaming it the Boeing Airplane Company in 1917 , and begins manufacturing aircraft.
- November 25th: The German naval airship L 59 will operate from November 21st to 25th for 95 hours. This non-stop journey is the longest flight in military history to this day.
- April 1: The Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service are merged to form the Royal Air Force (RAF), the first air force in the world to be organized as an independent military service .
- April 21: Manfred von Richthofen , the Red Baron , is shot down in his triplane and dies.
- December 1: Nikolai Zhukovsky founds the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (Russian Центральный Аэрогидродинамический Институт, abbreviation ZAGI) in Moscow .
- January 8: Deutsche Luft-Reederei , a forerunner of Lufthansa - founded as a military air transport company on December 13, 1917 during World War I - receives approval as a civilian airline .
- February 8th: The first international scheduled flight is operated by Lucien Bossoutrot for Lignes Farman with a Farman F.60 "Goliath" with 11 passengers from Toussus-le-Noble airfield to Kenley near London (now the London Borough of Croydon ).
- June 15, 1919: John Alcock and Arthur Whitten Brown cross the Atlantic between Newfoundland and Ireland non-stop for the first time in an airplane, a converted Vickers Vimy .
- June 25th: First flight of the Junkers F 13 by Hugo Junkers, the first cantilever all-metal airliner in the world, whose design principles will point the way for future aircraft generations.
- July 6, 1919: In 1919, the British airship R34 was the first aircraft to make the outward journey from Scotland to Mineola and a few days later to return non-stop across the Atlantic.
- October 7, 1919: KLM is founded in the Netherlands , the oldest internationally operating airline.
- 2nd December 1919: First flight of the British Handley Page W.8 . The double-decker airliner was the world's first aircraft with an on- board toilet .
1920–1929: passenger aviation
- 15th July to 31st August: 1st Rhön gliding competition on the Wasserkuppe , which was then repeated annually until 1939.
- August 11th: The first international airmail connection from Berlin / Germany to Malmö / Sweden was started.
- September 28: The Dayton-Wright RB-1 , believed to be the first aircraft with retractable landing gear , takes part in the 1920 Gordon Bennett Trophy .
- August 18th: On the Wasserkuppe ( Rhön ) Arthur Martens achieved the first hour flight with a glider with the HAWA Vampyr .
- For Konigsberg was the architect Hanns Hopp the airport Devau , the first airport complex, which was designed specifically for commercial civil aviation operations, designed and built. The building arrangement - 50 m wide halls flanked the reception and administration building - resulted in the silhouette of a bird ready to take off.
- December 27th: Air traffic from Berlin (Staaken) to London (Croydon) starts with a Dornier Komet II with four passengers from Berlin.
- Huff Daland Dusters , the predecessor of Delta Airlines , was founded.
- In Germany, silent films were shown for the first time during a passenger flight .
- April 12: Köhl , Hünefeld and Fitzmaurice made the first non-stop transatlantic flight from east to west with a Junkers W 33 .
- June 11th: The first manned rocket flight took place with the Lippisch duck on the Wasserkuppe .
- June 17 and 18: Amelia Earhart was the first woman to fly across the Atlantic as a passenger.
- September 19: The Stinson Detroit SM-1DX , equipped with a 225 hp Packard DR-980 , was the world's first diesel- powered aircraft.
- The Berlin chief engineer Engelbert Zaschka invented a rotary aircraft which, in contrast to the previously known helicopters and helicopters with the engine switched off , could perform a safe vertical gliding flight with the engine switched off .
- July 12: First flight of the twelve-engined flying boat Dornier Do X . On October 21st, the Do X made a flight with 169 people on board. The record lasted 20 years.
- November 6th: The largest land plane in the world, the Junkers G 38 , took off on its maiden flight and set several world records.
- LOT Polish Airlines, Cubana de Aviacion and Pan Am were founded.
1930–1939: long-distance flights
- March 7th: Maiden flight of the Junkers Ju 52 , the first passenger aircraft built in large numbers .
- May 20: Amelia Earhart became the first woman to cross the Atlantic non-stop in a solo flight . She flew on a Lockheed Vega from Harbor Grace in Newfoundland to Londonderry in Northern Ireland .
- Elly Beinhorn reached Australia in a solo flight from Berlin-Staaken with a Klemm Kl 26 .
- January 11th: First solo flight across the Pacific from Honolulu , Hawaii to Oakland , California by Amelia Earhart.
