|Coordinates :||55 ° 42 ′ N , 21 ° 8 ′ E|
|Height :||21 m|
|Area (place) :||98.35 km²|
|Inhabitants (place) :||162,690 (2011)|
|Population density :||1,654 inhabitants per km²|
|Time zone :||EET (UTC + 2)|
|Telephone code :||(+370) 46|
|Postal code :||91100-96226|
|Structure :||60 microrajons|
( Lietuvos Respublikos liberalų sąjūdis )
|Postal address :||Liepų g. 11, LT-91502
Klaipėda [ˈklaɪ̯peda] ( , German Memel ) is a port city in Lithuania . It has the status of a township , so it has an elected mayor and city council. It is surrounded by the district municipality of Klaipėda , of which it is the administrative seat. Until 1920 it was the northernmost city in Germany . In the interwar period , the city was the center of the Memelland. The diverse past - from the time of the Teutonic Order to Prussia , Sweden , Germany , the Memelland and the Soviet Union - was and is still a defining feature of this most important Lithuanian Baltic port , as well as its central location in the Baltic States .
Klaipėda is about 120 km northeast of Kaliningrad (Königsberg) as the crow flies and about 290 km northwest of the state capital Vilnius on the mainland at the confluence of the Dange (Lithuanian Danė ) in the Curonian Lagoon opposite the northern end of the Curonian Spit , called Kopgalis (German: Süderspitze ). The city is embedded in the Curonian Pilsaten landscape ("pil", "pilstu", "pilt", "pilti" = flow, pour, pour, trickle).
Monthly average temperatures and rainfall for Klaipėda
The name derives Memel Curonian to Latvian, and refers to both the Lagoon and the lower reaches of the river Memel . The name Klaipėda is derived from the Kurish “klais” / “klait” (flat; free, open) and “ped” (sole of the foot, bottom). It was first mentioned in writing in 1413 in a letter from Grand Duke Vytautas (Caloypede).
Origin and foundation of the city
Archaeological finds show that after the last Ice Age the area was populated by members of the Hamburg culture , a variant of the Magdalenian culture, and members of the southern European Swidry culture. The period from 4000 to 2500 BC BC is named after the Estonian-Russian border river Narva Memel and Narva culture . Since around 2500 BC The region was the settlement area of West Baltic tribes. Memel was founded around 1250 and was the oldest city in what was later to be East Prussia.
Early 13th century there were at the mouth of the Dange a wooden castle of cures . In 1252 it was conquered by the Livonian Order under Eberhard von Seyne , who built the Memelburg on the same site . In 1253 the city of Memel was founded next to the castle with the decisive involvement of Dortmund merchants. The Dortmund influence was so great that it was first considered to name the city New Dortmund. The city founders asked the city of Dortmund to send them a record of their city rights and customs. This transcript was made in 1252 with the title On Freedom of Our City . In 1258, Memel received the town charter of Lübeck . It was now mentioned in a document as Memele castrum (Memelburg, also Mimmelburg). In 1328 the castle and town passed to the Teutonic Order , whereby Memel became part of the Prussian order state .
Lithuania , which had successfully resisted the expansionist efforts of the knightly orders since 1261, became a powerful state in 1323 under the Grand Duke Gediminas . The Lithuanian Grand Duke Jogaila converted to Christianity in 1386 and married the Polish heir to the throne, Hedwig von Anjou , thus establishing the Polish-Lithuanian Union . Poland-Lithuania suffered a heavy defeat in the Battle of Tannenberg in 1410 , which in the First Peace of Thorner in 1411 had to commit to high reparation payments. With the Christianization of Lithuania the purpose of the knightly order no longer existed. New taxes to finance the reparations led to internal political conflicts between the order and the estates , which, first of all, cities like Danzig , Königsberg , Elbing , organized themselves in the Prussian Confederation and submitted to the King of Poland. This led to further wars between the order and Poland, in which the city of Memel was plundered or burned down several times (1379, 1409, 1456, 1459, 1464, 1520).
