|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Karlsruhe|
|County :||Rhein-Neckar district|
|Height :||156 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||8.24 km 2|
|Residents:||2704 (December 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||328 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||74927|
|Area code :||06226|
|License plate :||HD|
|Community key :||08 2 26 020|
|LOCODE :||DE ESQ|
|Address of the
|Mayor :||Marco Siesing|
|Location of the municipality of Eschelbronn in the Rhein-Neckar district|
Eschelbronn is a municipality in Baden-Württemberg . It is located in the northern Kraichgau am Schwarzbach and belongs to the Rhein-Neckar district . In the region, the place is known as a traditional “carpenter's village” because of the furniture production and sales companies located there. It is connected to the surrounding villages by the Schwarzbachtalbahn .
Eschelbronn was first mentioned in a document in 788/789 and in the following centuries had the most varied history of the villages of the Meckesheimer Zent in terms of ownership and local lords , with the Lords of Venningen and the Seckendorff family playing a special role between the 15th and 19th centuries. The former moated castle Eschelbronn is one of the most extensively researched castle areas in Baden-Württemberg.
Eschelbronn is located in the northern Kraichgau in the Neckartal-Odenwald nature park at an altitude of 150 to 265 meters, around 25 kilometers southeast of Heidelberg and has covered an area of 824 hectares since 1986 . Previously, the municipal area extended over 826 hectares.
In the south-south-west part of the Eschelbronn municipality is in the Betteleichwald a Waibstadt - near the Daisbach district . Also in the Betteleichwald there is a high, nameless elevation south of the village , and the Galgenberg (approx. ) to the southeast in the castle forest . The peaks are each close to the border with Eschelbronn in the municipality of Neidenstein . To the northeast rises the Kallenberg ( ) with the disused quarry Kallenberg and the Kallenbergsee, a residual open pit lake .high, nameless elevation, the summit of which is a few meters north of the border with the municipality of
Between the center of Eschelbronn in the south and Am Seerain in the north, the Elsenz tributary Schwarzbach runs through the Wiesental. Other streams in the municipality, which belongs to the catchment area of the Schwarzbach, are Bruchklingengraben, Epfenbach with the Mühlgraben, Neubach, Oppenlochgraben, Steinmörtgraben and Weihergrundgraben.
Village complex and neighboring communities
Eschelbronn is a clustered village . Eschelbronn's district area of 824 hectares (ha) is divided into 382 hectares of agricultural area, 261 hectares of forest, 171 hectares of sealed areas and 10 hectares of water. The place arose to the west and northwest around the first settlements on today's Schlossplatz as an extension of Waibstadt. The market square forms the center of the village. To the north and northeast of it is an industrial park. ( See also: Expansion of the settlement area in the 20th century )
The place belongs to the local administration association Elsenztal. No other localities belong to the municipality. The following cities and municipalities border the municipality:
Loess loam deposited on shell limestone forms the majority of the calcareous soil on which the Eschelbronn district lies. Especially in the south, In den Platten, Zinsgrund, Finstergrund and Galgenberg appear in the corridors, and around the Schwarzbach in the Wingertsberg, Schaafberg, Bettweg, Unteres Meckesheimer Wäldle, Dickmannzeltebuckel and Schleifigrain Upper Muschelkalk corridors . In the north, in the corridors Mönchzellerweg, Seerain and Lohbrunnen, Middle Muschelkalk emerges.
Forest and protected areas
The Eschelbronn forest area with 261 hectares is divided into seven forest districts: I Hetzenloch, II Trippelberg, III Ziegelhüttenwald, IV Wingertsberg, V Brünnleswald, VI Dickmannshilder and VII Betteleichenwald. The latter has the largest contiguous area with 96 hectares. The forest consists of around 75 percent deciduous trees and 25 percent conifers . With a share of around 60 percent, the common beech is the most common tree species. About two thirds of the forest is covered with clay .
With the old linden tree and the trees of the Kastanienallee , the place has two natural monuments . The winter linden tree at the cemetery also existed as a further natural monument until October 2019 . With the Kallenberg quarry and the Lower Schwarzbachtal, there are also two designated nature reserves. The first is 91.33 percent and the second 8.67 percent in the Eschelbronn district. The Hetzenloch spring on the northern edge of the municipality in the Epfenbachtal, which was used to supply drinking water, was divided into three protection zones by ordinance of February 21, 1963. While the area around the fenced-in well room forms water protection zone I, water protection zone III extends to the boundaries of the neighboring communities of Spechbach and Epfenbach . The Eschelbronn sport fishing club takes care of the surrounding waters. It was founded after the castle lake was created from excavations from 1971 to 1975. He has usage rights for the Schlosssee, the Epfenbach and the Kallenbergsee.
The association of nature, animal and bird friends has leased the former quarry area in Gewann Pfaffengrund since March 14, 1980. It was used as a garbage dump until 1975/76, after which it was planted and, on the initiative of the association, designed as a bird sanctuary .
The first nature and environmental protection organization in northern Kraichgau was the Federation for Environment and Nature Conservation Germany, founded in 1983. In 1984 the local group Eschelbronn was formed, which dealt specifically with the problems of Eschelbronn farmers and maintenance measures for the Kallenberg. Later, the citizens' initiative for environmental protection, culture and heritage care took over the tasks.
The quarrying of stone in the nature reserve Kallenberg quarry was stopped in 1977 (or 1978) and left a 30 meter deep pit, partly bounded by field walls, on an area of 9.79 hectares, in which the Kallenbergsee collected. A wet and dry biotope formed on the site . In 1984 the community bought the site with support from the Baden-Württemberg Nature Conservation Fund and the Neckartal-Odenwald Nature Park . In the following year, an area of 4.87 hectares was designated as a large-scale natural monument . In 1989 the area was expanded and declared a nature reserve. This saved the largest population of yellow-bellied toads in southwest Germany , which was previously threatened due to the lack of recultivation measures in the quarry and from motocross events.
In the early 1960s, the Schulstrasse, Bodemstrasse and Ringstrasse were planted as avenues with a total of around 30 hawthorn trees as part of the north-western development of the settlement area . The trimming was carried out by the building yard, the Federation for Environment and Nature Conservation, the settler community and local residents. When the trees were no longer blooming, the local council decided to cut them down in 2012. However, an investigation by the nature conservation service of the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis showed that the trees were healthy. They were in bloom again in May 2015.
In 2015, root washouts were found in 257 trees along the railway line to Meckesheim, especially poplars, willows and alders, which was classified as a safety risk for rail traffic. However, a permit under nature conservation law is required for the planned pruning of the affected trees. A representative of the nature conservation authority and the tree expert spoke of 40 to 50 affected trees.
Around 2015, the protected beaver spread over the Elsenz on the Schwarzbach, and left traces on willows, alders and poplars along the banks of Eschelbronn.
Eschelbronn has two hunting districts , the Jagdbogen I, also known as "Links des Schwarzbach" because of its geographical location, with a size of around 500 hectares and Jagdbogen II , ("Right of the Schwarzbach"), which covers around 250 hectares. The tenant of Jagdbogens I resigned on March 31, 2015 before the nine-year contract period expired and justified this with excessive game damage. This had exceeded the net lease price of the lease by 25 percent, which made the extraordinary termination possible. The municipality put the hunting bow out to tender for lease in November 2014 and the hunting district was awarded to one at a significantly lower lease price after the second tender, in which hunters from outside were also allowed to bid.
The rise in the water levels of the Elsenz and Schwarzbach led to floods several times, particularly large ones in the years 1862, 1891, 1921, 1952, 1956, from February 21 to 23, 1970, 1993, 1994 and 2002. The rise in level was often favored by the narrowing of the water passage of the Schwarzbach at the Ziegler'schen Mühle . The floods in 1956 fell on the date of the state elections on March 4th . In addition to the nationwide press, the New Yorker Staats-Zeitung reported on the flood and how a citizen rowed with his daughter on a self-made raft to vote in town hall.
|Source: Zweckverband HWS||December 1993||June 1994||March 2002|
|Duration||3 days||3 hours||3 days|
|total||around 140 mm||up to 250 mm||around 90 mm|
|Eschelbronn / Schwarzbach gauge||83.2 m³ / s||138 m³ / s||42 m³ / s|
|Meckesheim / Elsenz gauge||21 m³ / s||24 m³ / s||36.4 m³ / s|
On December 21, 1993 there were floods with the Schwarzbach water mark of 3.17 meters.
On the night of June 26th to 27th, 1994, downpours caused the water level in the surrounding rivers to rise to 4.65 meters. This led to a flooding of the village center from Industriestrasse via the market square to the Schlosswiesenschule and at around 3 a.m. to a power failure. Within three hours the water in the village center reached a high of 1.80 meters, which is documented by a high water mark on the town hall . When the rectory was flooded, the parish registers with all the civil status data from 1646 to 1871 were damaged. They could be freeze-dried and restored with donations from the LWL archives office for Westphalia and then transcribed by volunteers until 1998. For preventive measures against future flooding, the special purpose association for flood protection catchment area Elsenz-Schwarzbach was founded on April 25, 1997 in Waibstadt by the affected towns and communities; various flood retention basins were built. There were further floods in March 2002. In the floodplain, the three so-called century floods caused damage of 300 million marks. About the flood of 1994, a documentation with archive recordings was published in 2016 by the Meckesheim council member Arno Beckmann under the title "The great flood 1994".
In the 2nd and 3rd centuries there was a Roman settlement with an estate on the later municipal area in the Gewann Weiher Grund / Alter Schulzenkopf. This has been proven on the basis of shards that were found during archaeological excavations under the direction of Dietrich Lutz from Karlsruhe between 1971 and 1975. The farm was located about four kilometers south of the Vicus Nediensis (later Spechbach ) and about ten kilometers north of the Vicus Saliobrigensium , which lay on the traffic routes between the Rhine Valley and the Upper German-Raetian Limes . Historians initially suspected that there was no settlement on the site in the centuries after the fall of the Limes . Archaeological finds from 2019, however, showed evidence of post-Roman settlement.
From the early Carolingian era there were traces of agricultural settlements and remains of pile dwellings . Eschelbronn was mentioned for the first time in a deed of donation from the feudal lord Folkrich from the period between October 9, 788 and October 8, 789, which is in the Lorsch Codex . It was signed shortly after the death of Folkrich's wife Regisvinde for the salvation of her soul in the Lorsch Monastery and covered 14 yoke farmland.
From 789 different place names are documented. The original name "Ascenbrunnen" suggests a well or a spring with nearby ash trees as the central settlement point. It could have been the spring of thirst, which supplied the place with water for several centuries. Other documented names are "Esschelbrunne" (1338), "Eschelpruenne" (1349), "Eschelbronnen" (1388), "Esselbronn" (1485), "Eschelbron" (1496), "Eschelbrunn" (1539), "Eschelpron" (1550) ) and since the 18th century "Eschelbronn".
Eschelbronn was in the Gauschaft Elsenzgau . There are no records for the period from the first documented mention to the 13th century.
Local rule under the Lords of Dürn
With the marriage of Konrad I von Dürn to Mechthild von Lauffen, the Lords of Dürn acquired numerous possessions from the Counts of Lauffen in the 13th century , including the Dilsberg administrative center, which was later responsible for Eschelbronn . Eschelbronn belonged to the western edge of the sphere of influence of the Lords of Dürn. In 1220 the area of the later moated castle Eschelbronn was built on with a wooden manor house. 1251 was Heinrich von Eschelbronn, a vassal of Count Konrad I von Dürn, landlord of Eschelbronn. This emerges from a certificate of inheritance from Konrad von Dürns from January of that year, which Heinrich mentions as a witness to the document. Heinrich lived in the wooden building. Among other things, the division of the inheritance of Konrad I von Dürn among three of his sons and the subsequent sale of their domains led to the decline of the family. Reinhard von Hettingen later exercised local rule as Ministeriale von Boppo II von Dürn. Boppo II sold the remnants of the Dilsberg rule in 1288 to Rudolf von Habsburg , who enfeoffed the Count Palatine with it.