- May 28th: First flight of the Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighter plane , the world's most built fighter plane (around 35,000).
- November 22: Introduction of the transpacific liner service by Pan Am .
- December 17: First flight of the most popular commercial and transport aircraft, the Douglas DC-3 .
- May 6: LZ129 Hindenburg had an accident on landing in Lakehurst during a scheduled trip as part of the North American program of the DZR . This accident claimed 36 lives and marked the end of commercial airship travel.
- July 3: Amelia Earhart disappeared from a flight from Lae , New Guinea to Howland Island and has been missing since then.
- Hanna Reitsch was the first woman in the world to fly helicopters ( Focke-Wulf Fw 61 ).
- March 27-29: A Dornier Do 18 hit the long-distance world record with a catapult launch from the catapult ship Westfalen , which lay in front of Plymouth , England , to Caravelas on the coast of Brazil. In 43 hours and 10 minutes, the flying boat covered 8,392 kilometers. In the same year, two Vickers Wellesley flew non-stop in 48 hours 11,525 kilometers from Egypt to Australia.
- August 10: A Focke-Wulf Condor flew over the Atlantic as the first land-based passenger aircraft on a non-stop flight from Berlin to New York.
- 28-30 November: A Focke-Wolf Condor flew in 46 hours and 18 minutes with stops in Basra, Karachi and Hanoi from Berlin to Tokyo (14,278 kilometers).
- December 31: First flight of the Boeing 307 Stratoliner , the first civilian aircraft to be equipped with a pressurized cabin.
- April 26th: A Messerschmitt Me 209 set a new world speed record with 755 km / h. The record for airplanes with piston engines lasted 30 years.
- June 28: Establishment of regular passenger air traffic over the North Atlantic (New York - Azores - Lisbon - Marseille) by Pan American World Airways with Boeing 314 flying boats.
- August 27th: The first flight of the Heinkel He 178 was successfully carried out with the Heinkel HeS 3 jet engine developed by Hans von Ohain . The jet age began.
1939–1945: Second World War
- July 18: First flight of the Me 262 , the first series-built aircraft with jet engines, in which the later series engines were used.
- September 21: First flight of the B-29 , the largest and most powerful bomber of the Second World War.
- September: With the Messerschmitt Me 323 "Gigant" , the first transport aircraft went into series production. The six-engine machine had the same cargo space as a railroad car and could carry 20 tons as a maximum payload.
- October 3: An A4 rocket , also known as a V2, reached a top speed of almost Mach 5 (4,824 km / h) and a peak altitude of 84.5 km. The first step into space was taken.
- January 13th: First emergency exit in aviation history with an ejection seat, from a Heinkel He 280 , the first aircraft in the world with an ejection seat.
1945–1949: The first post-war years
- APRIL 6: The first passenger aircraft with jet propulsion , a Vickers Viking , the two Nene Rolls-Royce engines was converted, made its maiden flight and proved the basic suitability of this type of drive in the civil aviation sector.
- July 14th: The first jet aircraft to cross the Atlantic was a De Havilland DH.100 Vampire fighter .
- July 16: The first airliner with turboprop -drive, the Vickers Viscount , made its maiden flight.
- July 27th: The world's first series-produced passenger aircraft with jet engines , the De Havilland DH.106 Comet , completed its maiden flight.
1950–1959: Gas turbine drives - jets, turboprops and turbine helicopters
- May 2, 1952: The British Overseas Aircraft Corporation (BOAC) began the world's first jet airliner service between London and Johannesburg with the De Havilland Comet .
- April 17: The first airliner with turboprop propulsion, a Vickers Viscount of the BEA , began service.
- July 7th: The Federal Agency for Air Traffic Control took over the implementation of civil air traffic control services after the Allies had placed air traffic control under their control in German hands. It was the forerunner of today's Deutsche Flugsicherung GmbH (DFS)
- The German Lufthansa AG was again by renaming from the previously established one year "LUFTAG (Public Company for air traffic demand)."
- March 12, 1955: First flight of the Alouette II , one of the first series-produced helicopters with a gas turbine engine.
- April 1, 1955: First scheduled flight of Deutsche Lufthansa.
- June 17, 1955: First flight of the Tu-104 , which was already in regular service a year later with the Soviet Aeroflot .
- May 30: First flight of the Douglas DC-8 . In service with United Airlines and Delta Airlines from September 18, 1959 .
1960–1969: supersonic jets
- April 10th: The world's first supersonic vertical take-off aircraft, the German EWR VJ 101 machine , began its flight tests.