In the Peace of Lake Melno in 1422, in which the order had to cede Samaites and other areas to Poland-Lithuania, an alternative name for the city of Memel was first documented: "et castrum Memel in Samogitico Cleupeda appellatum" (and the Memelburg , called Cleupeda in Samogitian ) . The established limit within which the city of Memel and the area up to the 50 kilometers south of the Memel River flowing into the lagoon were confirmed to the Teutonic Order, remained in place when the order state in Prussia passed into the Duchy of Prussia in 1525 . This border between Prussia and Lithuania was one of the longest unchanged borders in Europe, it existed until 1923 - culturally until 1945.
In 1475 Memel received the Kulmer law , also called Cologne law.
Duchy of Prussia
Albrecht von Hohenzollern converted the order state into the Duchy of Prussia in 1525 and introduced the Reformation , so that this Prussia became the first Evangelical-Lutheran state in the world. In the last decades of the order and the first decades of the duchy, settlers from Lithuania outside the cities were brought in large numbers to the northeast of the country, which had been heavily depopulated during the time of the conquest. Since Duke Georg Wilhelm took office in 1619, Prussia and Brandenburg have been ruled in personal union by the electors and kings from the House of Hohenzollern .
Brandenburg-Prussia and the German Empire (until World War I)
Memel gained economic strength until it came under Swedish administration from 1629 to 1635 through the Treaty of Altmark . In the Swedish-Brandenburg War in 1678 the Swedes took Memel again and burned it down. The city was slow to recover from this blow. During the Seven Years' War Memel was occupied by Russian troops from 1758 to 1762 . This was followed by a period of economic recovery, due to the expansion of the timber industry for shipbuilding.
When during the Franco-Prussian War King Friedrich Wilhelm III. had to flee to the far east of Prussia , he made Memel his residence from January 1807 to January 1808. The October edict , which became the core of the Prussian reforms , was issued from Memel.
With the Luisengymnasium Memel , the city had a grammar school since the first half of the 19th century; It emerged from the Great City School founded in the 16th century, whose pupil Simon Dach had also been.
By the middle of the 19th century, the shipowners based in Memel had 97 merchant ships. Another economic boom, also due to the blockade of Russia in the Crimean War , was only briefly interrupted in 1854 by a large fire that destroyed large parts of the city.
The province of Prussia , and thus Memel as well, belonged neither to the Holy Roman Empire nor to the German Confederation until 1848 to 1851 , although it was part of Brandenburg-Prussia. It was not until 1867, when the North German Confederation was founded, that it became part of a larger German state and thus part of the German Empire in 1871 . The Memel leprosy home was inaugurated in 1899 . In the 20th century it was the only one in Europe.
During the First World War , the Imperial Russian Army briefly occupied the city in 1915 (from March 18 to 25). Civilians were murdered and kidnapped. The General Staff of the Imperial Russian Army justified this by pointing out that German civilians had taken part in the fighting over the city. The war crimes in Memel were used in Germany to reinforce anti-Russian stereotypes .
At the instigation of France, Article 99 of the Treaty of Versailles stipulated that the Memel area should be separated from the German Reich and placed under international administration without a prior referendum . This decision was justified by the fact that about half of the inhabitants of the Memel area were Lithuanian as their mother tongue. In the so-called Act of Tilsit in 1918, a small minority of Lithuanian intellectuals demanded that it be incorporated into Lithuania. The provision came into force on February 15, 1920 and led to an autonomous German administration under French rule ( League of Nations mandate ).
Lithuania (between the world wars)
At the same time as the Franco-German conflict over the occupation of the Ruhr in January 1923, members of rifle clubs and regular Lithuanian troops disguised as local rebels took possession of the Memelland without the French garrison offering any resistance. The Lithuanians renamed Memel to Klaipėda and annexed Memel Land, now called Klaipėda District , the following year .
In 1925, the victorious powers (guaranteed Great Britain , France , Italy , Japan ), the Memel Convention, a special status of Memel , which should ensure the autonomy of the German population under the Lithuanian government.