Transfer to the diocese of Speyer
In the later 13th century, the village came into the possession of the Speyer diocese . Presumably this happened under the Chancellor and Bishop Heinrich von Leiningen or his successor, Bishop Friedrich von Bolanden . Since Heinrich von Leiningen was in contact with Boppo I von Dürn-Dilsberg, the place could have gone from the Lords of Dürn to the diocese in this way. Bolanden later sold Eschelbronn his cathedral chapter and bought it back on March 17, 1294 against the fishing waters in Speyer and the surrounding area.
Eschelbronn was Zentdorf the Meckesheimer Zent . The judicial district was pledged to Engelhard von Weinsberg in 1312 together with Neckargemünd and Reichenstein Castle for 400 silver marks . The Count Palatine of Rhine Ruprecht I and his brother Rudolf II redeemed the pledge in 1330 at Weinsberg, so that the blood jurisdiction over the Eschelbronn residents was with them.
The castle owners at that time were subordinate to Bishop Emich von Leiningen from 1320/25 . Until the early 19th century, splits and disputed inheritances caused lords and possessions to change several times through fiefs from the diocese to various lower nobility families. The Lords of Hirschberg received half of the local rule over Eschelbronn from Bishop Walram von Veldenz . The other half was probably not given out as a fief. Rudolf von Hirschberg approved his nephew William of Hirschberg on January 2, 1330 Eschelbronn his wife Anna with 200 pounds Heller bewittumen . This sold it to Hans III after the death of the local lord Wilhelm. von Hirschhorn, who in 1338 granted it to his wife Guda with 300 pounds of Heller with the permission of Bishop Gerhard von Ehrenberg .
From 1339 to 1363 the Speyer Monastery left the enfeoffed half of the Bailiwick of Eschelbronn as a fief to the knight Johann von Hirschhorn . Hirschhorn also bought a farm in Eschelbronn from Rafan von Fürfeld and his wife Adelber von Nordheim in the year the feudal lordship was taken over . At the same time, three other aristocrats held shares in the fief during the period of office of Bishop Gerhard von Ehrenberg : from 1336 to 1363 Konrad Mutzer and Friedrich von Hettingen, who lived in the Eschelbronn moated castle , and in 1340 Konrad von Enzberg , who inherited his Eschelbronn inheritance on November 11th. June of the year as a fief. Mutzer's shares also went to the von Hettingen family after his death.
In the following years, the local rule, which was initially only half enfeoffed, was apparently completely transferred to Hans von Hirschhorn or his wife Guda.
First local rule under the Lords of Venningen
From 1319 the family of the Lords of Venningen , who presumably came from Unterfinningen in the upper Danube region and came to the Kraichgau as servants of the Counts of Oettingen , in the neighboring village of Neidenstein . Around 1350 Eberhard von Venningen is said to have founded an Eschelbronn family branch. Margarete von Hirschhorn, the daughter of Hans and Guda Hirschhorn, sold the local rule in 1388 to Eberhard and his brother Dieter von Venningen. Both were enfeoffed on May 25th of that year by Nikolaus von Wiesbaden with the place and accessories. Friedrich von Hettingen also sold Eschelbronn Castle in 1418 through Rafan von Göler, his maternal uncle, to Albrecht von Venningen , a descendant of Eberhard von Venningen and heir to the entire Eschelbronn fief and court. The previously divided castle and local rulership thus passed into joint family ownership, but remained two separate economic areas with different legal status until the abolition of forced labor in the middle of the 19th century.
A certificate at the Baden-Württemberg State Archives documents that the couple Hans von Venningen the Young and Adelheid von Frauwenberg from the couple Gotzen and Ellen von Hettikein on October 27, 1431 “their part in the Frohnhofe in Eschelbronn along with affiliations and the tithe in Balsfelte 450 guilders bought that they owed them 230 guilders, for which they wanted to pay 11 1/2 guilders interest annually ”.
Albrecht von Venningen was enfeoffed with the place on September 2, 1439 by the Speyer bishop Reinhard von Helmstatt . He died in 1454 and his son of the same name received the fief on January 27, 1455 from Bishop Reinhard von Helmstatt and on February 1, 1457 from Bishop Siegfried III. transferred from Venningen . Albrecht von Venningen the Younger married Margarete von Ramstein, the daughter of the knight Lutold von Rammstein, in 1461 and in the same year, with the consent of Bishop Johannes II. Nix von Hoheneck, prescribed her half as Wittum . It was partly the widow's estate of his mother Christine, for which he compensated with “an annual validity on the Eschelbronn fiefdom” and prescribed her an annual pension of 50 guilders on half of the wine and fruit tithes in Zuzenhausen. On December 14, 1465, Albrecht was given the village of Eschelbronn with bailiwick, court, market and everything related to a legal feud from Bishop Matthias von Rammung . After the death of his mother, Albrecht von Venningen committed the entire castle and village of Eschelbronn to his wife on October 18, 1471 with the permission of the bishop. Albrecht von Venningen remained childless and later planned the sale of “Eschelbronn Castle and Village and all its affiliations” to Ludwig I of Löwenstein , the son of Elector Frederick the Victorious and founder of the Löwenstein-Wertheim family . The Eucharius von Venningen living in Zuzenhausen, however, objected to the sale. On November 11, 1485, Albrecht declared in a document that after the sale no one could lay claim to "Eschelbronn Castle and Village and all its affiliations" and sold the fiefdom on December 24, 1485 with the approval of his wife to von Löwenstein. In 1511 Löwenstein wanted to sell the fiefdom for 5000 guilders to his son-in-law Oswald von Tierstein, who however died prematurely. Löwenstein remained local ruler until he sold the fiefdom in 1521 "with castle, village, bailiwick and hamlet of Eschelbronn" to Count Joachim von Seckendorff .
Local rule under the Seckendorff family and heirs
After Joachim von Seckendorf took over the fief of Lowenstein, he was involved in a transformation of man fief into a Kunkellehen to bequeath to female descendants. Seckendorff died in 1526 without having officially transferred the fiefdom, as the takeover had been delayed several times due to "practiced acts of war" in the Palatinate . However, in the same year it officially passed to his son and heir Joachim of the same name. His wife Anna (née von Venningen ), whose family fortune was largely used to finance the purchase of Eschelbronn, was granted a lifelong usufruct . Joachim “the Younger” turned to Lutheranism . Several years before Ottheinrich officially introduced Lutheranism in the Electoral Palatinate, he reformed the community in Eschelbronn. A Lutheran pastor could only be proven in Eschelbronn with Johannes Meyer from 1593.
With the death of Joachim von Seckendorff in 1555, the year of the Augsburg imperial and religious peace , his son Christoph von Seckendorff inherited Eschelbronn. When Christoph died in 1571, he had no male descendants to whom the fief could have been inherited. Thanks to the introduction of the Kunkellehens by his grandfather, however, it did not go back to the Speyerer Hochstift for redistribution , but could be transferred to the later husbands of Christoph von Seckendorff's three daughters. With the marriage of his daughters Helena von Seckendorff with Johann Friedrich von Eltz in 1584, Sybilla von Seckendorff with Landschad von Steinach and Maria Elisabetha von Seckendorff with Weiprecht von Helmstatt , the families von Eltz and Landschad von Steinach divided the property and the local authority among themselves. They lived side by side in the moated castle for almost a hundred years while the third party's claim was made elsewhere. In 1586 the inheritance was again divided among the daughters. Von Eltz and Landschad von Steinach were referred to as Vogtsjunker (local lords) of Eschelbronn in 1595.
During the Thirty Years' War Eschelbronn initially suffered from the conquests of the general Johann t'Serclaes von Tilly . After the Battle of Nördlingen , the region was looted by Swedish troops withdrawing from southern Germany. The pastor Georg Liebler (1560–1632), who had been in office since 1613, fled to Neckarbischofsheim during the war , which is why the Lutheran congregation in Eschelbronn had no pastor until the end of the war and was sporadically cared for from Dühren . After a battle on the Zuzenhausen district near the Epfenbach, Eschelbronn and Zuzenhausen were almost completely destroyed. A large part of the population fell victim to hunger, illness or injury during the war. In 1649 there were still eight families living in the village, including none of those who were recorded at the beginning of the war.
Helena, the first daughter of the then local ruler Christoph von Seckendorff, had twelve children with her husband Johann Friedrich von Eltz, including Anna Margaretha and Johann Philipp von Eltz (* 1588). Anna Margaretha married Wolf Eberhard Cappler von Oedheim called Bautz . Johann Philipp had two children, Jakob Friedrich and Anna Regina. Anna Regina married Heinrich Ernst von der Fels . In 1661 she was given feudal rights together with her brother Jokob Friedrich and her aunts, including Anna Margaretha Cappler von Oedheim. When Jakob Friedrich died childless in 1676, there were inheritance disputes between the Capler von Oedheim and Von der Fels families , which in 1688 were decided in favor of the von der Fels family before the Imperial Court of Justice. In 1691, the brothers Johann Anton and Johann Philipp von der Fels were officially assigned the fiefdom and local rule. In 1696 Johann Anton appointed the Evangelical Lutheran pastor Josua Harrsch as vicar of Eschelbronn, who became a major player in the context of the first German mass emigration to North America.
After the von der Fels family died out, Eberhard Dietrich Capler von Oedheim tried again in 1734 to assert fiefdoms for the Capler von Oedheim family. The fiefdom was declared reverted by the diocese . In November 1736, Bishop Damian Hugo Philipp von Schönborn-Buchheim handed it over to his brother Rudolf Franz Erwein von Schönborn . In Schönborn-Buchheim's view, the Capler von Oedheim family no longer had any fief claims due to the Wetzlar judgment. After the death of Rudolf Franz Erwein von Schönborn in 1754, Eschelbronn was handed over to Eberhard Dietrich Cappler von Oedheim on September 28 of the same year, who concluded a new settlement in 1754 to regulate the forced labor with the subjects.
Second local rule under the Lords of Venningen
Cappler von Oedheim became increasingly indebted with the feudal estate. After his loan applications for 20,000 guilders submitted in Speyer had been rejected several times, he sold the place in 1759 for 28,000 guilders to the new bailiff Carl Philipp von Venningen . Eschelbronn came into the possession of the von Venningen family again almost 275 years after it was sold by Albrecht von Venningen in 1485. On March 13, 1760, von Venningen officially received the previously divided fief from Bishop Franz Christoph von Hutten zum Stolzenberg . His wife Maria Anna von Hutten was a great niece of the bishop. When a manor was built, later Eschelbronn Castle , there was a rebellion among the population, as Carl Philipp von Venningen demanded much more labor than his predecessors. The case was heard at the Higher Appeal Court . As a reaction to the uprisings, von Venningen assigned the four leaders of the uprisings to the Mannheim penitentiary in 1763 and, on the order of Elector Karl Theodor on June 11, 1763, lodged a punitive squad with a non-commissioned officer and twelve dragoons in the village, which gave the community 45 cruisers a day for the NCO and 30 cruisers each for the soldiers. They were to remain stationed until all parishioners had committed themselves in writing to performing the required labor services. With a declaration on June 23, the insurgents initially gave up their resistance, but on August 4, 1763 they submitted a supplik to the elector to improve their living conditions. When tensions increased again, a compulsory labor settlement agreement was concluded in 1765 to improve the living conditions of farmers and day laborers . Taxes in kind had to be remunerated annually with 100 Reichstalers or 150 Rhenish guilders . In return, the residents were obliged to be available to their landlord for driven hunts and to run errands in manorial or official matters to Neidenstein, Spechbach and Zuzenhausen. Von Venningen had lead and silver mines in the Eschelbronn district, in which ores were mined from 1769 to 1784. From 1777 to 1780 there was a “Bleßenberger Schifferwerk” in Eschelbronn with the name “Allexander Glück” with up to 27 trades and three workers.
