|coat of arms||Germany map|
|County :||Rhein-Lahn district|
|Association municipality :||Loreley|
|Height :||100 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||7 km 2|
|Residents:||1285 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||184 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||56346|
|Area code :||06771|
|License plate :||EMS, DIZ, GOH|
|Community key :||07 1 41 121|
|LOCODE :||DE SGO|
|City structure:||4 districts|
|Association administration address:||Dolkstrasse 3
56346 St. Goarshausen
|City Mayor :||Matthias Pflugradt (independent)|
|Location of the city of Sankt Goarshausen in the Rhein-Lahn district|
The city is the administrative seat of the Loreley community and has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site of the Upper Middle Rhine Valley since 2002 . The Loreley city was a district town for a long time - from 1886 of the district or from 1939 of the district of Sankt Goarshausen , from 1961 of the Loreley district to 1969 - and is designated as a central center according to state planning .
Sankt Goarshausen is located in the Upper Middle Rhine Valley , surrounded by the Rhenish Slate Mountains , on the ( orographic ) right bank of the Rhine opposite Sankt Goar and about 35 kilometers from Koblenz . The city center of Sankt Goarshausen is about two kilometers downstream northwest of the Loreley rock . While the steep cliffs are part of the urban area, the Loreley plateau is part of the neighboring municipality of Bornich .
The districts of Ehrenthal , Wellmich , Heide and Rheinblick belong to Sankt Goarshausen . In addition, part of Sankt Goar the habitations block Loreley, Burg Katz , Burg mill, Hasenberg (Forest District), Burg Maus , Heumarkspforter mill, nettle Rother mill nuns Werther mill and focusing plug-mill.
Sankt Goar 1222. Sankt Goar is first mentioned in the year under stood from 1298 of Katzenelnbogen it received through the marriage of the gentlemen of Isenburg and got in 1324 by King Louis IV. , The town charter . Katz Castle (actually Neu-Katzenelnbogen Castle ) above the city was built around 1371 by Count Wilhelm II von Katzenelnbogen as a reaction to the construction of Maus Castle (then under the name Peterseck Castle ) by the Archbishops of Trier . With the end of the counts in 1479, Sankt Goarshausen fell to the Landgraviate of Hesse . After it was estate settlement 1583-1806 part of Hesse-Kassel and secured with St. Goar the only hessisches area on both sides of the Rhine the Landgraf profitable Rhein duties .
During the Thirty Years' War both cities were fiercely fought over, for example in 1626 when Hessen-Darmstadt, with the help of troops from Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, defeated the Niedergrafschaft Katzenelnbogen , to which Sankt Goar and Sankt Goarshausen belonged, with a siege of the two Cities including Katz Castle and Rheinfels Fortress . In the Hessian War (1644–1648) both cities were besieged again, this time by Hesse-Kassel troops who wanted to regain their lost territory and also hoped for a better negotiating basis in the Peace of Westphalia . From then on, Sankt Goarshausen remained with Hessen-Kassel.
From 1806 to 1813 the Niedergrafschaft Katzenelnbogen and thus also Sankt Goarshausen was the only area on the right bank of the Rhine under French administration ( pays réservé ). After the Congress of Vienna (1815) the place came into the possession of the Duchy of Nassau and on April 4, 1816 became the seat of the ducal Nassau office of St. Goarshausen .
After the annexation of the Duchy of Nassau by Prussia (1866), Sankt Goarshausen became a district town on April 1, 1886 , in the district of Sankt Goarshausen, which was newly created by dividing the Rheingau district .
After the First World War , the city lay on the southern edge of the Koblenz bridgehead and was therefore subject to the Allied occupation of the Rhineland in the 1920s, i.e. in the American zone until 1923 and from then on in the French zone until the withdrawal in 1930. The city remained in the Wiesbaden administrative district of the Hesse-Nassau province until 1945 .
After the Second World War, the city and the entire district came into the French occupation zone and was thus detached from the Hesse-Nassau administrative structure. It became part of Rhineland-Palatinate .