The situation between the German- and Lithuanian-speaking Memel countries on the one hand and the Lithuanians on the other remained tense and led to the introduction of martial law in 1926, which restricted the autonomous administration.
Election results in the following years reflected the overwhelming desire to join the German Reich and the independence of the Memelland from Lithuania (over 75 percent of the votes cast). In the elections held in 1938, which were initiated by Lithuania, 87 percent of the Memel countries voted for a German unified list.
From June 1931 to December 1944, Wilhelm Brindlinger was the last Lord Mayor of Memel.
German Empire (Second World War)
Lithuania returned the city of Memel together with Memelland to Germany on March 22, 1939 after a German ultimatum . The Lithuanian government hoped for help from Germany against Poland with a view to regaining the former capital Vilnius , which had been annexed by Poland in 1920.
In 1941, troops were gathered in Memelland for war against the Soviet Union , which had annexed Lithuania in 1940.
The city of Memel was half destroyed by air raids and fighting during World War II and was abandoned by the Wehrmacht in January 1945 after the civilian population had been evacuated from the approaching Red Army in October 1944.
After the city was taken over by the Red Army on January 19, 1945, Memel and the former Memel area were incorporated into the Lithuanian SSR and named with their Curonian name Klaipėda, which was first mentioned in 1422. In addition to Lithuanians, many members of other nationalities of the Soviet Union, especially Russians, were settled in the city, which was almost deserted after the flight or expulsion of the German residents. In the city there was the POW camp 57 for German prisoners of war of the Second World War. Seriously ill people were cared for in POW Hospital 2652 , Šilutė .
Lithuania (since 1990)
Shortly before the collapse of the Soviet Union , Lithuania gained independence in 1990 and made Klaipėda a free economic zone . Since then, the city has experienced a strong economic boom, which continues to this day and is based in no small part on the fact that the Kaliningrad area is a Russian exclave and is therefore outside the EU area , which complicates the border clearances there and makes Klaipėda more attractive power. Until its dissolution in 2010, Klaipėda was the seat of the Klaipėda District Administration .
By the end of World War II , Memel was a German city with a Lithuanian minority of 11% (1931). The entire population of Memelland, including the city of Memel, was evacuated in October 1944 . When the Red Army marched in at the end of January 1945, fewer than 50 people were in the city. In contrast to the neighboring Kaliningrad Oblast to the south , the Soviet Union did not expel the inhabitants, but called for them to return after the end of the war. The returnees were at a disadvantage compared to the Soviet citizens who had moved there and, for example, could not acquire Soviet citizenship until 1947. 6,000 of them left the country when the legal opportunity to do so first arose in 1958.
It was mainly Russians who moved to the city of Klaipeda . Their share was initially higher than the Lithuanian and German combined. Although many of them moved away, the Lithuanian Baltic coast is now a focus of the Russian minority who remained in Lithuania . By far the largest population group consists of from the rest of Lithuania immigrant Catholic Lithuanians, especially Samogitians . In 2008 the city had 183,828 inhabitants, more than the entire Memel area between the world wars.
|1782||5,559||in 514 houses, excluding the military and tourists present in the summer|
|1849||10,779||in 792 private homes|
|1890||19,282||of which 17,206 Protestants, 723 Catholics, 492 others and 861 Jews (900 Lithuanians )|
|1905||20,687||with the garrison (a battalion of 41 infantry), of which 862 were Catholics and 899 Jews|
Most of the denominational residents belong to the Roman Catholic Church . Their churches belong to the Klaipėda deanery of the Telšiai diocese . The most important church in the city is the parish church Maria Frieden . Minorities belong to the Russian Orthodox Church, the Evangelical Lutheran Church and the Baptists .
badges and flags
The origins of the coat of arms in gold on a red background can be proven except for seals from the second half of the 13th century. The old coat of arms of Memel was adopted from the city of Klaipėda and shows the crenellated castle tower of the Memelburg in the middle, flanked on both sides by wooden beacons and protected by the ramparts. The stable rowboat indicates the location of the Memelburg on the Curonian Lagoon and represents the ferry to the Curonian Spit. The four stars indicate a time when the sailor had to navigate without a compass. The city flag uses the colors of the Memelland on a vertically split flag. The city coat of arms rests in the middle.