In 1775 the Lords of Venningen issued the Venning Forest Regulations for the management, maintenance and use of the Eschelbronn forests. Carl Philipp von Venningen documented the property and financial situation of the place in detail during his 37-year rule. For example, there is a local map from 1794 with precise details of the property and a list of residents.
On August 27, 1797, Carl Philipp von Venningen died and his son Anton von Venningen became the new local ruler. However, he also died in 1799. Afterwards his widow Baroness Henriette von Venningen (née Andlau) and her brother-in-law Herr von Pfuerdt took over the fiefdom in October 1801. Henriette von Venningen was involved in several legal disputes over the following years because of the construction costs of the new Protestant church .
Coalition Wars and Franco-German War
With the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of February 25, 1802, the Lords of Venningen and the Diocese of Speyer lost their independence and, through mediation, their imperial directness . They could keep their property. 1803 Eschelbronn was with the division of the Palatinate under Napoleon Bonaparte the Grand Duchy of Baden allocated and went to the Baden Grand Duke Markgraf over. In 1807 the community came to the Waibstadt District Office .
For their participation in the coalition wars in Baden services , twelve Eschelbronners received the Baden field service award donated by Grand Duke Leopold on January 27, 1830 . Among them was Andreas Dinkel (born October 20, 1789; † November 8, 1857), who had participated as a non-commissioned officer in the Russian campaign in 1812 . During the Battle of the Beresina , the hussar colonel of Laroche from Baden was captured by Russia on November 27, 1812. He was wounded and his horse shot. Andreas Dinkel freed him together with his comrade Springer and was promoted to sergeant for this . He was in Baden service until 1816 and enjoyed a high reputation in his home region.
In 1813 Eschelbronn was assigned to the Sinsheim district office . In the same year, Russian soldiers were billeted in private households in the town during the wars of liberation on the march to France. After the owner and resident of Hauck's house was arrested because of a dispute with soldiers housed in the neighborhood, this led to protests by the residents against the occupiers' actions and the prisoner was able to flee.
The Eschelbronn war memorial , which was initially erected on the market square and later relocated and supplemented by another inscription, was dedicated to the participants in the Franco-German War from Eschelbronn .
In the 19th century there were several waves of emigration, to which the parish priest Josua Harrsch had made a significant contribution with his emigration pamphlet Caronina . In the years 1840–1890, around 400 Eschelbronn residents left the community and settled mainly in North America and Russia. During the larger wave of emigration, when around 10,000 people from Palatinate mainly moved to Pennsylvania in 1709 , the carpenter Josef Scholl was probably the first documented emigrant to leave Eschelbronn to work as a miner in Rive-de-Gier in 1783 . In 1792 the weaver Johann Georg Huber emigrated to Bethel in North America . In 1800 Eschelbronn had 681 inhabitants, including 319 men and 362 women. In 1809 many citizens emigrated to Russia because Emperor Alexander I had offered them land and financial support. The largest wave of emigration occurred between 1840 and 1860. Because of overpopulation, increasing poverty and unfavorable climatic conditions for agriculture, 110 inhabitants moved from 1836 to 1855 and another 80 to North America between 1856 and 1888. In addition, 170 destitute people left the town on April 11, 1847. They had received a total of 10,000 guilders for travel expenses from the community so that they would not burden the place further financially in accordance with poor law. These included outlawed citizens such as thieves and mothers of illegitimate children.
First World War
During the First World War , Leopold Cordier was the parish's Protestant pastor. From January 15, 1916, he published the Heimatbote, a monthly bulletin. In it he reported on community life in Eschelbronn and Neidenstein and announced news about those who took part in the war and those who had fallen from the two villages. The bells of the Protestant church had to be handed in in 1917 to be melted down for military armor. The solemn handover was documented by the court photographer "Her Majesty the Queen of Sweden and Norway" Max Kögel from Heidelberg. The bells were replaced on September 13, 1921. Cordier's successor Otto Friedrich Hessig continued the Heimatbote. A memorial plaque in the Protestant church commemorates 53 Eschelbronn soldiers who died in the war.
National Socialism and the Post-War Period
Before and during the Nazi era, Eschelbronn stood out in comparison to the surrounding communities thanks to the special support it received from the NSDAP , and it was a stronghold of the SA in the region . While the party received 55 votes in the 1928 Reichstag elections , it had already reached 327 in 1930. In 1932 the number rose further to 466 and in 1933 the party recorded another hundred voters with 566 votes ( KPD : 52, SPD : 33). Georg Braun was elected mayor in 1931 and remained in office until 1945. With the dissolution of the Eschelbronn Music Association, an SA band was founded, which, however , dissolved again at the beginning of the Second World War . The previous music association, chaired by Mayor Adam Windisch, who was appointed after the end of the war, consisted primarily of communist members. The SA storm leader Konrad Pfister and the NSDAP local group leader Heinrich Mayer belonged to the local council. Instead of the annual Kerwe parade, the German Labor Front organized May Day parades until the start of the war on Labor Day . In addition, the Sinsheim office of the Reichsnährstand commissioned the rural women and rural youth to organize an annual parade for the harvest festival .
During the November pogroms , the Eschelbronner SA, headed by Obersturmbannführer and Mayor of Waibstadt , Eugen Laule, destroyed the synagogue in Neidenstein on November 10th . There was no Jewish community in Eschelbronn.
The Kallenberg was used as a camp site for the Hitler Youth . On September 1, 1939, the camp was demolished at the beginning of the war. On January 8, 1942, the two large of the three church tower bells procured in 1921 had to be handed over to the Protestant church for the production of cannons and grenades. Families from Mannheim and Karlsruhe who had lost their accommodations in bombing raids were quartered in the village . An English bomber was shot down on April 27, 1944. Two of the inmates were able to jump off with a parachute and were taken prisoner in Hoffenheim . In 1944, five inmates of a four-engine American fighter plane loaded with incendiary bombs were buried in Eschelbronn, who had crashed above the beech forest near Spechbacherweg in Meckesheim and died in the process.
School operations ceased in autumn 1944. On March 13, 1945 at around 5 p.m. British fighter-bombers coming from the west launched an air raid on the station and a train located there. However, there was an anti-aircraft gun on the train, which made the attack more difficult. Six people were killed in the attack. Another bomb dropped in the residential area completely destroyed the house built in 1930 at Schulstrasse 47. Other houses were shot at, but not completely destroyed. A total of 71 people from Eschelbronn were killed in the war, 34 people went missing, four died after 1945.
On April 1, 1945, US tank units marched from Meckesheim via Eschelbronn towards Waibstadt without encountering any resistance. After the war ended, the place belonged to the American occupation zone . The schoolhouse served as the coordination office for the US troops. The Karlsruhe language teacher Georg Armleder was appointed mayor by the occupiers and quartered in the Schuhmannsmühle , which had previously been used for grinding for the Wehrmacht . Armleder was murdered that same year and his body was found in Neckargemünd . The murder was never solved. The communist and war opponent Adam Windisch was then appointed mayor, but in the same year at the insistence of the CDU branch at the Sinsheim district office, he was deposed and the gardener Paul Schoch received the office. In the first municipal council election on January 27, 1946, the CDU won three seats with 286 votes, the SPD two seats with 230 votes and the KPD one seat with 115 votes. The carpenter Karl Ferch (SPD) won the first free mayoral election in 1947. In 1954, the former Nazi functionary Philipp Dinkel was elected mayor and was confirmed in office in 1962 for the period until 1972. For the reports from municipalities about the war events in 1945 and the extent of the destruction in World War II , a questionnaire campaign by the State Statistical Office of Baden-Württemberg , he reported on November 21, 1960 "nil report", which should express that in Eschelbronn no or only minor destruction had taken place or there were no records or writings about it.
Expansion of the settlement area and further development in the 20th and 21st centuries
After the Second World War, the population grew due to the influx of war refugees and displaced persons, who were initially housed in vacant carpentry workshops, to 2017 inhabitants in 1946. This led to a significant housing shortage and the expansion of the settlement area. First, Im Grund was the first to build a new housing estate next to the commuter settlement in Bad Rappenau in the Sinsheim district . The jackdaw ditch in Neugasse was canalized. At the same time the land consolidation took place.
In the summer of 1950 the community set up a local call system whose loudspeakers can still be seen occasionally decades after they were switched off.
In May 1957, on the initiative of Mayor Philipp Dinkel, the settlement community was founded as an interest group of homeowners and building site owners in the Im Grund building area. In June 1957, it joined the German Settlers Association, the Baden-Württemberg regional association, and 30 years later had 130 members, the third highest number of members in the Sinsheim district after Sinsheim and Bad Rappenau . Her field of activity consists of specialist lectures, training courses and advice on house and garden, the planting and maintenance of the flower emblem and the maintenance of the community's own orchards. In 1959, the Lange Äcker and Mühlweg areas were opened up as part of expansion work for the growing population and the increasing need for homes for small families . In 1962 Neidensteiner Strasse , Neugasse, Schloßstrasse and Wiesenstrasse , and in 1966 the Lange Äcker / Erpfel area, were supplied with drinking water. Since the community was heavily in debt due to the cost of sewerage of 1.4 million marks, no further loans were allowed to be taken out in the following years, which initially slowed down construction activity.
In 1969, the Mosbach road construction authority completed Landstrasse 549, which gave the place a bypass road and a transport link to Bundesstrasse 45 at the expense of agricultural land . In response to the action of the then Eschelbronn local council, who wanted to avoid a crossing with traffic lights in the village, a bridge was built over Bahnhofstrasse to lead the L549 over it. This resulted in dam, which was later also used as flood protection. The country road relieved the community of through traffic, as the main connection between Schwarzbachtal and Heidelberg, in particular for heavy transport from the cement works in Neckarbischofsheim-Obergimpern and the gravel works in Eschelbronn, no longer ran via Bahnhofstraße through the town center. In retrospect, the civil engineer responsible at the Heidelberg road construction authority Julius Hütter described the construction of the country road in 2020 as the “greatest structural event of the past century” for Eschelbronn.
In 1973, Eschelbronn came with the Baden-Württemberg district reform from the Sinsheim district to the Rhein-Neckar district . The sports and culture hall was built in the same year under Mayor Dieter Janitza. In 1974 the community opened up the new development area Durstbütten and the local administration association Elsenztal was founded in order to maintain the independence of the communities. In addition to Eschelbronn, the association includes the communities Lobbach , Mauer , Meckesheim and Spechbach from different districts. In 1976, the Industriestrasse was extended for the first time for other businesses and in 1988 it was expanded to a forest. In 1977 the Oppenloch / Gührn area was created in the southeast, followed by Lange Äcker / Schleifigrain in 1980. In 1988 the Seerain building area was developed. In 1991, financial irregularities in a municipal construction project became known, which led to the resignation of Mayor Dieter Janitza. His successor Jürgen Gredel did not run again after one term. Janitza was re-elected for the election on May 9, 1999, but lost to Florian Baldauf from Lauterbach , who works in the administration of the city of Blumberg , who won with almost 59 percent of the votes in the second ballot. Baldauf was re-elected in 2007 with almost 90 percent of the vote. In the local elections in the same year, Janitza received a seat on the local council with the then newly founded "Eschelbronner List".
In the 2000s, the district In den Kirchwiesen settlement area, the redevelopment of the market square was carried out and the community was connected to the S-Bahn. In March 2013, the state of Baden-Württemberg agreed to support the following projects within the framework of the funding program for the development of rural areas (state development program ) with 140,000 euros: the purchase and demolition of the industrial wasteland on the market square, the renovation of the break hall of the old school and the Modernization and the roof extension of a residential building in the historic town center.