Sankt Goarshausen continued to be the district town of the district of Sankt Goarshausen (from 1961 Loreley district) until it was merged with the Unterlahn district as part of the district reform in 1969 in the newly created Rhein-Lahn district with the district town of Bad Ems .
“On the right bank of the Rhine opposite St. Goar, a small settlement was built during the Carolingian period, which, according to the custom of the time, was called Bi den Husen ('near the houses'), partly to save yourself a name to look for, partly because these few houses are not a village in themselves. To distinguish them from other settlements of this type, they were called Husen bei hilligen (holy) Goar . ” In the course of time, the name changed to today's Sankt Goarshausen , the origin can still be seen in it.
One of the earliest mentions of vineyards is the Katzenelnbogen Hetzgenstein (Heiderstein) documented in writing in 1315 . In 1395 the Loreley was documented as a vineyard in the documents of Count Johann IV. Von Katzenelnbogen , the first Riesling winemaker in the world. Even back then, the particular inaccessibility of the vineyards in the Middle Rhine Rift was a reason to pay the vineyard workers special or simply to forbid access to certain locations when it was very hot .
Since it is almost exclusively about steep-slope viticulture , which could hardly participate in the mechanization of agriculture , there is little viticulture in Sankt Goarshausen , but there are still a few vineyards and winegrowers .
Mining in the districts of Ehrenthal and Wellmich as a defining element of the cultural landscape of the Upper Middle Rhine Valley goes back to the 18th century. In the pit Good Hope in lead and zinc ores were mined until the mid-20th century. See also: List of mines in the Taunus
Incorporation and name change
On June 7, 1969, the previously independent community of Wellmich was incorporated. On September 27, 1993 the name was changed from St. Goarshausen to Loreley town of Sankt Goarshausen .
The development of the population of Sankt Goarshausen in relation to today's urban area; the values from 1871 to 1987 are based on censuses:
Wellmich was first mentioned in a document in 1042 as "Wallmichi" and is therefore older than Sankt Goarshausen. In the following period it was owned by the Lords of Arnstein and their successors, the Counts of Nassau . The electorate of Trier now gradually acquired more rights over Wellmich, first in the 14th century as the new court lord, then a fiefdom over the community, in 1356 a fortification permit from the emperor (construction of Deuertburg and Maus Castle ), and in 1357 Wellmich received town rights (Start of construction of the city wall) and in 1358 Kurtrier finally obtained the entire rule over the bailiwick from the Nassau counts. From then on, Wellmich formed the southeastern border of Kurtrier and was fortified accordingly, especially since it secured the archbishops of Rheinzölle, and was the southernmost point of the electorate on the Catholic "island" on the right bank of the Rhine, largely surrounded by Protestant areas from the middle of the 16th century.
After the Napoleonic period and the associated dissolution of the ecclesiastical domains, Wellmich belonged to the Duchy of Nassau from 1815, to Prussia from 1866, to the American or French zone during the Rhineland occupation from 1919-30 and to the French zone of occupation after the Second World War . Then it belonged to the district of St. Goarshausen until it was incorporated into Sankt Goarshausen in 1969 .
Ehrenthal was first mentioned in 881 as the property of the Prüm Monastery and is therefore the oldest part of Sankt Goarshausen according to documentary mentions.
In the period that followed, Ehrenthal and Wellmich came into possession of Kurtrier as part of his expansion.
When the monastery of Gronau im Taunus, then part of the Landgraviate of Hesse, was dissolved in the course of secularization as a result of the Reformation in 1542, the monks founded a new monastery in Ehrenthal in the Electorate of Trier, which was originally a farm and vineyard.
Up to the present, Ehrenthal has fared like Wellmich, and in the end it was also incorporated into Sankt Goarshausen.
The City Council in Sankt Goar consists of 16 council members, who in the local elections on May 26, 2019 in a majority vote were elected, and the volunteer city mayor as chairman. There are no political groups in the Council. Until the 2009 election, the city council was elected in a personalized proportional representation.