Politics and administration
- 1990-1992: Povilas Vasiliauskas
- 1992–1994: Benediktas Petrauskas
- 1994–1995: Jurgis Aušra
- 1995–1997: Silverijus Šukys
- 1997-2001: Eugenijus Gentvilas
- 2001-2007: Rimantas Taraškevičius
- since 2011: Vytautas Grubliauskas
On December 20, 2001, Klaipėda received a new administrative structure and is now divided into 60 districts (miesto dalys or mikrorajonai) . Some of them bear the names of other Lithuanian cities, others refer to the old German names of the incorporated villages.
- Alksnynė (Alxnen)
- Bachmano dvaras (Bachmannshof)
- Baltikalnė (Baltikallen)
- Bandužiai (Banduszen)
- Bomelio Vitė (Bommelsvitte)
- Danė (Dange)
- Debrecenas (Rumpischken)
- Giruliai (forestry)
- Joniškė (Janischken)
- Jūrininkai ("sailors")
- Kalotė (collates)
- Labrenciškė (Labrenzischken)
- Laistų sodyba ( last )
- Laukininkai (Polangenstrasse)
- Lypkiai (Liebken)
- Mažasis Kaimelis
- Pirmoji Melnragė (Melneraggen I)
- Antroji Melnragė (Melneraggen II)
- Miškas (forest)
- Miško dvaras ( Forest Farm )
- Naujamiestis (New Town)
- Nemunas (Memel River)
- Neringa ( spit , borders on the municipality of the same name)
- Pakrantės sodai ( Coastal Gardens )
- Paupiai (Bachmannischken)
- Pempininkai (Pempen)
- Plytinė (brickworks)
- Poilsio (holiday area)
- Pušynas (pine forest)
- Rimkai (Karlsberg)
- Rotušė (Town Hall)
- Rumpiškė (Rumpischken)
- Šarlotė (Charlottenhof)
- Šauliai (Schaulen)
- Senamiestis (old town)
- Sendvaris (Althof)
- Smeltė (enamel)
- Smiltynė ( sand pitcher , on the spit)
- Švepelių sodyba (Schweppel)
- Tauralaukis (Tauerlauken)
- Uostas (port)
- Vėtrungė ("weather vane")
- Vingio (wing cap)
- Didžioji Vitė ( Great Vitte , Castle Freedom on the northern bank of the Dange)
- Mažoji Vitė ( Kleine Vitte , a farming village that reaches as far as the Swiane)
- Žardai (Szarde)
- Žardininkai (Götzhöfen)
- Žvejybos uostas (fishing port)
Ship and ferry traffic
By far the most important sea port in Lithuania is located in Klaipėda (there is still a sea port in Šventoji , which is insignificant, and an oil loading terminal in Būtingė ). The port in Klaipėda, which is mostly ice-free all year round, plays an important role in the shipping of Russian oil . From here there are also ferry connections (passenger and commercial traffic) from DFDS Lisco (now part of DFDS Seaways ) to Germany ( Kiel ), Denmark and Sweden ( Karlshamn ). Since summer 2018, TT-Line ferries have been connecting Klaipėda with Rostock and Travemünde .
During the day there is a half-hourly ferry from a pier in the Dange to Smiltyne (Sandkrug) . H. to the top of the Curonian Spit . There is a marina in a moat of the old castle that branches off from the Dange .
Local public transport is realized with buses (almost exclusively used MAN or Mercedes-Benz buses from Germany) and regular taxis. The latter are buses about the size of a Ford transit bus on certain lines that can be stopped. The price is € 0.70 per trip, € 0.98 in the night tariff for an unlimited journey.