- July 19: Joseph Albert Walker reached an altitude of 100 km in the North American X-15 rocket plane .
- December 28, 1967: First flight of the British vertical take-off aircraft Hawker Siddeley Harrier .
- March 2nd, 1969: First flight of the Concorde .
1970–1979: wide-body jets
In the 1970s, flying became cheaper and affordable for everyone.
- August 29, 1970: First flight of the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 .
- November 16, 1970: First flight of the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar .
- May 25, 1972: The first digital fly-by-wire flight was carried out with the Apollo Guidance Computer , installed in a Vought F-8 "Crusader" .
- October 28, 1972: First flight of the Airbus A300 .
- March 31, 1974: British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) and British European Airways (BEA) merged to form the new airline British Airways .
- December 22, 1976: First flight of the Ilyushin Il-86 .
- October 28, 1978: The Airline Deregulation Act was passed in the USA, which led to the deregulation of commercial passenger aviation in the USA. This law leads to a complete reshaping of the American flight market. Companies that did not merge were threatened with bankruptcy.
- June 12, 1979: For the first time a pedal-powered, ultra-light muscle- powered aircraft crossed the English Channel.
1980–1989: Deregulation in the USA
- September 26: The Boeing 767 , the first commercial aircraft to be equipped with FMS , completes its maiden flight.
- The US air traffic controllers went on strike. The government fired the strikers and replaced them with military personnel and newly hired personnel.
- The US government deregulated fuel prices, thereby increasing airline costs.
- The first airlines introduced business class .
- The XV-15 tilt-rotor test aircraft flew at the Paris Air Show.
- April 3: First flight of the Airbus A310 .
- September 1: All 269 passengers on Korean Air Lines flight 007 died when the aircraft flew over Soviet restricted area and was shot down by a Soviet Su-15 fighter.
- The last DC-10 was built; McDonnell Douglas gave up the type name DC (Douglas Commercial) and called his aircraft from then on MD (McDonnell Douglas).
- The space shuttle "Enterprise" was shown on the Boeing 747 transporter at the air show in Paris .
- December 23: Pan Am used the twin-engine Airbus A300 / A310 for the first time for the non-stop transatlantic flights from Hamburg to New York. Because it was equipped with fewer than three engines, a detour along the coastline had to be flown for safety reasons in the first few years.
- April: TWA was the first airline to start operations across the North Atlantic with twin-engine aircraft ( Boeing 767-200 ER) that travel a maximum of 75 minutes from an alternate airport.
- May: Daimler-Benz took over the Dornier company .
- The Soviet Antonov An-124 (take-off weight 405 tons) was presented to the West at the Paris Air Show.
- The ATR 42 , an Italian-French project by Aeritalia and Aérospatiale, was also presented here .
- Pan Am sold the Pacific routes built in 1937 to United Airlines.
- Boeing bought De Havilland of Canada to enter the growing regional aircraft market.
- The twin-engine Boeing 757 now also flew regularly over the North Atlantic.
- People Express , Frontier , Western Airlines , Republic , Pacific Southwest, and other American airlines have been bought out or gone bankrupt.
- Texas Air became the largest western airline.
- In June, MBB announced the German-Chinese development of the MPC 75 regional airliner .
- In August, General Electric tested a UDF ( Engl. However unducted fan) engine, with free or open-lying propeller on a Boeing 727. Noise and vibrations caused problems.
- Canadair completed the Challenger 601 business jet , and Gulfstream Aerospace completed the Gulfstream IV .
- McDonnell Douglas officially started development of the long-haul MD-11 aircraft in December .
- Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager flew the Voyager around the world in nine days without refueling.
- The British companies Rolls-Royce and British Airways were privatized. In February, Eastern Air Lines paid fines for 78,000 flight safety violations.
- The Airbus A320 , the first civil aircraft with digital fly-by-wire control, was presented.
- In March, the Dornier Seastar , an amphibian in plastic technology, was presented.
- On May 28, Mathias Rust landed a Cessna 172 on Red Square in Moscow.
- In July, the cryogenic wind tunnel for transonic experiments was opened in Cologne .
- The first MD-82 , built under license in Shanghai, China , flew.
- Five German astronauts were nominated in August .
- The Italian Piaggio presented a business turboprop P.180 "Avanti" with plastic parts and duck wings.