The street lighting was switched to light-emitting diodes in March 2014 by a municipal council resolution. The previous mercury vapor lamps were replaced in 136 lanterns. The costs amounted to 98,744.53 euros and were funded with 20 percent by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. Energy savings of 81 percent were expected with the conversion.
In August 2014, Eschelbronn became the scene of a criminal case. A 59-year-old resident killed his 58-year-old wife and 93-year-old mother with a hammer and then killed himself by jumping off a bridge near Sinsheim .
Mayor Baldauf announced in 2014 that he would not run again after the second term of office. Katharina Schranz, a graduate economist from Meckesheim, who has lived in Eschelbronn since 1995, and Marco Siesing (CDU), a graduate in administrative administration, from Mannheim, ran for the election of the successor on April 19, 2015 with 2051 eligible voters. In addition, the lawyer Marion Emig, the political scientist Giuseppe Carlucci and the civil engineering official in Heidelberg and SPD boss in Angelbachtal Michael Kaestel applied. Schranz had entered the local council for the Eschelbronn list and, followed by Emig, became the first woman in the history of Eschelbronn for the mayor's office. One of the central topics in the election campaign was the redevelopment of the former Streib furniture store area on the market square, which had been on the market square for several decades and was demolished in 2014. Marco Siesing won the election with an absolute majority and 68.73 percent of the vote, followed by Carlucci with 12.72 percent, Schranz with 12.17 percent, Kaestel with 2.1 percent and Emig with 0.46 percent. The turnout was 64 percent.
A controversially discussed construction of a covered bus stop with a green area on the former Streib site was rejected by the local council, whereupon citizens of the community submitted a resident application, which, however, after a formal error occurred in the first attempt, also failed in the second attempt. A dental practice was built on one part of the area, and plans for the construction of a village square were drawn up for another part.
On March 1, 2016, a contract was signed between the municipality and the Mannheim energy company MVV Regioplan als Täger to develop the 3.4 hectare Ambelwiesen II area on the eastern edge of the municipality. The Lange Äcker II area was also examined for development beforehand . Development of the Lange Äcker II area began with a symbolic groundbreaking ceremony on May 23, 2019. 53 building plots are to be created there. In June 2019, archaeological finds were made during the laying of water channels and examined by a voluntary representative of the archaeological monument preservation of the Stuttgart regional council. In September of the same year, a qualitative and quantitative classification of the site was carried out with dredging work. During the uncovering, there were indications of post pits , post buildings and rows of fences as well as structures that were assigned to the Roman Empire . Ceramic shards dated to the Hallstatt period and parts of a horse's skeleton from the 18th and 19th centuries were also found. Excavated in the 16th century. Several finds from the early Halamann period prove a post-Roman settlement in the area. A well that has also come to light and a lime kiln from the 2nd / 3rd centuries. Century AD. The municipality commissioned an excavation company to investigate the area surrounding the site of the fountain and lime kiln, which carried out and documented further excavations from the end of October to the end of November 2019. The costs of the excavations were allocated to the land buyers according to the polluter pays principle .
During the COVID-19 pandemic in Baden-Württemberg in 2020, an internal crisis team (administrative staff) was set up. Community events such as the summer parade and the annual general meeting of the volunteer fire department canceled. The town hall and the other municipal offices were closed on March 16 and the municipal council meetings on March 17 moved to the fire station with an increased safety margin. Mayor Marco Siesing and a network of volunteers in Eschelbronn called for neighborhood help. A confirmed case of illness was announced on March 20th. The man had entered a risk area a few days earlier and then went into voluntary quarantine. From May 4th, the town hall was gradually reopened to visitors.
A dialect of the Electoral Palatinate is widespread in Eschelbronn . The inhabitants jokingly refer to themselves as "woodworms", which can be traced back to the traditional carpentry trade practiced in the village. There is also the Ortsneckname "Stegstrecker", with which the residents are mockingly referred to. It is based on a story according to which Eschelbronn craftsmen in 1703 first soaked a footbridge that was too short as a bridge over the Schwarzbach in the water and then tried to lengthen it by pulling on both sides with a team of oxen or horses. In fact, the bridge probably fell into the river during assembly and was then pulled out by the team.
In 1977 a rural women’s association was founded in Eschelbronn .
In 1672 Eschelbronn had 73 inhabitants. In 1805 "Eschelbrunn" had 490 inhabitants. By 1850, despite the emigration movement in the 19th century , the number increased to 870 and, with the improved transport connections after the completion of the Badische Odenwaldbahn, rose again from 871 inhabitants in 1852 and 1024 in 1873 to 1069 in 1900. During the First World War at least 53 were killed Eschelbronner. In World War II 75 were killed and 34 went missing. In the 1920 census, 1134 and in 1939 1200 inhabitants were found. After the Second World War, the population increased in 1946 through war refugees to 2017, of whom 376 were Sudeten Germans , 90 Hungarian Germans , 44 Upper Silesians and seven Romanian Germans . The number of inhabitants fell again to 1925 by 1956. In 2011, 2515 people lived in Eschelbronn, the proportion of foreigners was 8.7 percent.
The population is predominantly Protestant. In addition to the Protestant parish, there is a Roman Catholic parish belonging to the Waibstadt pastoral care unit and a New Apostolic parish run jointly with Epfenbach .
|Confessional population statistics 1925–1985|
Christianity was widespread in the region under the Romans , but largely disappeared with the advance of Germanic tribes.
A parish existed in Eschelbronn depending on Waibstadt from the 14th century at the latest. According to a first mention in 1496, the wooden church of St. Margareta was located in the Gewann Kirchwiesen. The church patronage was a Hohenlohe fiefdom. In 1358 it was sold by the Zwingenbergers to the provost of Wimpfen Peter von Mauer , who in turn sold it to the Landschad . After their extinction, it probably passed to the Lords of Venningen .
In 1526 the entire population followed the local lord Joachim von Seckendorff and became Lutheran. Since then the place has been predominantly Protestant. In 1699, Elector Johann Wilhelm established a Catholic parish for the places Daisbach , Eschelbronn, Gauangelloch , Maisbach , Mauer , Meckesheim , Ochsenbach , Schatthausen , Spechbach , Ursenbacherhof , Waldwimmersbach and Zuzenhausen , whose seat was in Spechbach from 1669 to 1707. The Catholic parish later belonged to the parish of Zuzenhausen for over 200 years and in 1937, when 16 Catholics were counted in Eschelbronn, it went to the parish of Waibstadt. On April 1, 1938, the statutory local church tax was introduced. With the settlement of several refugees from the Second World War, the number of Catholics jumped to 674 in 1946. Catholic masses took place in the Protestant church from 1946 to 1958. With the "Kinderbewahranstalt" founded on August 18, 1856 and after the toddler school association was dissolved in 1948, which had administered the children's school from 1900, the Protestant parish took over the care of toddlers. On May 19, 1957, construction of the Catholic St. Joseph Church began . The building was consecrated on August 31, 1958. In 1978 the Protestant and Catholic church and parish councils founded a nursing association with around 400 members, a basis for the later church welfare station in Elsenztal. For the New Apostolic parish founded on January 1, 1910, a church building was built in 1960, which was replaced by a new building in the early 2010s. In 2017 the New Apostolic congregation merged with that in Epfenbach, with the church building in Eschelbronn as a common meeting place. On February 26, 2017, the first divine service for believers from both congregations took place there.
Past pastors of the Protestant parish:
Register books of the evangelical community Eschelbronn:
Eschelbronn is part of the Rhein-Neckar electoral district . The Free Voter Association is a member of the State Association of Free Voters' Association Baden-Württemberg . A local SPD association has existed in Eschelbronn since the 1940s and a CDU community association since August 28, 1981. The VdK local group has been active since 1946. It had 120 members when it was founded and 55 members at the end of the 1980s. A local committee of the German Federation of Trade Unions has existed since May 18, 1954 .
719 of the 1,898 eligible voters took part in the referendum in Stuttgart 21 on November 27, 2011, which corresponds to a voter turnout of 37.88 percent (ballot box: 610, postal vote: 118). 297 voters (41.31 percent) voted with “yes”, 420 (58.41 percent) with “no”. Two of the votes cast (0.28 percent) were invalid. A majority thus spoke out against the termination law in Stuttgart 21 .
In the 2019 European elections , the CDU in Eschelbronn received 28.1 percent (-6.4), Alliance 90 / The Greens 18.3 percent (+9.5), the AfD 15.1 percent (-0.4), the SPD 13.9 percent (−8.8), the FDP 6.6 percent (+4.2), the Left 3.7 percent (−0.5) and the Free Voters 3.7 percent (+1.1 ). The turnout was 65 percent, 7.9 percent higher than in the previous European elections in 2014.
Eschelbronn's monthly council has twelve members. In addition, the mayor is the chairman with voting rights.
The 2019 local elections resulted in the following results:
||Parties and constituencies||2019||2014||2009||2004|
|Ebro. list||Eschelbronn list||42.6||5||5||5||30th||4th|
|Free voters||Free voters||24.5||3||3||4th||24||3|
|UBDU||Independent citizens for the village and the environment||32.9||4th||3||2||22nd||3|
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union||0||0||1||1||14th||1|
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||0||0||0||0||10||1|
|Voter turnout in%||61.2||55.2||54.4||?|
Budget and finance
In 2011, the community's expenditures amounted to 3,565,000 euros. In contrast, there were revenues of 3,543,000 euros. The total debt in 2014 was 2,316,000 euros, which corresponds to a per capita debt of 895 euros. In the following years, debts of almost one million euros were reduced. In April 2019, the municipal council decided for the first time a budget according to the new municipal budget and accounting. A total budget of 7.9 million euros was approved, which is to increase to 9.4 million euros by 2022. It was planned to reduce the community's debt to 1.7 million euros by the end of 2019. This would correspond to a per capita debt of 628 euros and thus correspond to the national average.
Mayor and mayor
Seal, coat of arms and flag
The use of a seal is documented from 1752. It shows a heart in the middle from which a flower tendril grows between the initials "E" and "B". These initials are depicted in a crowned coat of arms on the seal from the 19th century.
Eschelbronn has had a coat of arms since the beginning of the 20th century. It was created in 1901 as part of a general reorganization of the coat of arms by the Badisches Generallandesarchiv in Karlsruhe . The diamonds come from the Electoral Palatinate Zent Meckesheim , the two crossed red lilies refer to the former local lords of Venningen . The coat of arms was reproduced near the exit in the direction of Epfenbach on the bridge of Landstrasse 549 on the initiative of the Eschelbronn settler community with flowers in the same color.
The municipal flag has two stripes with the colors white and blue. In the upper white field it shows the municipal coat of arms on the left. The right to use a flag was Eschelbronn with the adoption of the Regional Council of North Baden No I / 3a - awarded by 13 November 1954 24517/54..
Culture and club life
In 1954 the tourist association was founded, later renamed the Heimat- und Verkehrsverein, to “maintain old customs and promote tourism”. Its tasks are, among other things, the beautification of the townscape, the creation of a local archive, the promotion of tourism, support of the local industry and the coordination of the local association work. The association also takes on the organization of the local parades on summer days, at the church fair, on St. Martin's Day and the fanfare procession initiated by the association and organized from 1959 onwards .
Since June 25, 1933 and with the re-establishment after the Second World War in March 1946, the small animal breeding association C 46 has existed, which has maintained a breeder's home on Bettweg since 1964 .
From 1902 a cycling club existed for a few years. At the beginning of the 1970s, interest in motorsport increased in Eschelbronn and the community of horsepower ranchers emerged in 1976. As part of the children's vacation program, which was set up by the municipality in 1988 and carried out with the participation of local associations, children can take part in various activities and workshops during the summer vacation .