In 2007, a new electronic ticket system was introduced in which the fare is debited from a monthly credit to be purchased. The most important bus routes are numbered:
- 3, from the fishing port to the south of the city
- 6, from the southern edge of the city center to the Melnragė seaside resort in the northwest of the city
- 8, from the southern edge of the city center to the train station
Special lines serve important companies in the port area when the shift changes.
From 1904 to 1934 Memeler Kleinbahn AG operated an electric tram on a network of eleven kilometers. In addition, on October 22, 1906, around 50 kilometers of small railway lines were opened by it, which led from Memel to Pöszeiten, Laugallen and Plicken.
Klaipėda is connected to Kaunas and Vilnius by a motorway and has good road links to Šiauliai , Palanga and Latvia .
On June 1, 1875 Memel was connected to the railway network by the Prussian State Railways from Tilsit via Pagegiai / Pogegen . During the time of the German Empire Memel was connected to the trains of the Prussian Eastern Railway , which ran from Berlin via Küstrin, Landsberg, Schneidemühl, Bromberg, Thorn, Allenstein, Insterburg, Tilsit to Memel. Since 1892 the line has led beyond the Memel train station northwards to Bajohren (now part of Kretinga ). This was the only rail link until the First World War; today it is only used for freight traffic. From 1925 to 1929 the Lithuanian state built the line from Šiauliai (Schaulen) to Klaipėda. Three long-distance trains to Vilnius and three regional trains run daily on what is now the city's most important rail link . The trains are operated by the Lithuanian State Railways ( Lietuvos Geležinkeliai ) .
Long-distance bus transport
The bus station , from which the bus lines to Šiauliai , Šilutė and Vilnius (via Kaunas ), Riga , Liepāja , Poland , Germany and Kaliningrad depart, is right next to the main train station . In addition, many buses stop for traffic on the Curonian Spit in Smiltynė.
The nearest airport is in the seaside resort of Palanga north of Klaipėda .
Small machines can at Klaipėda Airport take off and land.
The Vakarų Baltijos laivų statykla shipyard has been located in Klaipėda since 1952 and is now a supplier and manufacturer. Overall, the city's economy is clearly maritime due to its geographical location on the Baltic Sea. A special economic zone, the Klaipėda Free Economic Zone, provides legal and administrative relief for investors .
Old and new town
Many restored half-timbered houses from the 17th to 19th centuries have been preserved in the old town of Klaipėda . The symbol of the city is the Simon-Dach-Brunnen with a figure of Ännchen von Tharau, known from a folk song, on the Theaterplatz in the old town. This is a replica because the original was lost immediately after World War II .
Across the river Dange lies the new town, which was laid out in the 18th and 19th centuries and developed into the city's business center after the Second World War.
There are also two historic post offices in Klaipėda , one in a small old town house, the other in Art Nouveau style with a famous carillon in the new town. The former sailing training ship Meridianas (now a restaurant) lies on the river Dange .
After the Second World War, the ruins of the churches destroyed by the effects of the war were torn down many times:
- Marienkirche, oldest church in Memel
- St. Johannis , one of the oldest churches in Memel for the German-speaking Memel city population (city church)
- St. Nikolai, one of the oldest churches in Memel for the Prussian and Kurish speaking rural population (country church)
- Jakobuskirche, successor of the old country church St. Nikolai, for the Baltic language speaking Memel rural population
- Reformed Church, this later also included the congregation of the English Church
- Parish of Vitte, only existed for a short time in the north of Memel
- English Church
- Catholic Church, for the city and country area of Memel. It was founded in 1782 for the immigrant žemaitic population. In the years 1863–1865 a stone church was built in the Töpferstrasse instead of a wooden chapel according to the plans of building officer Meyer in the Gothic style as a three-aisled vaulted hall church. The new tower was around 50 meters high.
Thus there are only relatively small and architecturally unspectacular places of worship in the new town, such as the Baptist Church, or in the newer districts further outside. The Evangelical Lutheran congregation has moved into a former private house in the old town.
The Catholic parish church Maria Frieden , which was built in the post-war period and served as a theater during the Soviet era, is now a heavily frequented church with a large community.
