|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Upper Palatinate|
|Height :||504 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||103.93 km 2|
|Residents:||8712 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||84 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||95643|
|Area code :||09631|
|License plate :||TIR, KEM|
|Community key :||09 3 77 154|
|LOCODE :||DE TIR|
|City structure:||29 districts|
City administration address :
|Mayor :||Franz Stahl ( CSU )|
|Location of the city of Tirschenreuth in the Tirschenreuth district|
Tirschenreuth (Bavarian: Dirschnrad ) is a district town in the district of the same name in the Bavarian administrative district of Upper Palatinate and the administrative seat of the district. It is only a few kilometers from the Bavarian-Czech border. The name Tirschenreuth is derived from Turso, the alleged founder of the city. The ending -reuth identifies it as one of the places that were created on a cleared forest area.
The city was mentioned for the first time in 1134 and was located in the northern part of the Gau . It was the capital of the historic Stiftland . Tirschenreuth served the Waldsassen monastery for a long time as a place of pond management , which the Tirschenreuth pond pan with its ponds around the city is evidence of. Later, the place was known as a cloth-making town before the porcelain industry became the most important branch of industry at the end of the 19th century. With around 8,900 inhabitants, the city is one of the smallest district towns in Bavaria and has the status of a medium-sized center. In 2013 the city hosted the Bavarian State Garden Show .
Tirschenreuth is about 15 km from the German border with the Czech Republic , near one of the possible geographical centers of Europe and is the northernmost district town of the Upper Palatinate . The city is the capital of the Stiftland , the northernmost tip of Old Bavaria . The next larger cities are Weiden in der Oberpfalz (35 kilometers away), Marktredwitz (30 kilometers away) and Cheb (German: Eger), which is also around 30 kilometers away . Tirschenreuth is also about 120 km north of Regensburg , 70 km east of Bayreuth and 100 km west of Plzeň (German: Pilsen).
Tirschenreuth is located in the natural area Upper Palatine-Bavarian Forest to the east of the district Tirschenreuth between the Fichtelgebirge in the north and the Upper Palatinate Forest in the south. The Waldnaab rises on the German-Czech border between Bärnau and Flossenbürg at the 901 meter high Entenbühl , the longest source river of the Naab with a length of 80 kilometers . To the south of the old town, the Waldnaab flows through the urban area from east to west, before crossing the 180-hectare nature reserve Waldnaab Valley between Falkenberg and Windischeschenbach , where the flowing water has cut into the granite plateau for several centuries . The Waldnaab joins the Haidenaab south of Weiden in the Upper Palatinate to form the Naab.
The core city lies at an altitude of 491 to 503 meters. In the northwest of the city numerous ponds are used for pond management ; the area is also known as the Stiftländer Teichpfanne or the “Land of 1000 Ponds”. In the west of the urban area is the Waldnaabaue, a swamp-like and undeveloped area that is regularly flooded in spring due to the snowmelt.
The entire urban area of Tirschenreuth is part of the northeast Bavarian and west Bohemian basement and lies on a granite plateau that was formed around 320 million years ago when the two continents Laurasia and Gondwana collided and a mountain range began to form. During this ore formation, the rocks were overlaid by large mountain masses and metamorphic due to high pressure and enormous temperatures . Some of the rocks were melted and supplied the glowing molten rock from which today's granites were formed. The rocks created by these processes are on the surface due to weathering . In addition to the predominant rock granite, gneiss , mica schist and phyllite can also be found. The weathering of wool sacks has resulted in several bizarre granite formations around Tirschenreuth, such as the Teufelsküche or Wolfenstein .
The decomposition of feldspar-rich rocks resulted in clays and kaolin in the area around Tirschenreuth . Significant deposits of the raw material kaolin can be found near Schönhaid and Schmelitz, in the vicinity of which the raw material is still extracted. A large deposit was also discovered north of Tirschenreuth in 2011, which, at around 95 million tons, contains almost three times more kaolin than Monte Kaolino near Hirschau .
Nearby, just a few meters behind the Bavarian-Czech border near Neualbenreuth , is the Železná hůrka (German: Eisenbühl), the last eruption of which was more than 10,000 years ago. According to the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Raw Materials, the Tirschenreuth district is one of two areas in Germany that are volcanically endangered, along with the Vulkaneifel . Due to the proximity to the Egergraben , which is one of the most seismically active regions in Central Europe, occasional slight earthquakes can be felt in the region around the Egerland , the Sechsämterland and the Stiftland and thus also in Tirschenreuth.
Tirschenreuth has continental weather influences with slightly increased rainfall. The climate is characterized by warm to hot summers and cold winters. The mean annual temperature in Tirschenreuth is below seven degrees Celsius, the amount of precipitation in the range between 700 and 800 millimeters per year.