Museums and theaters
The carpentry and local history museum, which was previously set up in Brunnengasse , has been located in the old school's rooms since 1990 . Historical machines and tools are exhibited and the development of the economy from linen weaving to carpentry is shown. Living rooms that used to be typical of the region and a historic corner shop are reproduced. The Heimatverein had already made the first plans to open a local history museum in 1956 after it had published the Ortschronik Eschelbronn - your home . In the absence of suitable rooms, however, the project was not implemented.
The privately operated and freely accessible open-air museum Sellemols Agger with historical agricultural equipment from the region is located on the Vorderen Weißenberg.
In 1989, as part of the 1200th anniversary celebration, the amateur theater group Sellemols Theaterleit '(then theater people) was created under the direction of Marliese Echner-Klingmann and performed the play in the vernacular Vom Leineweberdorf zum Schreinerdorf . In 1996 Echner-Klingmann won the state prize for folk theater pieces with the play From Lisbeth Ihrm Diary - E Dorf em Kraichgau from 1939 to 1945 .
Musically, Eschelbronn is represented by a choral society, a music society, a Protestant trombone choir and a Protestant and a Catholic church choir.
From the beginning of the 1860s to the 1870s there was already a choral society. In 1886 the Lyra choral society was founded as a pure male choral society, which has been exchanging ideas with the men's choir Hogia'r D Dwylan from Wales since 1983 . On the occasion of its centenary, the association was awarded the Zelter plaque by the then District Administrator Jürgen Schütz .
The Musikverein Eschelbronn received its statutes on August 21, 1954 and made a home film in 1960 , of which there has been a new digital version since 2012. In 1964 the youth band performed for the first time.
The Protestant trombone choir, which accompanied the services until 1933, was founded in May 1899 by the mill owner Karl Ziegler . The instruments were later sold to the musicians so that they would not be confiscated by the Hitler Youth . The choir was dissolved on June 28, 1939 and re-established after the war on September 19, 1947, with the former members providing the instruments. In 1988 the choir had 26 active wind players.
Before the Protestant church choir was founded on December 1, 1946, there had been a Protestant “community choir” in the old children's school for several decades. After the construction of the Catholic Church , a Catholic church choir with 23 active members was founded in 1960.
The town hall on the market square was built in 1838 with a cost estimate of 6058 Rhenish thalers under the then mayor Peter Grab. The entrance stairs were initially on Oberstrasse. It was demolished in the 20th century by a truck turning off between Neidensteiner Straße and Bahnhofstraße and later moved to the market square. The building was renovated at the beginning of the 21st century, the facade was painted and the staircase rebuilt. In 2002 a chestnut was planted in front of the town hall . Until the renovation of the entrance stairs and the market square, there was a drinking water fountain directly in front of the entrance, which was replaced in 2004 by a hexagonal sandstone fountain with four water jets and an embossed plane in the central column.
The listed Protestant church was built in 1811 according to plans by the Schwetzingen master builder Georg Frommel in the classical Weinbrenner style . Images and illustrations of the church that dominates the market square serve as a characteristic feature of the community. The cost of the construction in the amount of 10,000 thalers had to be taken over by the Baroness von Venningen after a legal dispute with the municipality. In 1929 the church was transferred free of charge from the local congregation to the parish.
Old station building
Up until 1983 there was a station building built in 1875/1876 and inaugurated in 1876 along the track in Bahnhofstrasse, with a goods hall, a loading ramp and a pump well that also supplied the station keeper's house opposite. In 1982 the Federal Railroad ceded the Odenwaldbahn line to the SWEG . Plans for the demolition of the house were discussed at a citizens' meeting. In order to support the preservation of the historic station building, the citizens' initiative for environmental protection, cultural and homeland preservation Eschelbronn was founded on October 30, 1981 with Marliese Echner-Klingmann as chairman. On November 29, 1981, however, 576 of the citizens entitled to vote, 57.5 percent, voted for the demolition in a vote. Even a submission to the petitions committee of the Baden-Württemberg state parliament could not prevent the demolition. The station keeper's house continues to exist as a residential building.
The old school was built in 1911 according to plans by the architect Josef Huber and served as a school building until 1989. The building with two floors and an attic has a bell tower. After secondary school lessons were moved to the carpenter's trade school at that time, only the primary school was in the building. A public and school pool was set up in the basement until the mid-1970s. After the floods in 1994, the old school was used as a kindergarten for some time. Today the Eschelbronn carpentry museum is located there.
Moated castle and castle
During excavations by the Baden-Württemberg State Monuments Office from 1971 to 1975, numerous relics from several periods of time were found that point to the Eschelbronn moated castle built in the 13th century . The location is marked by a water basin on the sports field. The Eschelbronn moated castle was reconstructed with the Bach knights castle Kanzach in the years 2000/01.
The so-called Eschelbronn Castle , which stood on Schloßstraße, was built in the 18th century southwest of the castle by Carl Philipp von Venningen . Contrary to the name, it was just a simple estate.
Unlike in the surrounding villages, almost all half-timbered houses in Eschelbronn were plastered with the development from linen weaving to carpentry as the main source of income.
The half-timbered house at Oberstrasse 12, also called " Hauck'sches Haus ", was built in 1630 during the Thirty Years' War and is the oldest preserved house in the community. In 1813 it was the scene of a confrontation with Russian soldiers who were billeted in private households in the village during the wars of liberation on the march to France.
Other historical half-timbered houses are Kandelstrasse 14 and Bahnhofstrasse 11. The latter is a typical Eschelbronn linen weaver's house, in which there were up to three looms on the ground floor and whose timber-frame, unlike most other houses in town, was not plastered. Later there was a grocery store there .
The old rectory was built in 1783, financed by the von Venningen family, and bears their coat of arms above the entrance gate. The building has two floors and an attic. The first floor on the mezzanine floor can be reached from two sides via a representative entrance staircase. A Venninger and a Gemminger coat of arms are located above the entrance area. The building became privately owned in 1972. Today there is a new rectory on Neidensteiner Straße.
Evangelical Lutheran Church
The Evangelical Lutheran church was located from 1575 to 1807 with a cemetery on the market square. It was built by the local lords of Seckendorff and Capler von Oedheim, called Bauz, after the population of Eschelbronn had accepted the Lutheran creed in 1526 after the local lord Joachim von Seckendorff. After its demolition, the Eschelbronn Evangelical Church was built on the same site .
Monuments and testimonies
In 1886, the Eschelbronn war memorial was erected on the market square to commemorate the participants and victims of the Franco-Prussian War . It was later moved next to the fire station in Bahnhofstrasse and was then placed in the Eschelbronn cemetery next to the morgue, opposite the memorial for the fallen soldiers of the First and Second World Wars . Two more memorial plaques for the soldiers who fell in World War I are in the Protestant church, outside the building there is a plaque each for the pastors Antonius Jacobus Henckel and Josua Harrsch . In the cemetery, a plaque donated by Wilfried Wolf in 1997 commemorates the missionary Georg Ziegler, who worked in China, above his gravestone.
In the years between 1750 and 1834 in particular, boundary stones were set as district boundaries in several places around Eschelbronn, but these no longer applied after the re-measurement of the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1851. The inscriptions "CP" and "MC" stand for Kurpfalz and Meckesheimer Cent . Other stones bear the inscription "NVZ" ( November 10th ). The Reichsapfel and the diamonds of the Meckesheimer Zent are shown as well as the coat of arms of the von Venningen family on the back . A new boundary stone made by an Eschelbronn stonemason was set together with a time capsule on October 3, 2003 on the occasion of the 1225th anniversary of the neighboring community of Zuzenhausen on the boundary between Eschelbronn, Daisbach and Zuzenhausen in the Gewann Zollstock / Wolfsklinge.
With the old linden tree and the Kastanienallee , Eschelbronn owns several trees that are protected as natural monuments. The linden tree stands by the bed path and was probably planted before 1850. Next to it there is a historical signpost with the distance to the neighboring villages, as the place was one of the most important crossroads until 1862. At the linden tree is the bridge over the Schwarzbach , where the legend about the " Eschelbronner Stegstrecker " is said to have taken place.
Kastanienallee in Bahnhofstrasse is a 310 meter long row of several old chestnuts , the youngest of which is estimated to have been planted around 1875. The trees were placed under protection on May 7, 1981 as natural monuments. The last tree in the direction of the village exit was felled by order of the nature conservation authority of the Rhein-Neckar district in 2008 because it would have endangered traffic.
The gymnastics club was founded in 1902 and ceased its activities during the First World War until it was re-established in 1919. It was expanded in 1921 with a school department and a women's department in 1927, as well as a handball and fistball department. After the club was banned during the Second World War , it was re-established in 1947. In the following year he organized the first post-war district gymnastics festival. After the gymnastics club had to switch to temporary arrangements with its sporting events, it was given a permanent training room with the construction of the sports and culture hall in 1974, whereupon several new interest groups and sports departments were formed, including a ski gymnastics group, an athletics department and a school and youth team - and women's handball group. In 1976 the association had 387 members and grew to 550 by the end of the 1980s. In 2006 it had over 800 members, including around 300 students. Different sports such as gymnastics, handball, athletics, skiing and hiking are offered weekly in 34 groups.
The FC Eschelbronn there since 12 August 1920 and has about 400 members. On July 1, 1928, the Kallenberg sports field was completed on an area made available by the HD cement works. After the end of the war, the club was re-established on November 24, 1945 and the football field was inaugurated on October 10, 1947. An associated clubhouse was inaugurated on August 1, 1954 and expanded and expanded in 1967. The FC has a first and a second team and an old-man team. Fans of FC Bayern Munich formed a fan club with around 40 members in 1980.
The shooting club goes back to two homeland security groups founded in 1924. Initially founded under the name Schützengilde Heimattreu, it was renamed the Schützenverein Eschelbronn in 1926 and received a rifle house on the Kallenberg . After the Second World War, the club was banned, the shooting range was blown up and the club house was transferred to the football club. In 1954 it was re-established and the club house was transferred back.
The karate club was founded in 1974. In 1977 he organized the Baden-Württemberg championships in semi-contact and traditional karate with the participation of 19 teams. In 1988 it was expanded to include the disciplines of Judo and Jiu-Jitsu .
The tennis club , founded on December 17, 1976, has had two tennis clay courts since May 1980 and three tennis courts since March 1982. The first Grümpel tennis tournament took place in the summer of 1986 with twelve teams . At the end of the 1980s the association had 140 members.
The sport fishing club was founded in 1979, inspired by the castle lake that was created during the excavations, and has been offering a fishing test for anglers in and outside the region since 1982, initially once and later twice a year .
The table tennis club was founded on May 21, 1987. However, there was already a club founded on February 25, 1966 with about 50 members under the name Eschelbronn Tennis Club, which dissolved in 1971. The table tennis department joined the shooting club and used its premises until the new shooting range was built in 1987.
Festive events and parades
The Eschelbronner Kerwe takes place every year in September . For this purpose, a parade was once organized by the village youth or by regulars in the individual restaurants, with the financial participation of the restaurateurs. From 1933 until the start of the war, instead of the parade of the parish fair, a May Day parade was organized by the German Labor Front every year on Labor Day , and a parade for the harvest festival was organized by the rural women and the rural youth on behalf of the Sinsheim office of the Reichsnährstands . The collection of the new bells of the Protestant church on September 14, 1949 was also accompanied by a parade. After its establishment in 1956, the Heimat- und Verkehrsverein took over the organization of the parade parades, in which usually seven to eight local associations took part. The association is also a co-organizer of the annual summer and St. Martin's parades for children . The summer parade first took place in March 1958 with the accompaniment of the music association. For the first summer parade, 270 sweet pretzels were distributed, the ingredients of which were donated by millers from the surrounding communities and local farmers. The community financed paper for making the summer day arrangements.