The Catholic Church Josef der Arbeiter , built in 1991, is located in the south of the city.
Before the Second World War, there were Jewish institutions in Memel
- Wallstrasse “Polish school” with immersion bath for Russian merchants.
- Baderstrasse, "Lehrhaus" for the Lithuanian Jews, later "Beth-Midrash".
- Bäckerstrasse, prayer house for the German Jews.
- Kehrwiederstrasse, house of prayer for the German Jews.
Art in public space
Klaipėda has numerous works of art and monuments in public spaces. Scattered across the old town are smaller sculptures such as the “Jug with Money” and “The Little Wonder Mouse”.
Imposing is “Arka” (“The Arch”), which was erected in 2003 on the occasion of the 85th anniversary of the Tilsit Act and the 80th anniversary of the unification of Lithuania with the Memel region. The small column made of red granite symbolizes Lithuania Minor , the square gray granite column symbolizes Lithuania . The edge above the red column symbolizes the Königsberg area , which has belonged to Russia since 1945 . A saying by the writer Ieva Simonaitytė is carved on the upper part of the monument : “We are one people, one country, one Lithuania”.
In the park adjacent to “Arka” on the right bank of the Dange, the visitor will find further works of art. A few hundred meters away is the Mažvydas Sculpture Park, which was created in 1977 in place of the old town cemetery. More than 100 works by Lithuanian sculptors can be seen in this spacious park.
"Juodasis Vaiduoklis", the black ghost, is a ghostly bronze figure in the marina, reminiscent of a fabulous figure who is said to have warned the castle guard Hans von Heidi in 1595 of a famine.
In nearby Nida (German Nidden ), which is now the main town of the municipality of Neringa (Nehrung) on the Curonian Spit, is the former summer house of Thomas Mann . To the north of Klaipėda lies the most important seaside resort in Lithuania , Palanga .
- Klaipėda Music Theater (Opera House)
- Klaipėda Drama Theater (Drama Theater)
- Klaipėda Chamber Orchestra
- Camerata Klaipeda
- Klaipėda Castle Jazz Festival
- Historical Museum of Lithuania Minor
- Lithuanian Maritime Museum
Universities and colleges
In Klaipėda / Memel there is a university , several technical colleges , the state college Klaipėda and a bilingual, German-Lithuanian grammar school , the Hermann Sudermann grammar school .
sons and daughters of the town
- Simon Dach (1605–1659), poet, a. a. of the song Ännchen von Tharau
- Matthäus Prätorius (1635–1704), Protestant pastor, historian and ethnographer
- Johan Daniel Berlin (1714–1787), composer
- Johannes Schönherr (1771–1826), Protestant theosophist
- Friedrich Wilhelm August Argelander (* 1799 near Memel; † 1875), astronomer
- Johann August Muttray (1808–1872), member of the Frankfurt National Assembly
- Franz Brandstäter (1815–1883), philologist
- Hermann von Ostrowski (1816–1896), Prussian major general and commander of the 17th Infantry Brigade
- Franz Karl August Boguslaw von Karczewsky (1820–1884), Prussian lieutenant general and director of the military and economic department in the War Ministry
- Julius Kröhl (1820–1867), engineer in America, submarine pioneer
- James Hobrecht (1825–1902), urban planner
- Rudolf Reicke (1825–1905), philosopher
- Bertha Schrader (1845–1920), painter, graphic artist and lithographer
- Paul Fraiße (1851–1909), zoologist
- Heinrich Hoeftman (1851–1917), orthopedist
- Benno Becker (1860–1938), painter and academy professor
- Arthur Becker (1862–1933), politician, landowner and farmer
- Paul Block (1862–1934), journalist, theater critic and writer
- William Campbell of Breadalbane (1863–1944), Prussian major general and commander of the 94th Reserve Infantry Brigade