The distribution of seats in the city council:
|2019||by majority vote||16 seats|
|2014||by majority vote||16 seats|
After the previous aldermen Heinz-Peter Mertens and Anna Maria Weisbrod resigned from their offices due to differences with the mayor, Matthias Pflugradt announced his resignation on June 29, 2020, as of July 30, 2020. The new first alderman Katrin Vetters will hold the office until New election provisionally.
In the municipal election on May 26, 2019, Matthias Pflugradt prevailed with 61.75% against the incumbent Manfred Baumert (38.25%).
On May 7, 2017, following the resignation of Heinz-Peter Mertens, the previous First Alderman Manfred Baumert was elected as the new city mayor with 67.5% of the votes. He was introduced to his new office on May 15, 2017.
coat of arms
With the exception of small details such as the shape of the shield, the current coat of arms of the city is identical to the one used in the seal of the lay judges of St. Goarshausen. Since the seal first appeared in 1380, today's coat of arms also has a long history.
|Blazon : "In a divided shield above growing in gold, a blue-armed red lion looking outwards, below in blue between three golden lilies a golden rafter."|
|Justification for the coat of arms: The red lion refers to the earlier rule of the Counts of Katzenelnbogen , the lilies are also included as a symbol of Mary in the coat of arms of the city of Sankt Goar opposite. The coat of arms was approved in 1906.|
Sankt Goarshausen is located in the Rhine Valley, which is part of the Rhenish Slate Mountains. Because of this, landslides can occur again and again, which is why special fences were installed in many places in the Rhine Valley to intercept the debris. Also in Sankt Goarshausen u. a. carried out rock protection measures at the so-called Rabenack. There is also a via ferrata with a vantage point that offers a wonderful overview of parts of Sankt Goarshausen and Sankt Goars.
Waters and floods
A total of three larger streams flow through the city: the Hasenbach, the Forstbach and the Wellmicher Bach. In the past, most recently in 2016, there were repeated floods due to heavy rains, combined with the collapse of houses and the washing away of streets and cars by the creeks that had grown into large rivers. But the Rhine flood is also to be expected again and again, the last major one occurred in 2011, when streets and houses were flooded and many parts of the city could only be reached via footbridges. As a result of floods, in addition to the stoppage of traffic (mostly with the exception of the railways), enormous costs arise again and again. For this reason, too, flood protection in Sankt Goarshausen is always a topical and debated topic.
Culture and sights
Above the city lies Neu-Katzenelnbogen Castle (called Burg Katz), which was blown up by Napoléon Bonaparte's troops in 1806 , and which was rebuilt in 1896 except for the tower, above the Wellmich district is the popularly known Maus Castle (actually Deuertburg or Thurnberg). Katz Castle is not open to the public, while Maus Castle offers guided tours and wine tastings. The ruins of Rheinfels Castle on the other side of the Rhine can also be seen from there. Rheinfels Castle can be reached from Sankt Goarshausen by ferry, the next bridge is 30 km away.
The Catholic Church of St. John the Baptist by Hans and Christoph Rummel dates from 1923–1925, several older churches stood elsewhere and a. since 1821, the first church in Sankt Goarshausen was found in the middle of the 16th century in today's old town. Furthermore, the 14th century Catholic Church of St. Martin is located in the Wellmich district and the St. Sebastian chapel in Ehrenthal.
In addition to the old town hall (built in 1532), two town towers can also be found in the old town, which were built in 1324 after the town charter was obtained and which, due to their ground plan, are used by the residents as the round (14th century) and the angular tower (15th century). Century). The round tower, which is still used today as a clock tower, is also called the market tower or west tower and the angular tower is called the east tower. From the outside of the city wall, which was built at the same time, almost nothing can be seen today. The upper city gate on the angular tower, however, is still largely preserved, in contrast to the lower city gate, which led to a stone bridge over the Forstbach. In addition to these two city gates, there were three so-called water gates. These were vaults leading to the Rhine in the part of the city wall facing the Rhine, through which not only fishermen could get to the Rhine, but also quickly brought water into the city to be extinguished in the event of a fire. The steel doors at the exits to the Rhine protected the city against intruders but also against ice. The vaults were preserved during the construction of the Uferstrasse in the early 1840s and access to the Rhine was made possible through vaults under the street, but the exits to the Rhine were largely bricked up during road construction work and the lowering of the small railway tracks.