From 1959 onwards, a fanfare procession was organized by the Heimat- und Verkehrsverein in cooperation with its Mühlhausen counterpart. However, due to financial difficulties, he was hired again in the early 1970s. Membership in an association would have been necessary for musical support. A planned inclusion in the Badischer Turnerbund failed because the fanfare procession would have had to break away from the home and tourist association and join the Eschelbronn gymnastics club in 1902, which the club's board unanimously rejected. At the beginning of the 1960s, the Heimat- und Verkehrsverein designed the Kerwe parades alone and later again with the participation of other associations. Some of the relocations had a thematic focus, for example in 1962 for the centenary of the railway line or in 1963 as a reminder of the power supply introduced over 60 years earlier. The organization was later taken over by the mayor's office.
The Saint Martin's Parade was first held on November 11, 1971. Accompanied by the music association, around 450 children took part. Sweet pretzels are distributed during the St. Martin's Parade.
In March 1977, the senior citizens' afternoon, jointly organized by the Heimat- und Verkehrsverein and the local association of the German Red Cross, took place in the palace hall for the first time and was attended by around 300 senior citizens and their families. The meeting has been held once a year since then, and twice a year from 1996 onwards in changing event rooms. Later, the Protestant and Catholic parishes were included in the organization of the senior afternoon, which takes place regularly on Thanksgiving.
Every two years the Eschelbronn volunteer fire brigade organizes the marketplace festival, which was held for the first time on August 20, 1978. To mark the 1200th anniversary of the place, a parade took place, which dealt with the history of Eschelbronn.
The joiner's market took place a total of 18 times a year on the third weekend in March until 2010, and was opened in the last year of its existence by, among others, Member of Parliament Elke Brunnemer and Member of Parliament Stephan Harbarth . Local furniture manufacturers presented their products in the sports and culture hall. Workshops, carpenters and furniture stores were open this weekend. In addition, various handicraft techniques were demonstrated to the visitors. Later, the carpenter's market was continued as a Sunday shopping for some local carpenters without a festive event.
The Whitsun Festival at the Ziegelhüttenwald is regularly organized by the PS rangers. With the participation of music associations and church choirs, the Advent singing takes place annually in the run-up to Christmas on the market square. For this purpose, mulled wine was sold by the Heimat- und Verkehrsverein from 1979 onwards, which was initially given out in plastic cups and later in ceramic and porcelain cups to avoid waste. Each year these were printed with a different motif, on which the first series showed former views of old Eschelbronn buildings and the second series carpentry motifs, printed by the artist Klaus Koch from Eberbach. The editions were 500 pieces, except in 1993, in which 700 were produced and 400 were sold. The following motifs were issued:
1. Series "Old Views", brown ceramic:
Special cup, cobalt blue made of porcelain:
2nd series: carpentry motifs, black
Various companies in the municipality are united in the trade association in the carpenter's village of Eschelbronn, which emerged from an advertising community. The larger companies include the furniture stores Amend, Geiß and Streib and the carpenter's workshop Rüdiger Vogel.
From agriculture to linen weaving
The agriculture was originally the main source of Eschelbronner population. The forced labor was replaced in 1832 . As a result of the real division , the arable land had been increasingly fragmented and many farmers had to rely on additional business income due to insufficient land ownership.
|Farms with less than 2 ha||68||120||150||115||86||36||11||2||2|
|Farms with 2–10 ha||79||85||73||57||24||15th||8th||4th||2|
|Farms with 10–20 ha||14th||2||1||5||6th||4th||2||2||2|
|Farms with 20 ha and more||-||-||-||1||2||4th||6th||6th||6th|
|all in all||161||207||224||178||118||59||27||14th||12|
From the 18th to the late 19th century, linen weaving became the most important economic factor. For the year 1860, 35 weavers are listed by name in the church records of the Protestant church. In the mid-19th century, every resident family had a loom to make textiles for sale and for their own use.
Urban traders drove into the town in the spring to buy up the remaining stock and pass them on to retailers. In the course of industrialization, however, the demand from wholesalers increasingly fell, which is why some weavers traveled on foot to the cities to sell their goods via door-to-door sales. In the beginning, the rural weavers represented considerable competition for inner-city production due to lower rental costs. As the industry nevertheless advanced, imported cheaper cotton and the rural businesses did not invest in mechanical looms, the handicraft in Eschelbronn lost its importance. At the beginning of the 20th century, the place had nine linen weavers and in 1909 the number had dropped to two.
At times, tobacco was grown and dried in Eschelbronn . For the first time at the end of the 19th / beginning of the 20th century and again in the period before the Second World War until a few years later, some farmers preferred tobacco cultivation to the then emerging sugar beet cultivation as an additional purchase and sold the dried leaves on the day of the auction on the market square. To promote goat breeding, there was an association for securing the feed supply for several decades. Goat farming was gradually stopped after the end of the Second World War.
Development into a carpenter's village
According to the church records, only Andreas Wolff (1748–1802) and Johann Adam Butschbacher (1761–1832) worked as carpenters from the middle of the 18th to the beginning of the 19th century. They probably operated the carpentry as a sideline to agriculture and linen weaving. Johann Georg Wolff (* 1788) and Andreas Schön (1782–1861) were later named as master carpenters.
Around 1868 or 1870 the Eschelbronn journeyman carpenter Georg Adam Kaiser met the Swiss Johannes Reimann († September 6, 1895) from Lanterswil , who introduced him to the technique of veneering and followed up with Kaiser around 1870 after the years of wandering in Lahr Eschelbronn pulled. Kaiser introduced the veneer process, along with other innovations that he had learned during his traveling years, in his father's carpenter's workshop at Neugasse 69. Before that, furniture in Eschelbronn was made of solid wood at a higher cost. Reimann set up a carpenter's workshop on the first floor at Oberstrasse 16 and manufactured inlays in addition to veneers . The Kaiser carpenter's workshop trained twelve journeymen in 1882, most of whom later also started their own training businesses.
At the end of the 19th century, the carpentry trade gained more and more foothold, as there was no industrial competition at that time, and made the place known as a carpenter's village. With the construction of the train station in 1876, the transport options required for production and sales were significantly improved, so that a protocol from 1895 mentions ten workshops that exported to cities. In 1902 the place was also connected to the power grid. Around 1910, deliveries were made to the Saar, Alsace and Lorraine. In the activity report of the Eschelbronn trade association from 1913, 41 self-employed master carpenters, 73 journeymen and 40 apprentices were listed. In 1918, Philipp Ernst took over the carpenter's workshop from Kaiser and moved the business to Schulstrasse . By 1960 the company with 200 employees grew to become the most important company in the municipality.
After the First World War, the woodworkers association was founded on the initiative of the communist Adam Windisch to represent the interests of local carpenters. Immediately after the Second World War, Windisch, who had been appointed mayor for a short time, built the timber union, which was able to enforce a local collective agreement.
In the 1920s, production mainly focused on bedrooms. In 1925 Eschelbronn had 1,135 residents and 54 carpentry shops. While production initially focused on one-offs from the region, small-batch production began at the turn of the century, initially for wardrobes, which were mainly known under the Swiss term chiffonnier . In 1931 Max Stier bought a Chevrolet as Eschelbronn's first furniture transport vehicle for 3000 Reichsmarks , which meant that the transport was no longer tied to rail traffic. The vehicle fleet was expanded in the 1930s with vehicles of the Opel Blitz type , which, however, were called up for the medical service during World War II. In the 1930s, the number of carpenters grew to 60. At times, the place was known as the "Mecka of the bride and groom" because of its furniture production. Furniture retail companies were founded in Eschelbronn after the Second World War . The Streib furniture store was built on the market square between 1949 and 1959; it was in operation until 2005 and then stood empty until it was demolished in 2014. The furniture trade had its strongest turnover in the years between 1950 and 1980.
On July 14th and 15th, 1979 the anniversary celebration of 100 years of the carpenter's village Eschelbronn took place. During the 1980s, the Geiß company produced around 20 bedrooms a day. The number of cabinet makers and workshops as well as furniture shops decreased steadily in the following decades, so that in the mid-2000s there were still around ten companies. There is a carpentry museum in the old school house.
In the Auto- und Technikmuseum Sinsheim there has been a bench in the shape of a plane since 2017, which was made available on loan from an Eschelbronn carpentry company and refers to the "Schreinerdorf Eschelbronn" with a coat of arms and lettering.
Economic development alongside agriculture and timber
The first documentation of a gastronomic establishment comes from the year 1568, where "the Eschelbronn economy" can be read in connection with a fight. In 1835 there were four dining establishments, operated by Konrad Dörzbach, Georg Reichert, Philip Dinkel and Daniel Jungmann. According to oral tradition, two restaurants are said to have been in Kandelstrasse .
In 1888 Eschelbronn joined the Schwarzbach fishing cooperative based in Waibstadt , the aim of which was to optimize the fish population in the Schwarzbach . On January 1, 1899, the trade and craft association was founded as an association and representation of the interests of local tradespeople and craftsmen, which was active in 1910 with 30 members under the name of the Eschelbronn trade association. From 1929 a Mercedes-Benz , built in 1925, bought by Wilhelm (Max) Stier for a purchase price of 1200 Reichsmarks , served as the first commercially used taxi in Eschelbronn, which was intended in particular to transport company representatives who came to Eschelbronn for company visits to carpenters' shops.
On July 5, 1880, the Eschelbronn Loan Association was founded and renamed the Ländlicher Kreditverein Eschelbronn eGmuH in 1890. In 1927, the company was renamed to Spar- und Kreditkasse eGmuH. Unlimited liability was replaced in 1955 by limited liability. In the mid-1950s, the cash register had a monthly turnover of around one million marks. In 1936, the Sparkasse began its activities in Eschelbronn with weekly customer visits and in 1958 set up a permanent branch in the residential building at Oberstrasse 4, which initially operated once a week and later twice a week. With renovation work in 1970, the branch was expanded to meet increasing demand and in 1980 a permanent branch of the Sparkasse Sinsheim was opened in Kandelstrasse . In 1954 a production facility for upright and grand piano manufacturer C. Bechstein was established .
The entrepreneur Roland Ernst , grandson of the furniture manufacturer Philipp Ernst , founded the company "Möbelvertrieb Eschelbronn" in 1959, with which he later mainly worked in the real estate market. Eschelbronn received over two million DM in trade tax through the company until it was relocated to Heidelberg in 1986.
In 1960 the Paul Ernst machine factory was founded. At the beginning, the company mainly sold buffing machines to local carpenter's shops and was able to establish itself nationwide in 1962 with the development of an intermediate lacquer sanding machine, which was sold over 2500 times. Paul Ernst Maschinenfabrik is a technology leader for machines for deburring sheet metal and won the Baden-Württemberg State of Baden-Württemberg's innovation award in 1993 . At the end of 2014, the company, which at the time employed 45 people and achieved sales of almost seven million euros, was sold to the Upper Austrian special machine manufacturer Wintersteiger . Due to declining sales figures, the plant was initially switched to short-time working in May of the following year and a complete closure was announced at the end of 2015. The declining sales are due, among other things, to the economic sanctions against Russia.
At the end of 2016, the beverage manufacturer Naturella began drilling a hole in the Bruchklinge on private property to extract mineral water that was to be used to make fruit juices. Initially, a one-year pumping trial was planned to obtain a permit for permanent groundwater pumping by the Water Rights Office, using community-owned farm roads. The water should have been directed to the drain over the Schwarzbach into the Oppenlochgraben. As a courtesy, the company promised to set up a water extraction point for the citizens. The local council rejected the project because it feared a lowering of the groundwater and an impairment of the local water supply.