- 3 July 1988: All 290 passengers of Airbus A300 of Iran Air were killed when the aircraft by the crew of a warship of the American US Navy was shot down.
- December 21, 1988: Pan American Flight 103 was destroyed by a mid-air bomb over the Scottish town of Lockerbie .
- A United Boeing 747 SP circled the earth in the record time of just under 37 hours.
- The Daedalus muscle power plane flew 120 km from Crete to Santorini.
- Dornier launched the 328 program , a regional turboprop aircraft using KfK technology .
- The new six-engine Antonov An-225 with a maximum take-off weight of 600 tons became the largest aircraft in the world.
- Eastern Air Lines filed for bankruptcy after a long and tough battle between the Pilots and Mechanics Union and board member Frank Lorenzo.
- The Ilyushin Il- 96-300, a four-engine long-range aircraft with an electronic cockpit, began flight tests. Concepts for a space aircraft showed a "lifting body".
- An MD-80 flew with the PW / Allison UHB (Ultra High Bypass) engine, but it did not go into production.
- NASA completed a human factors study of 757 pilots. It remained questionable whether a highly automated cockpit would reduce the workload or increase flight safety.
- The merger of Daimler-Benz and MBB was approved in September, making Deutsche Aerospace AG (DASA) , founded in May, the largest German group in the industry.
- In December, all four engines on KLM Flight 867 failed when the machine flew into a cloud of volcanic ash. The crew managed to restart the engines.
- The Soviet MiG-29 and Su-27 fighter planes were offered for sale at the Paris Air Show . The US Navy shot down two Libyan MiG-23s over the Mediterranean.
1990–2000: Europe's national airlines
- McDonnell Douglas' new MD-520N notary helicopter was air-controlled and had no tail rotor. In March, Airbus Industries decided to build the Airbus A321 in Hamburg. This is the first time that a large aircraft will be built in Germany. In the US, the FAA ordered reviews and structural reinforcements of older jets (more than 20 years old). In May, BMW decided to work with Rolls-Royce to build engines. After German reunification on October 3rd, the German Air Force took over the NVA's MiG-29 . Boeing officially launched the 777 program in December , which is set to become the largest twin-engine aircraft in the world.
- Air traffic fell sharply because of the Gulf War . Most of the world's airlines went into the red. Pan American Airlines, founded in 1927, is taken over and dissolved by Delta. USAir, Delta, United and American Airlines increased their presence in Europe. On December 4th, Pan American World Airways , founded in 1927, had to cease flight operations with immediate effect.
- The world economy fell into recession. The new Munich Airport opened on May 17th . All airlines except British Airways lost money. In collective bargaining with Lufthansa, a wage freeze and job cuts were approved in order to relieve the loss-making airline.
- After the dissolution of the Soviet Union on January 1st, Aeroflot formed individual national airlines for the countries now organized in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Aeroflot, as a registered Russian company with headquarters in Moscow, became the legal successor to the previous Soviet aviation company in Russia.
- Deutsche British Airways (DBA), which was founded more than a year ago, took over Friedrichshafen-based Delta Air, which had previously only been active in regional air traffic. DBA, in which the British parent company held a 49 percent stake, acquired the whole Delta Air shares from its previous owners. Upon completion of the transaction, Delta Air was to be renamed Deutsche BA . According to press reports, British Airways wanted to develop the German subsidiary DBA into a downright low-cost airline . DBA wanted to serve domestic as well as international routes with a fleet of new Boeing 737-300s.
- May 11th, The new Munich airport , named Franz Josef Strauss, officially went into operation after 38 years of planning and construction work. As the first passenger flight, a Lufthansa Boeing 747 took off punctually at six o'clock with numerous guests of honor for the opening flight . Hours earlier - shortly after the last Lufthansa flight with a Boeing 737-500 baptized “Freising” - the lights at Riem Airport had gone out forever.
- November 2nd, first flight of the Airbus A330
- June 12, maiden flight of the Boeing 777 , the largest twin-engine airliner in the world
- Foundation of the low-cost airline Easyjet . A Concorde set a new record for the fastest circumnavigation of the world with 31 hours, 27 minutes and 40 seconds.
- The German-American agreement in air transport was agreed by the Transport Ministers Matthias Wissmann and Frederico Pena in April 1996 , following the transitional agreement of May 24, 1994 . It opened up the liberalization of the transatlantic air transport market.
- Foundation of the Star Alliance
- Foundation of the Oneworld Alliance
- Non-stop circumnavigation of the world with a balloon .