- Climate zone D : snowy climate
- Climate type f : sufficient precipitation every month
- Climate subtype b : warm summers
The closest weather station of the German Weather Service (DWD) is in the Tirschenreuth district of Lodermühl.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for pastures (1996-2012)
Land use and urban structure
|Buildings and open spaces||421|
|Plant areas and mining land||41|
|Streets, paths and squares||314|
The largest part (around 46 percent) of the municipal area is covered with forest . This puts Tirschenreuth well above the Bavarian average of around 35 percent, but only slightly above the Upper Palatinate average of 40.2 percent.
Around 41.2 percent of the city's total area is used as agricultural land, which is below the Bavaria-wide average of 49.3 percent and the district average of 43.4 percent.
The proportion of water in Tirschenreuth is particularly pronounced. At 5.2 percent, it exceeds the Upper Palatinate average of 1.9 percent, which in turn is only slightly below the average of 2.0 percent in a Bavarian comparison. The high proportion is due to the many ponds in the municipality, several hundred of which are located north and east of the city center.
The urban area of Tirschenreuth consists of the actual core town and 28 districts, which were incorporated into the urban area through several regional reforms:
Seven cities and municipalities border the urban area, all of which are located in the Tirschenreuth district. To the north is the village Leonberg , eastern neighbor is the market Neualbenreuth , the city Bärnau adjacent to the southeast. The neighboring communities in the south and south-west are Plößberg and Falkenberg , in the west and north-west the town of Mitterteich borders. With 66.54 km² and a population density of 137 inhabitants per square kilometer, the urban area is the largest in terms of area and, after Mitterteich, which has a population density of 174 inhabitants per km², the second most densely populated area in the district.
First settlement and city foundation
It can be assumed that the first settlers in the Tirschenreuth area were Slavs who moved through the Eger and Wondrebtal valleys and settled there in the 7th or 8th century. The first traces of human activities can only be found between 938 and 1057, when the Babenberg margraves had gained control of Bavaria. At this time, the German settlement of the Egerland began from Tirschenreuth . Tirschenreuth was mentioned for the first time in a parchment document with the seal of the Regensburg bishop Heinrich I von Wolfratshausen in 1134.
The place was owned by the Counts of Leiningen in 1138 , who probably bought it from King Konrad III of Hohenstaufen . as a fief. After that it was owned by the Lords of Hartenberg and later the Counts of Ortenburg . At the end of the 12th century the area was already very inhabited and in order to create a varied food supply, the upper town pond for fish farming was created on an area of 150 days .
In 1217 the Waldsassen Monastery exchanged its Seebarn estate near Rötz , whose monitoring and management was difficult due to the great distance, for the Tirschenreuth estate with other small towns nearby. During the reign of the monastery from 1217 to 1219, at the instigation of Abbot Hermann, the lower town pond was created by blocking off the Waldnaab drain. As a result, Tirschenreuth was on an island that was surrounded by two large ponds. By 1260, the village of Tirschenreuth had developed so far that it was the seat of a judge. At the turn of the 13th to 14th century, a parish church was built on the place where the parish church of the Assumption now stands. At the instigation of the abbot Udalrich, Rudolf von Habsburg granted the town the right to hold a weekly market in 1306, making Tirschenreuth a market and the residents a bourgeois community.
Favored by the location of the place at the crossroads of the trade routes from Regensburg and Nuremberg to Eger , the trade developed. Around 1330, the Waldsassen abbot Johann IV had a castle-like castle built in Tirschenreuth that no longer exists. On the east side, the city was fortified by a city wall with semicircular towers and two city gates; the Klettnersturm was built at the southern end of the wall. Under the abbot Johann V , Tirschenreuth was granted town charter in 1364 , whereby the mayor and council were allowed to regulate the communal relations themselves, but were nevertheless under the authority of the monastery.
Reformation and Thirty Years War
In a major fire in 1613 in the lowest corner house of the market square, almost half of all houses there were destroyed. Up to Quergasse, 24 residential buildings and 22 ancillary buildings were affected within a few hours.
After the outbreak of war in 1618, Tirschenreuth often served as quarters for troops from various armies. On April 16, 1621, the Scottish Colonel Gray came to Tirschenreuth with several hundred men and threatened the residents until they gave him and his men shelter. The intruders demanded food and drink as well as fodder for their cattle from the Tirschenreuthern without paying for it. A little later, German troops also took up quarters in the city in order to meet an enemy incursion from Bohemia. After the victorious advance of the Bavarian Duke Maximilian I, Tirschenreuth also had to submit to his rule. In the following years, the Duke wanted to convert the Calvinist-reformed Upper Palatinate back to the Catholic faith.
After Tirschenreuth came into the possession of Maximilian I of Bavaria in February 1623, Catholicism was also reintroduced. From him, Tirschenreuth received back the city privileges in 1628, which had been withdrawn because of the murder of the Palatinate official Valentin Winsheim . In 1633 there was another big fire in which more than 60 buildings were destroyed.