The Schuhmannsmühle, also known as the “Old Mill”, was a ban mill and the largest and oldest of the three mills located on the Epfenbach . It existed for several centuries and was located at the road triangle towards Eschelbronn, Meckesheim and Epfenbach on the Mühlkanal, a higher watercourse of the Epfenbach near its confluence with the Schwarzbach. According to a mill register from the Dilsberg district from the 16th century, it originally belonged to the Vogtsjunkern Johann Friedrich Herr zu Eltz and Hans Pleiker Landtschad. They bequeathed the mill to the first miller known by name, Michel Schütz. An inheritance letter shows that in 1711 Hans Georg Schuhmann was the new operator. In the 18th century, ownership passed to the Lords of Venningen , who, however, left the mill to the Schuhmann family for several generations. The inheritance was lifted in August 1852.
During the Second World War, the mill was used for the Wehrmacht . The operation was stopped in the years 1956/57 and the mill was bought on May 25, 1956 for 73,500 marks by the community of Eschelbronn from the Schuhmann family. In 1967/68 the community sold the mill on two parts of the property. In the course of time it was replaced by new buildings.
The Ziegler'sche Mühle was a saw and grinding mill that competed with the Schuhmannsmühle . It stood at the bridge on the Schwarzbach from 1668 and led several times to controversies due to contractual and legal disputes between the operators and the community and to recurring floods caused by its location. In the 18th century, a hemp grater and an oil mill were also in operation.
In 1985 the mill was demolished. Today there is a memorial place with a water wheel and an information board. Furthermore, the adjacent sawmill was operated, which was in the sixth generation of the Ziegler family in the 2000s.
The Maßholder brickworks existed in Friedhofstrasse from the 17th century and has become a traditional family business with a history of over 300 years. The time of foundation can no longer be precisely dated. The brickworks experienced a particular boom in the 1890s, caused by increasing construction activities, and supplied the surrounding region beyond the municipality.
The clay used for production was extracted from the clay pit a few hundred meters away near the so-called foxhole. With the beginning of the First World War , the production of adobe bricks ended. After the war, Jakob Maßholder took over the business from his father Adam Maßholder and switched it to the production of cinder blocks . The slag for this was obtained from Wiesloch . Tufa stones were produced until around 1927 . The company also owned a quarry, from which bricks were extracted for building houses. The brick factory was later given up due to reasons of age and the buildings were demolished in 1954.
The Philipp Ernst company existed from 1918 to 1970 and developed into one of the largest Eschelbronn companies. The founder Ernst initially worked in the Adam Kaiser joinery, the oldest joinery in Eschelbronn. After Kaiser had given up the carpentry workshop, Ernst took over his workshop in Neugasse in 1918 . In order to expand the business, he built a facility in the so-called “New City District” between school , garden , meadow and ring road . The Philipp Ernst oHG, whose chimney shaped the Eschelbronn townscape during its existence, only produced bedrooms. Only during the Second World War were ammunition boxes occasionally made. After the war, the factory grew into an important company in the region with over 200 jobs. In March 1970, operations ceased and the site was taken over by a company that passed it on again in 1972. In 1987 a regional construction company bought the area after it had been idle for a year and built residential buildings on it.
Gasthaus and brewery for the sun
The "Gasthaus zur Sonne" in Kandelstrasse on the Eschelbronn market square is probably the oldest inn in the community. It has guest rooms , operated a bowling alley and was used by several local clubs as a clubhouse. The inn was first mentioned by name with the award of new shield justice in 1856. It was run by Heinrich Ganshorn, who emigrated to America in 1874, and changed hands several times over the years, known as the "Sonnenwirt". The brewery was established in 1877. The butcher Friedrich Ernst and later Karl Schuhmann, who passed the restaurant on as a family business over three generations, are documented as other operators. The beer brand "Sun" was with the slogan "Trinkt Schuhmann's drops from malt u. Hops ”. After the brewery was closed and the third-generation Schuhmann couple retired, the business was again passed on to different operators.
Gasthaus and brewery for the German Emperor
The "Gasthaus zum Deutschen Kaiser", founded in the 19th century, is located on the market square in Schloßstraße. The restaurateur Konrad Dörzbach ran an inn in Eschelbronn as early as 1835. It was called "Gasthaus zum Adler" and was taken over in 1861 by Dörzbach's son-in-law Georg Michael Scholl and bought in 1870 by the clerk Christian Dinkel, who renamed it in 1871 to "Gasthaus zum Deutschen Kaiser". After the First World War, the hall and café were added to Neidensteiner Strasse. After the Second World War, the Dinkel family continued to run the inn until the retirement of the couple Eugen and Anni Dinkel, née Frick. It also had an in-house brewery, an event hall, a bowling alley and guest rooms. It then changed hands several times until a restaurateur from Yugoslavia took over the business.
Golden Plow Inn
The Gasthaus zum Pflug existed on Bahnhofstrasse for 64 years . It was opened by the operator Christoph Stier in 1909 and changed tenants several times. Later, a butcher from the neighboring community of Reichartshausen took over the business. The butcher's owner closed the inn in 1973 and only ran the butcher's business. After an adjacent building was demolished in the 21st century, the advertising for the former guest room was visible again, but was painted over some time later.
Gasthaus zum Löwen
The Gasthaus zum Löwen in Oberstraße was run by Georg Adam Butschbacher when it was first mentioned in 1856. There were seven guest rooms, a bowling alley, a garden restaurant and a stable for horses. Changes of tenants took place in 1909 and before and after the Second World War. In 1976 the house was bought and the guest rooms were modernized. In the early 1990s, the inn was taken over by a family from the Greek fishing village of Ammoudia .
In the 1920s there was a printing press operated by Adolf Hotop in the village. Other former gastronomic facilities were the Eschelbronner Hof, the Eiscafe Reichert, which opened in 1965, the Cafe Laule, the Café Picco and in the premises of the former Eiscafe Reichert from 1988 to 1992 the pizzeria Da Tina, which continued to be operated as Pizzeria Salento from 1994 to 2000.
With the Schlosswiesenschule, Eschelbronn has a joint primary and secondary school with a technical secondary school . The Haupt- und Werkrealschule is attended by students from Eschelbronn and Neidenstein . Since 1996 the school has been offering core-time care with two pedagogical specialists.
Development and former educational institutions
The first verifiable elementary school can be dated to the year 1717. An industrial school existed in the 18th century . Lessons later took place in the old town hall and then in its new building until the school building, built in 1911, was completed. Apprentices were taught on Sundays in Waibstadt until a trade school was set up in Eschelbronn on May 2, 1908, among other things at the initiative of the trade and crafts association. As the number of pupils increased, the Eschelbronn trade school was divided into three ascending classes from 1926 onwards, and in 1929 the training was initially limited to the construction and wood trades and later entirely to the joinery. After a decision by the district of Sinsheim after 1950, a schoolhouse was built for the carpenter's school. She was later moved to Sinsheim .
On June 20, 1962, an application for the extension and expansion of the primary and secondary school in the old school building was submitted to the local education authority and the need for additional rooms was confirmed on December 19 of the same year after an examination by the Sinsheim health department. After a visit on May 28, 1963, a commission from the High School Authority in Karlsruhe suggested a new building, which however was never realized. Instead, the school building of the former carpenter's school was set up as a secondary school for students from Eschelbronn and Neidenstein in 1966 .
Since the help of the members of the parents 'council decreased at school events, on January 30, 1984 the support association of the elementary school Eschelbronn and the neighborhood secondary school Neidenstein (later: support association of the Schloßwiesenschule Eschelbronn-Neidenstein) was founded as a link between the school administration and the parents' council. The association, originally with over 50 members, takes on the organization of school celebrations, while the school and teachers are responsible for the program. He also participates in the children's holiday program and the parades. The association finances private tuition with income from school events, grants grants for class trips and country school stays, and bears the cost of purchasing new teaching materials.
The building permit for the new elementary and secondary school with the Werkrealschule was granted in March 1987. Construction began in October of the same year under the design of the Loewer architects. The topping-out ceremony took place on August 12, 1988. In 1989 the Schlosswiesenschule was completed at a total cost of 8.5 million marks and opened in autumn as part of the community's 1200th anniversary celebration. The Schlosswiesenschule has been providing an all-day primary school with a cafeteria since 2015.
The kindergarten is supervised by a kindergarten director, four full-time group leaders and three part-time teachers.
Originally, on August 18, 1856, an evangelical “children's institution” was founded as a school for small children and was housed at Friedhofstrasse 14. The institution later moved to Bahnhofstrasse 4 and was then housed at Bahnhofstrasse 7, whereupon the area was later popularly known as the “Kinderschulberg”. After a fire she found new accommodation at Siedlerstrasse 5. A kindergarten was first built in 1893 on the corner of Neugasse and Siedlerstraße and was used until 1969. From 1900 it was administered by the toddler school association until its dissolution in 1948. Today's kindergarten “Die Holzwürmer” is located behind the rectory on Neidensteiner Straße . A renovation took place in 2013, the cost of which was estimated at around one million euros. During the work, three construction workers were killed in two accidents. The new rooms were occupied on March 17, 2014.
Eschelbronn has been connected to the Meckesheim – Neckarelz railway since 1862 . This was later integrated with a line in the network of the S-Bahn RheinNeckar , with which there are free connections to Heidelberg and Mannheim via the lines S5 and S51 .
The company PalatinaBus connects the community via the three bus routes 782, 795 and 796 with the bus network Sinsheim and the surrounding area. There are six bus stops for school, New Apostolic Church, post office, train station, Seerain and Industriestrasse.
In 1983, 1,062 vehicles were registered. The number of registered vehicles rose to 1985 until 2005 and fell again in the following years to 2009 with 1675 vehicles, whereby from 2008 only registered vehicles without temporary shutdowns or decommissioning are listed. In 2012, 1,862 vehicles were registered.
There are no built cycle paths within the settlement area. Only on Neidensteiner Straße is there a common sidewalk and bike path along the street from the Neugasse / In den Kirchwiesen intersection in the right direction of travel towards Neidenstein. Eschelbronn is connected to the neighboring municipality of Spechbach by a cycle path in addition to the district roads 4279 and 4180. Another cycle and pedestrian path to Epfenbach is planned. The Kraichgau-Stromberg Castle Tour runs through Eschelbronn , an approximately 52-kilometer regional cycle route that connects the town with the communities of Zuzenhausen and Neidenstein.
Pedestrian traffic and hiking trails
The Main-Stromberg-Weg, a 171.5-kilometer long- distance hiking trail that leads from Hesse to Baden-Württemberg, runs through Eschelbronn . It connects the community with the surrounding towns of Mönchzell and Daisbach.
In Eschelbronn there are three hiking car parks for a total of six hiking trails in the Neckartal-Odenwald nature park . The Kallenberg hiking car park is the starting point for the four-kilometer-long Hetzenloch-Weg, the Lohbrunnen hiking car park for the Bußloch-Weg (length: 2.9 kilometers) and the sports hall hiking car park for the Neurott-Weg (length: 3.3 kilometers), the Weisseberg -Weg (length: 3.8 kilometers), the Kuhloch-Weg (length: 4.8 kilometers) and the Schloss-Weg, which leads from Neidenstein Castle via Eschelbronn to Mönchzell and is the only one of the six hiking trails that is not a circular trail. (Length: 4.7 kilometers).
Drinking water in Eschelbronn is about 85 percent with a degree of hardness 21 with a spring discharge of ten to twelve liters per minute from the Hetzenloch spring and about 15 percent and a degree of hardness 8 from Lake Constance . The water from the Hetzenloch spring is pumped through a pumping station 500 meters down the valley through the municipality to the elevated reservoir in the White Mountain area. The mixed value of the water hardness is between 16 and 17.
The thirst handmade paper source was probably established in the 18th century, with three meters deep to the first local water supply and provided initially pine and larch wood pipes, from 1893 through iron pipes, the village well in the Bahnhofstrasse , in the Castle Street and in the Neugasse corner Siedlerstraße and the two wells with sandstone troughs in the Kandelstraße and on the market square in front of the "Gasthaus zur Sonne". Further wells, from which groundwater could be drawn, were in the Oberstraße, where there was later an advertising column, in the Schulstraße opposite the entrance of the old school and in the Friedhofstraße corner of Weißer Berg . The von Venningen family estate had its own sandstone well. There were various pump wells in the outskirts, for example at the station building at that time and until 1969 at the station keeper's house on Mühlweg (Wintgersberg).