Two bronze sculptures can be found in the old town: On the one hand, a salmon fisherman with a fish in hand in front of the old town hall, based on the earlier importance of fishing for the town, and a Gäs' (goat), which is in the only street in the old town , called Gäsegass ("Ziegengasse") because of the earlier accommodation of a large number of goats , looks around the corner at a corner of the house.
At the end of the pier of the Loreley harbor there is also a sculpture of the Loreley.
At Heinrich-Heine-Platz there is a tree sculpture created in 2003 from the four meter high stump of a robinia . The annual tree festival is dedicated to her. Many characteristics of Sankt Goarshausen can be found on the sculpture, e.g. B. the Loreley, wine barrels, fish, Katz Castle and the notes of the Loreley song.
- 3rd weekend in September: Rhine in flames , large fireworks from Katz Castle near Sankt Goarshausen, Rheinfels Castle near Sankt Goar and from the center of the Rhine. In the same week, the so-called Weingasse takes place from Wednesday to Saturday, where wine and entertainment are offered at stalls in the old town
- End of June: total valley . Car-free day on both sides of the Rhine from Koblenz to Rüdesheim for cycling.
- Every year from spring to autumn, numerous festivals and concerts take place on the Loreley open-air stage
- In summer: Tree festival at the tree sculpture on Heinrich-Heine-Platz
- Beginning of Advent: Christmas market in the old town
The city belongs to the diocese of Limburg and the Evangelical Church of Hesse and Nassau.
In February 2018 the ten formerly independent parishes St. Martin ( Osterspai ), St. Margaretha ( Filsen ), St. Nikolaus ( Kamp-Bornhofen ), St. Jakobus the Elder ( Dahlheim ), St. Georg ( Kestert ), St. Martin ( Wellmich ), St. John the Baptist (St. Goarshausen), St. Nikolaus ( Kaub ), St. Peter and Paul ( Nastätten ) and St. Florin ( Strüth ) to the newly founded Roman Catholic parish “Heilige Elisabeth von Schönau ”based in Kamp-Bornhofen.
Sankt Goarshausen is predominantly Catholic (38.5%), but also has 36.5% people of Protestant religion. The remaining 24.9% belong to another or no religion. This means that Sankt Goarshausen is rather an exception in terms of the association's community and district average (46.5-48.5% Protestant and 33.5-30% Catholic religious affiliation). This is particularly unusual because in the Middle Ages Sankt Goarshausen belonged to the Landgraviate of Hesse or Hesse-Kassel , which introduced the Reformation very early on (1527) and all the inhabitants of the medieval German states according to the principle " Cuius regio eius religio " (whose rule was their religion ) had to adopt the religion of the sovereign. However, it can be justified to the extent that the two current districts of Wellmich and Ehrenthal did not belong to the Landgraviate of Hesse at that time, but to the Archdiocese of Trier, which remained Catholic until the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss 1803. Today independent villages, which at that time also belonged to Kurtrier , z. B. Dahlheim , today still have 76.8% Catholics as residents. This explains the roughly equal size of the two religious groups.
Economy and Infrastructure
The main industries are tourism and viticulture . Sankt Goarshausen has lost a lot of its former importance as a fishing and boatmen's town and as a transshipment point on the Rhine, of which the Kran houses still testify today . After the administrative reform lost its status as a district town in Bad Ems (see the history of the Rhein-Lahn district ), the nearby and much larger town of Nastätten took over some of the infrastructure services from Sankt Goarshausen. In November 2005, the vehicle registration office, which was located in the former district office, was relocated to Nastätten. The dissolution of the Sankt Goarshausen police station (and a possible relocation to Nastätten) is also under discussion. At the moment there are also the Loreley municipal administration, the tax office, the cadastral office and a rescue station of the German Red Cross in Sankt Goarshausen .