Since 2000: modernization of aviation
- Establishment of the SkyTeam Alliance. EADS emerged from Aérospatiale , Deutsche Aerospace and CASA .
- Terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 in the USA. As a result, air traffic in the USA was paralyzed for a few days. The security precautions at airports have been increased. The number of passengers fell and a number of airlines fell into economic crisis.
- First flight of the Embraer EMB 200 A (Ipanema) with an ethanol engine. As the first aircraft with an alcohol engine, the machine received approval in 2004. The aircraft was built by Vicente Camargo's team.
- April 27, first flight of the Airbus A380 . At the time, the A380 was the largest mass-produced commercial airliner in aviation history.
- December 15th, first flight of the Boeing 787 ("Dreamliner")
- From April 15: The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 led to a cessation of air traffic over northern and central Europe for several days.
- June 14th, first flight of the Airbus A350
- September 29th, maiden flight of the HY4 , the world's first four-seat passenger aircraft with emission-free hydrogen fuel cell drive
- Andreas Fecker: "The world of aviation", Verlag GeraMond, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-7654-7221-2 .
- Helmuth Trischler , Kai-Uwe Schrogl (Ed.): A Century in Flight - Aerospace Research in Germany 1907-2007 , Frankfurt / New York, Campus 2007, ISBN 978-3-593-38330-9 .
- History of passenger aviation
- History of the aerospace industry
- 100 years of aerospace research in Germany
- Germany's first passenger airport
- Lilienthal Museum
- Aviation history: pilots, pioneers, technology, flight maneuvers
- Austrian Aviation Archive
- Video: A century in flight . German Aerospace Center 2013, made available by the Technical Information Library (TIB), doi : 10.5446 / 12819 .
- Civil aviation timetable
- List of first flights by aircraft
- List of aircraft types
- List of the most popular aircraft
- List of known people in aviation
- Lists of aviation accidents
- Passenger aviation
- Unmanned aviation
- History of Lufthansa
- History of Russian Aviation
- Technology history
- Aulus Gellius , Martin Hertz, Carl Hosius: A. Gellii Noctium Atticarum Libri XX . BG Teubner, Stuttgart 1969, p. 352 : “Nam et plerique nobilium Graecorum et Favorinus philosophus, memoriam veterum exequentissimus, affirmatissime scripserunt simulacrum columbae e ligno ab Archyta ratione quadam discipziplinaque mechanica factum volasse; ita erat scilicet libramentis suspensum et aura spiritus inclusa atque occulta concitum. "
- Lynn White, "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition". In: Technology and Culture , Vol. 2, No. 2 (1961), pp. 97-111 (here: pp. 100-101), doi: 10.2307 / 3101411 .
- J. Gordon Leishman: Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge NY 2006, p. 9, ISBN 0-521-85860-7 .
- Charles Nicholl : Leonardo da Vinci - The biography . S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2006, pp. 271-272, ISBN 978-3-10-052405-8 .
- Braunschweiger Luftfahrtgeschichte e. V. (Ed.): Braunschweigische Luftfahrtgeschichte. Appelhans Verlag Braunschweig 2010, ISBN 978-3-941737-18-1 , p. 48.
- August 10, 1888: First powered flight in history with a Daimler single-cylinder engine ( Memento from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Joachim Wachtel: The Aviatiker . Mosaik Verlag, Munich 1978, ISBN 3-570-00837-1 , p. 83, 84 .
- Hans Grade - Triplane. (No longer available online.) In: Technikmuseum Magdeburg . Archived from the original on June 22, 2018 ; accessed on May 26, 2019 .
- Official homepage of the Swiss Air Force: The first Swiss military flight ( memento of August 14, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 26, 2019.
- V. Lougheed: The Secret Experiments of the Wright Brothers in Popular Mechanics, 12/1911 p. 797 ff. ( Memento from April 6, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 5.1 MB)
- Johannisthal letter . From our Johannisthal correspondent. In: Carl Oskar Ursinus (Ed.): Flugsport . No. 15 . Verlag für Flugsport, Frankfurt am Main July 22, 1914, p. 631 ff . ( Aviation in the Luftfahrt-bibliothek.de [accessed on August 19, 2018]).
- New York nonstop and in stages to Tokyo: The record flights of the Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor. Retrieved January 22, 2019 .
- Emission-free propulsion for aviation: First flight of the four-seater HY4 passenger aircraft at www.dlr.de , accessed on January 7, 2017.