As the Durstbüttenquelle increasingly dried up, the community concluded a contract with the operator of the Schuhmannsmühle in 1929 for the extraction of water from the Hetzenloch spring for a payment of 3000 Reichsmarks. Until the later purchase by the municipality, he had the right to use the spring taken in 1928. On June 15, 1930, the place was supplied with drinking water for the first time via 200-millimeter cast pipes from the Hetzenloch spring and until 1931 at a cost of around 143,139 Reichsmarks (main line: 99,317 RM, elevated tank and pumping station: 29,477 RM, spring intake: 8045 RM , other costs: 6300 RM) a modern water supply system was installed.
The water flows from the spring into a pumped water tank with one main and two emergency pumps, where it was first pumped into an elevated tank 300 meters away in the Gewann Vorderer Kallenberg. It was 80 meters higher than the market square, where the water pressure was 3.5 atmospheres. Excess water flowed through an overhead line into the Mühlkanal, a higher watercourse of the Epfenbach. From the elevated reservoir, the water was directed into the town via the Hetzenlochweg and Bahnhofstrasse through the Schwarzbach . The residents were obliged to connect to the grid by statutes . In 1954, the town was the first municipality in what was then the district of Sinsheim to install water meters . After E. coli bacteria were increasingly found in the mid-1960s, the water was treated with a chlorine dosing system.
With the expansion of the settlement area, the elevated reservoir on the Vorderen Kallenberg could no longer provide sufficient supply. According to a municipal council resolution in 1972, a new elevated tank with a capacity of 700 cubic meters was built in the Weißer Berg corridor from spring 1974 at a cost of 534,000 marks and from 1975 onwards it was put into operation via a feed line from the local network instead of the old tank.
In 1971, the municipality joined the Rheintal water supply association and acquired a water supply entitlement of nine liters and subscription rights of one liter per second. With the construction of a new pipeline, Eschelbronn was connected to the long-distance water supply in 1978 .
The wastewater that occurs in Eschelbronn is fed to the collective sewage treatment plant of the Meckesheimer Cent wastewater association between Meckesheim and the Mauer and there, after it has been clarified, is discharged into the Schwarzbach .
Under the then local lord Carl Philipp von Venningen , the Venningsche Canal, a sewer from the Schlosssee to the Schwarzbach, was dug in 1780 at a cost of 3548 guilders and 34 groschen. In 1896, 24 residents complained that the Ministry of the Interior of the Grand Duchy of Baden had not taken precautions against flooding , which was passed on to the municipality by the Sinsheim district office in a letter dated June 20 of the same year. As a result, the municipal council decided in 1903 to build the sewer system in Bahnhofstrasse up to house number 125, but this was rejected several times by the citizens' committee because of the expected costs of 1,300 marks. In the absence of a gradient and the lower location of the town center, standing rain and sewage caused sludge and odor formation as well as moisture damage to the buildings. In the mid-1920s, after approval by the Sinsheim Office on September 22, 1921, construction of a local drainage system in the Schwarzbach began. This time the financing plan was approved by the majority of the citizens' committee last year. The canal was gradually expanded with the later expansion of the settlement area.
On May 7, 1934, Baron von Venningen's rent office in Eichtersheim signed a contract with the community that allowed it to use the private sewer that led from the Schlosswiese to the station in the Schwarzbach and to share the maintenance costs in future. With the merger of the Lower Schwarzbachtal wastewater association, to which Eschelbronn belonged, and the Meckesheimer Cent wastewater association in 1966, the water association built a jointly used wastewater treatment plant near Meckesheim in 1979.
The basic supplier for Eschelbronn is Süwag Energie Bammental. The Energie- und Wasserwerke Rhein-Neckar AG also supplies the community with natural gas after a contract was signed on March 1, 1989 . There are two overhead lines in the community area, the masts of which are over 30 meters high and in some cases carry lines of the 380 kV voltage level.
The first power supply contract was signed on July 11, 1902 with the Bammental electricity company , which was supplied by Siemens-Schuckertwerke until 1920 and then by Rheinelektra . The contract initially ran for ten years and was extended to 30 years on May 1, 1912. The first five transformation stations with tiled roofs were at the Schuhmannsmühle in Gewann Hetzenloch, in Neugasse , in Friedhofstrasse on the Weisse Berg and at the beginning of Helmetweg (today's Industriestrasse ). After the Second World War, these were partially replaced by single-storey containers and more were built in the new building area Breites Helmet II, on the playgrounds Helmet and Durstbütten, in Gartenstraße , in the parking lot at the Schlosshalle and in Siedlerstraße .
On February 24, 2014, Eschelbronn and the neighboring municipality of Epfenbach concluded new joint electricity concession agreements with Süwag Energie for a further 20 years.
The waste disposal in Eschelbronn is taken over by the Sinsheim-based waste recycling company of the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis (AVR).
Between the 1920s and 1950s, rubbish and building rubble from private households and businesses were deposited for the first time at the eastern and western ends of the “Alter Bach”, part of the former Schwarzbachlauf on Meckesheimer Straße . On April 25, 1949, the municipal council decided to set up a monthly garbage disposal funded by the municipality, whereupon the rubbish was collected in a horse-drawn vehicle and transported to the "Old Stream", which served as a landfill until 1957/58. Subsequently, the former quarry in the old Zuzenhäuser Strasse in Gewann Pfaffengrund was used for garbage disposal until 1975/76 and was later covered and planted. From 1963, a truck was also used for garbage collection and in March 1964 the waste was pushed together and leveled for the first time with the help of an excavator. Building rubble and excavated earth were stored between 1963 and 1966 at the Bußloch district in the Ziegelhüttenwald and on the driveway to the Trippelbergwald above the Lohbrunnen.
With the increasing volume of waste, metal bins with a capacity of 50 liters were made available on loan in 1966 and a weekly dust-free waste collection was carried out by the Butz company from Haßmersheim . After a municipal council resolution of June 26, 1966, the municipality raised garbage fees. The costs for loaned vessels were 1.60 marks per ton and 1.40 marks for each additional one, as well as 1.30 marks and for each additional 1.40 marks for self-procured vessels. From September 1, 1970, Altvater & Co. from Ellerstadt was commissioned with the removal, and from September 1, 1974, Wilhelm Bormann GmbH & Co. KG from Rülzheim . In 1975, with the Land Waste Act, responsibility for waste disposal fell to the districts. However, the transport of waste was still organized by the municipality with an agreement under the law.
From January 1, 1978, the garbage was transported to the district garbage dump on the B 292 between Daisbach and Sinsheim. 1982–1984 a place in the Dickmannshäldewald served as an area for excavation. From the 1970s to 1986, collecting waste paper was the responsibility of the local youth fire brigade. The first waste glass container stood in the parking lot of the palace hall from 1982. On April 1, 1987, the municipal council decided to separate waste disposal. The garbage was burned on the Friesenheimer Insel in Mannheim from 1992 , as the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis does not have its own garbage incineration plant.
The volunteer fire brigade consists of around 60 helpers. The fleet consists of a fire fighting vehicle 16 ( radio call name : Florian Eschelbronn 44), a fire fighting vehicle 16 with a portable pump (Florian Eschelbronn 45), a fire fighting vehicle 16/12 (Florian Eschelbronn 44/1), a rescue vehicle 1 (Florian Eschelbronn 51) and a crew transport vehicle (Florian Eschelbronn 19).
The fire brigade was founded in 1932 with 35 members and took over the equipment of the fire police established in 1860 . With a motorized syringe obtained in 1942, it was deployed several times in the Second World War after bombing in Mannheim . After the war it was re-founded on August 23, 1949 with 38 active members and grew to 65 members by 1950. Initially, the ground floor of a community center at Bahnhofstrasse 3 served as a fire station. The later fire station , in which the standby evenings of the German Red Cross are held, was inaugurated in 1963 as the largest fire station in the district of Sinsheim. In 1962 the fire brigade received a fire fighting vehicle 16 with a portable pump and a tank fire engine 8/18 from the Karlsruhe regional council from the civil protection department , and on March 19, 1975 or 1976 for 180,000 marks for the first time a community fire fighting vehicle 16 . A youth fire brigade was founded in 1973 and a radio station was set up in 1980 .
On the list of the Federal Network Agency of November 17, 2009 of the "broadband undersupplied communities and sub-communities in Baden-Württemberg", Eschelbronn is listed with priority level 1, according to which a speed of 1 Mbit / s was available for 90.35 percent of the 1,062 households should.
The communities of Eschelbronn, Epfenbach, Lobbach and Spechbach had initiated an inter-municipal project to expand broadband . The concept for this was created by the broadband consultancy Baden-Württemberg. It should be implemented in two steps: An FTTC relocation, presumably along the S-Bahn route, should show initial progress by the end of 2015 as part of a district-wide backbone network and enable bandwidths of 16 to 50 Mbit / s. According to estimates, the municipality of Eschelbronn would have 435,000. Euros. In a second and long-term step, the FTTB relocation was planned. For this purpose, empty pipes should be laid for pending road and sidewalk renovations. However, the plans could not be implemented.
Eschelbronn is a member of the Rhine-Neckar high-speed network. The association sees itself as a “service provider for the fiber optic expansion of its 55 members” and is responsible for “advice, planning, funding, construction and leasing of the network”.
In spring 2018, the BBV Rhein-Neckar signed preliminary contracts with private and business customers from Eschelbronn. 520 contracts concluded by March 30, 2018 were named as a prerequisite for starting an estimated twelve-month fiber-optic expansion at costs of around three million euros. The BBV Rhein-Neckar, represented on the marketplace with an information vehicle, extended the deadline after the Easter holidays, as the necessary contracts had not been concluded by then.
Sons and daughters of the church
- Philipp Dinkel (1894–1987), Nazi functionary
Persons related to Eschelbronn
- Marliese Echner-Klingmann (born 1937), dialect poet and playwright
- Roland Ernst (born 1936), entrepreneur
- Josua Harrsch (1669–1719), Evangelical Lutheran pastor
- Carl Philipp von Venningen (1728–1797), district president and senior magistrate in the service of the Electorate of the Palatinate
- Georg Ziegler (1859–1923), Protestant missionary in China
The Heimatblatt Howwl ( Electoral Palatinate for planer ) has been published twice a year since 1982 . It is published by the Citizens' Initiative for Culture and Heritage Care and deals primarily with historical events and contemporary witness reports. The issue arose from the dispute between some residents over the demolition of the Eschelbronn train station building.
The weekly Elsenztal gazette, published by the communities of Eschelbronn, Lobbach , Spechbach , Mauer , Mönchzell and Meckesheim , has been providing information about local announcements, events and dates since 1974 . The Sinsheim local edition of the Rhein-Neckar-Zeitung reports on current events in Eschelbronn .
The regional rap duo Illiterat , founded in 1998, dedicated a song to Eschelbronn on his album 74 , released on June 30, 2013 .
In 2000, a 24-page, color-illustrated children's book entitled Eschelbronner Schreinermärchen was published by Silvia Schneider with local fairy tales. The pictures are from Kim McCollar-Schiller.
In 1960 the music association made the film A Village and its Inhabitants and digitized it in 2012. The new edition will be marketed by the Heimat- und Verkehrsverein and the proceeds will be used to renovate the break hall of the old school building .
In 1998, on the occasion of the joiner's market, the program Treffpunkt des SWR television broadcast an issue entitled Schreinermarkt in Eschelbronn , which reports on the event and deals with the history of the community as a carpenter's village.
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- Men's choir "Lyra" e. V. 1886 Eschelbronn. In: 1200 Years Eschelbronn, 789–1989. P. 366.
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