- Hedwig Andersen (1866–1957), speech therapist
- Curt Jany (1867–1945), Prussian general
- Eduard Loch (1868–1945), philologist and student historian in Königsberg
- Eduard Kado (1875–1946), painter
- Leon Zeitlin (1876–1967), economist, Prussian state parliament member (DDP)
- George Adomeit (1879–1967), painter in America
- Heinrich Ancker (1886–1960), German admiral in World War II
- Siegfried Macholz (1890–1975), German general in World War II
- Ernst Reinke (1891–1943), politician (KPD)
- Karl Eulenstein (1892–1981), painter
- Erich Keßler (1899–1989), ministerial official
- Gerhard Kessler (1903– † unknown, probably after 1974), lawyer and police and Gestapo officer
- Horst Erich Wolter (1906–1984), typographer, commercial artist and book designer
- Reinhold Meyer (1912–1992), President of the Central Postal Service
- Werner Buxa (1916–1998), officer and author
- Marie Schumann (1921–2017), local politician
- Karl Heinz Engelin (1924–1986), sculptor
- Mascha Rolnikaitė (1927–2016), author and Holocaust survivor
- Arno Esch (1928–1951), liberal politician in the Soviet Zone of Occupation (SBZ)
- Günter Gräwert (1930–1996), actor and director
- Dieter Giesing (* 1934), theater director
- Michael Naura (1934–2017), jazz pianist, editor and publicist
- Klaus Adomeit (1935–2019), legal scholar, law professor in Berlin
- Dietmar Willoweit (* 1936), President of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences
- Jürgen AE Meyer (1937–1989), labor and social law specialist in Bremen
- Tomas Venclova (* 1937), poet, writer and translator
- Jürgen Costede (* 1939), legal scholar
- Günter Willumeit (1941–2013), humorist
- Joachim Bublath (* 1943), physicist and television presenter
- Lena Valaitis (* 1943), pop singer
- Hans Henning Atrott (* 1944), euthanasia
- Stefan Schütz (* 1944), writer
- Giedrius Donatas Ašmys (* 1946), politician, mayor of Kaunas from 2002 to 2003
- Vytautas Grubliauskas (* 1956), musician, Mayor of Klaipėda since 2011
- Arvydas Pocius (* 1957), Lithuanian lieutenant general and diplomat
- Leonidas Donskis (1962–2016), philosopher and critic
- Remigijus Lupeikis (* 1964), racing cyclist
- Ingrida Valinskienė (* 1966), singer and politician
- Asta Baukutė (* 1967), actress and politician
- Artūras Kasputis (* 1967), racing cyclist
- Andrius Bielskis (* 1973), philosopher
- Ramūnas Vyšniauskas (* 1976), weightlifter
- Tomas Danilevičius (* 1978), football player
- Vladimir Smirnov (* 1978), racing cyclist
- Vidas Alunderis (* 1979), football player
- Arvydas Macijauskas (* 1980), basketball player
- Žygimantas Jonušas (* 1982), basketball player
- Tomas Vaitkus (* 1982), racing cyclist
- Marius Papšys (* 1989), football player
- Edvinas Girdvainis (* 1993), football player
People who have worked in the city
- Johann von Tiefen (1440–1497), Grand Master of the Teutonic Order
- Friedrich Wilhelm August Argelander (1799–1875), astronomer
- Ludwig Hagen (1829–1892), Prussian port and hydraulic engineer
- Isaak Rülf (1831–1902), rabbi and politician
- Wilhelm Brindlinger (1890–1967), Lord Mayor (1931–1944)
- 2002: Peter Oertling (* 1937), former mayor of the Hanseatic city of Lübeck
Klaipėda lists the following fourteen twin cities :
|Cleveland||Ohio, United States||1992|
|North Tyneside||North East England, UK||1995|
|Qingdao||East China, People's Republic of China||2004|
|Sassnitz||Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany||2013|
|Szczecin||West Pomerania, Poland||2002|
- Ludwig Hagen : The seaports in the provinces of Pomerania and Prussia. Berlin 1885 (2 volumes, Volume 2, Memel)
- Johannes Sembritzki: History of the royal Prussian sea and trading city Memel. Memel 1926.