Tourism and tourism
In the tourist area, Sankt Goarshausen is emancipating itself from its sister city Sankt Goar, together with the neighboring community of Bornich, as the sponsor of the visitor center built on the Loreley. Also on the Loreley plateau in the Bornich district is the Loreley open-air theater , which was planned and built between 1932 and 1939 . There are also some hotels, holiday apartments and restaurants in Sankt Goarshausen.
Sankt Goarshausen is connected to the major cities of Koblenz and Wiesbaden via the federal highway 42 , which runs along the Rhine . In addition, the federal road 274 begins in Sankt Goarshausen and leads over the plateaus of the Hintertaunus into the Aartal .
Sankt Goar and Sankt Goarshausen are connected by the Loreley ferry . The pros and cons of replacing this ferry with a bridge have been debated for decades. The regional planning procedure was initiated in January 2011 and it is named Mittelrheinbrücke in the media . The main argument for building the bridge is a possible economic boom. Critics point out that a continuous 24-hour ferry service is sufficient to strengthen the infrastructure. However, this cannot be operated cost-covering by a private ferry company without public funding. A state-run and free Rhine ferry like in Plittersdorf is currently not being considered.
The Sankt Goarshausen train station is on the right-hand side of the Rhine , here the RB 10 line ( Neuwied - Koblenz - Sankt Goarshausen - Wiesbaden - Frankfurt-Höchst - Frankfurt (Main) Hauptbahnhof ) operated by Vias GmbH operates every day in the Rhineland-Palatinate cycle . Due to the location in the Rhein-Lahn-Kreis , the tariff of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Mosel (VRM) applies on the section of the route in Rhineland-Palatinate .
In Sankt Goarshausen there are also several landing stages for navigation on the Rhine (passenger transport). Both river cruise ships and most of the passenger ships of various lines stop here.
Biking and hiking trails
The new hiking trail on the right bank of the Rhine, which leads from Bonn to Wiesbaden over the heights of the Rhine Valley, the Rheinsteig , goes through Sankt Goarshausen and over the Loreley , as does the Rheinhöhenweg . That is why the city is an ideal stopover for hikers.
Sankt Goarshausen is the starting point of the Loreley-Aar Cycle Path , which begins at the train station and leads over the old route of the Nassau small railway through the western Hintertaunus into the Aartal .
Firmly rooted in the history of Sankt Goarshausen is the “Institut Hofmann”, which today is the “ Wilhelm-Hofmann-Gymnasium ” that defines the cityscape .
At the end of the Second World War, the old institute was destroyed and today's high school was built. In 1984 the Loreley Hall was built in Sankt Goarshausen , which is primarily used as a school sports hall, but can also be used by the city of St. Goarshausen and clubs. In 1991 the last major expansion of the Wilhelm-Hofmann-Gymnasium took place with the addition of the transverse building on the Rhine side.
Another school is the Loreley School, founded in 1971 as a secondary school , a now organizationally linked elementary and secondary school plus in an integrative form in the Heide district. Since the 2002/03 school year it has had the status of a specialty school.
With these two schools, Sankt Goarshausen has a comparatively large range of schools, measured by the number of inhabitants.
sons and daughters of the town
- Nicolaus Maurus (1483–1539), Lutheran theologian
- Franz Preuschen von Liebenstein (1845–1908), gynecologist
- Eduard Lotichius (1847–1908), entrepreneur and politician
- Jörg Ritzel (1864–1941), poet
- Klaus-Ditmar Bachmann (1922–2005), doctor and university professor
- Gustel Stein (1922-2010), artist
- Klaus Linkenbach (1932–2000), composer and church musician
- Ernst Dieter Gilles (1935–2019), Professor of Control Engineering
- Ulla Höpken (* 1943), painter
- Adolf Schneider: History of the Loreley City St. Goarshausen. 1989, ISBN 3-922604-13-7 .