- Johann Friedrich Goldbeck : Complete topography of the Kingdom of Prussia. Part I: Topography of East Prussia. Königsberg / Leipzig 1785, pp. 31–33 ( full text, Google ).
- Vasilijus Safronovas : Struggle for Identity: The Ideological Controversy in Memel / Klaipeda in the 20th Century . Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2015. ISBN 978-3-447-10352-7 .
- Christian Roedig: Theater in the Far North. Memel's theater between Prussia, the German Empire and the Lithuanian Republic. Published as work 52 of the PRUSSIA series, Husum 2018, ISBN 978-3-89876-951-8 .
- Klaipėda Tourism and Culture Information Center
- Official website of the city of Klaipėda (Lithuanian / English / German / Russian)
- History of the city of Memel (PDF)
- Memel address books
- Back then Memel-Klaipėda today / pictures
- Pictures from Klaipėda
- Annaberg Annals: Memel / Klaipėda 1945 - 1953 (PDF; 132 kB)
- Tourism Guide In Your Pocket , Klaipeda (PDF; 5.2 MB)
- ↑ cf. nehrungskurisch memelis , mimelis (slow; silent, silent), Latvian mēms (speechless, mute)
- ↑ On Memel this year see Thomas Stamm-Kuhlmann: König in Preussens big Zeit. Friedrich Wilhelm III. the melancholic on the throne. Siedler, Berlin 1992, ISBN 3-88680-327-9 , pp. 285-295.
- ^ Ludwig Adolf Wiese : The higher school system in Prussia. Historical-statistical representation. Berlin 1864, p. 56 ( books.google.de ).
- ^ E. Wendt & Co. (Ed.): Overview of the Prussian Merchant Navy . Stettin January 1848, p. 13 ff . ( reader.digitale-sammlungen.de ).
- ^ Francis J. Reynolds: The story of the Great War , Vol. 5. Collier, New York 1916, pp. 1535-1536.
- ↑ Peter Jahn, Andrea Kamp, Andrea Moll, Philipp Springer, Elisabeth Tietmeyer: Our Russians - Our Germans. Images of the Other, 1800 to 2000 . Ch. Links-Verlag, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-86153-460-0 , pp. 112-113.
- ↑ Erich Maschke (ed.): On the history of the German prisoners of war of the Second World War. Verlag Ernst and Werner Gieseking, Bielefeld 1962–1977.
- ^ Memel. In: Der Große Brockhaus, 15th edition . Volume 12, 1932, p. 381.
- ↑ On evacuation and return see Ruth Kibelka : Memellandbuch. Five decades of post-war history. Basisdruck, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-86163-128-8 , pp. 30-38.
- ↑ a b c d e f g h i j k Handbook of historical sites: East and West Prussia. Kröner, Stuttgart 1981, p. 143.
- ^ Johann Friedrich Goldbeck : Complete topography of the Kingdom of Prussia. Part I: Topography of East Prussia. Marienwerder 1785, p. 32 ( online ).
- ↑ Geographical Institute: New General Geographical and Statistical Ephemeris . Volume 30, Weimar 1830, p. 24 ( online ).
- ↑ Statistisches Bureau zu Berlin: Tables and official news about the Prussian state for the year 1849. Volume I: The statistical table, d. i. Containing information about the buildings, the inhabitants and the livestock as well as the overview of the different living places. Berlin 1851, p. 413 ( online ).
- ↑ a b Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. East Prussia: City and district of Memel. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- ^ Meyer's Large Conversational Lexicon. 6th edition, Volume 13, Leipzig and Qien 1908, p. 586.
- ↑ Real Encyclopedia for Protestant Theology and Church . Volume 13 and 14, Gotha 1864, pp. 620-647.
- ↑ A high honor for Peter Oertling In: Lübecker Nachrichten of August 4, 2002, p. 26
- ↑ Miestai partneriai | Klaipedos miesto savivaldybė. Retrieved January 27, 2019 .