- Image by Sankt Goarshausen from JF Dielmann, A. Fay, J. Becker (draftsman): FC Vogel's Panorama of the Rhine, images of the right and left banks of the Rhine, FC Vogel lithographic institution, Frankfurt 1833
- Image from Sankt Goarshausen 2, ditto
- Image from Sankt Goarshausen 3, ditto
- Picture by Wellmich from JF Dielmann, A. Fay, J. Becker (draftsman): FC Vogel's Panorama of the Rhine, pictures of the right and left banks of the Rhine, FC Vogel lithographic institution, Frankfurt 1833
- Image by Ehrenthal from JF Dielmann, A. Fay, J. Becker (draftsman): FC Vogel's panorama of the Rhine, images of the right and left banks of the Rhine, FC Vogel lithographic institution, Frankfurt 1833
- Picture from Ehrenthal 2, ditto
- Picture from Ehrenthal 3, ditto
- St. Goarshausen
- Sankt Goarshausen on the website of the Verbandsgemeinde Loreley
- Wellmich district of the Loreley town of Sankt Goarshausen
- Historical information about Wellmich at regionalgeschichte.net
- Historical information about Sankt Goarshausen at regionalgeschichte.net
- State Statistical Office of Rhineland-Palatinate - population status 2019, districts, communities, association communities ( help on this ).
- State Statistical Office Rhineland-Palatinate - regional data
- Districts of St. Goarshausen. City of St. Goarshausen, accessed on July 3, 2018 .
- State Statistical Office Rhineland-Palatinate (ed.): Official directory of the municipalities and parts of the municipality. Status: January 2018 [ Version 2020 is available. ] . S. 45 f . (PDF; 2.2 MB).
- HStAM inventory document 1 no. 220 - Countess Irmgard von Katzenel ... - Arcinsys detail page. Retrieved July 14, 2018 .
- Adolf Schneider: History of the Loreley City of St. Goarshausen . H.-G. Seyfried, Wiesbaden 1989, ISBN 3-922604-13-7 , pp. 15th f .
- Official municipality directory (= State Statistical Office of Rhineland-Palatinate [Hrsg.]: Statistical volumes . Volume 407 ). Bad Ems February 2016, p. 178 (PDF; 2.8 MB).
- Official municipality directory (= State Statistical Office of Rhineland-Palatinate [Hrsg.]: Statistical volumes . Volume 407 ). Bad Ems February 2016, p. 188 (PDF; 2.8 MB).
- Wellmich regional history. Retrieved August 5, 2017 .
- The Regional Officer Rhineland-Palatinate: City Council Election 2019 Sankt Goarshausen. Retrieved November 2, 2019 .
- The Regional Officer Rhineland-Palatinate: Municipal elections 2014, city and municipal council elections
- The mayor's resignation announcement on Facebook. Retrieved July 1, 2020 .
- Frank Zimmer: A mayor gives up and the Black Baron wants to know. In: Mittelrheingold.de. Frank Zimmer, accessed July 1, 2020 .
- Mayor of the City of Sankt Goarshausen. In: Internet presence of the city of Sankt Goarshausen. Retrieved August 14, 2020 .
- Tobias Lui: St. Goarshausen has a new city mayor . Ed .: Rhein-Lahn-Zeitung. May 27, 2019, p. 28 .
- The Regional Officer Rhineland-Palatinate: direct elections 2019. see Loreley, Verbandsgemeinde, 18th line of results. Retrieved November 2, 2019 .
- The Regional Officer Rhineland-Palatinate: Direct election results for the City Mayor of Sankt Goarshausen
- Data on Manfred Baumert
- Schaback: 650 years Loreley town St. Goarshausen 1964 . S. 19 .
- Chronicle of St. Goarshausen. Retrieved April 6, 2018 .
- Entry by Constantin Becher on the gates of the historic city of Sankt Goarshausen in the database " KuLaDig " of the Rhineland Regional Association , accessed on April 6, 2018.
- www.rhein-zeitung.de: Founding service: Parish "Heilige Elisabeth von Schönau" has its seat in Kamp-Bornhofen , accessed on February 6, 2018.
- Census 2011 Sankt Goarshausen Stat. State Office RLP. (PDF) Retrieved August 5, 2017 .
- Census 2011 Dahlheim Stat. State Office RLP. (PDF) Retrieved August 5, 2017 .
- Loreley Visitor Center on the Internet ( Memento from April 21, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Loreley School. Retrieved February 15, 2017 .