In March 1648 the Swedish general Hans Christoph von Königsmarck came with his troops to Tirschenreuth after he had taken the Bohemian city of Tachau . He had the city occupied and asked it to surrender, which was rejected by the citizens. After attacking the place twice without success, he withdrew to march back to the city on April 6, 1648 with twelve squadrons and heavy military equipment as well as captured farmers. This time he refrained from an attack, but had the farmers dig up the lower town pond, which Tirschenreuth served for defense. The city was now forced to give up and voluntarily opened the city gates, which was the third time in this war in Swedish hands. The troops looted the city completely; Tirschenreuth had become a poor town at the end of the Thirty Years' War.
Renewed rule of the monastery and the 19th century
After the death of the Bavarian Elector Maximilian I on September 27, 1651, his son Ferdinand Maria ascended the Bavarian throne. In order to reaffirm the city's freedoms and privileges, which happened in 1666, the city of Tirschenreuth submitted to his rule. At the request of his late father and also because of the urging of the curia and the lack of clergy and teachers, the Upper Palatinate monasteries, including the Waldsassen monastery, were rebuilt in the course of the re-Catholicisation . Tirschenreuth got back almost all of his previous property, but was subject to the sovereignty of the Palatinate government.
In 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession, the Bavarian Elector Maximilian II. Emanuel , who was allied with France, was defeated by the imperial troops . As early as the beginning of 1703 Austrian troops advanced into what is now northern Bavaria and by the end of the year the entire Upper Palatinate was occupied by Austrian troops. From 1703 to 1714, Tirschenreuth repeatedly served the Austrian soldiers as quarters. When the Upper Palatinate was handed over to Johann Wilhelm von der Pfalz on July 23, 1708 , Tirschenreuth received a new sovereign prince, who had been completely unknown to the population until then.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Bavaria was shaped by secularization , with which the Waldsassen monastery was also dissolved, its property expropriated and transferred to the state. The area that came to Bavaria included the town of Tirschenreuth and six other market communities as well as more than 170 villages, hamlets and wastelands. The city now belonged again to the Electorate of Bavaria , which became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1806 , and was no longer subject to spiritual rule.
On July 30, 1814, the great fire of Tirschenreuth occurred , in which the city burned down almost completely within a few hours. Only the rectory and three neighboring small houses survived the fire almost unscathed. The catastrophic fire was followed by rising prices and hunger over the next few years. During the Biedermeier period and in the years that followed, Tirschenreuth was spared conflicts or burdens of war, the population lived in simple circumstances, was content and celebrated parties.
The industrialization in Tirschenreuth began in the 1830s with the discovery of kaolin near Wondreb . This prompted the businessman Heinrich Eichhorn to negotiate with the city and the regional court about the establishment of a porcelain factory from 1832. After lengthy negotiations and popular resistance to the project, approval was granted in 1838. A new factory building was built on the new road to Mitterteich , and a further kiln was added in 1847. The factory was taken over by Lorenz Hutschenreuther AG in 1927 .
The Stiftland was connected to the railway network in 1864 and 1865 with the opening of the railway line from Wiesau via Mitterteich to Eger. Tirschenreuth was bypassed with an arch via Wiesau. The joint stock company of the Bavarian Eastern Railways did not connect Tirschenreuth to the railway network until 1872, when a local railway branched off from Wiesau to Tirschenreuth , which was extended to Bärnau in 1903 .
National Socialism and World War II
The effects of the global economic crisis were also felt in Tirschenreuth . Almost ten percent of the population was dependent on welfare, for which the city had to spend almost 100,000 Reichsmarks, i.e. around a fifth of the entire city budget. To counteract the high expenditure, taxes had to be massively increased at the end of 1930; in addition, new taxes were introduced. The city council also banned the naturalization of foreigners, mainly job seekers from neighboring Bohemia. To prevent a famine, potatoes and fuel were distributed free of charge through the city; most urban projects, such as the construction of houses or a prison, had to be stopped.
At the end of the 1920s, the political mood in Tirschenreuth also radicalized. The National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) was able to almost quintuple its votes from 1928 to 1932, but the Bavarian People's Party (BVP) remained the strongest political force. After the great success of the NSDAP in the Reichstag election in 1933 , the National Socialists soon found their way into Tirschenreuth. After the resignation of the city council members of the SPD and BVP at the beginning of July 1933, this now consisted entirely of National Socialists, with the exception of the first mayor, against whom impeachment proceedings were initiated soon after, which initially failed. Mayor Heinrich Mayer did not leave office for health reasons until 1938, which was then taken over by the NSDAP. During the November pogroms in 1938 , the shops and apartments of Jewish businessmen in Tirschenreuth were also devastated. When the war began in March 1939, the situation in Tirschenreuth also deteriorated. All motor vehicles that were not needed for municipal supplies and horses had to be handed in. Food was rationed and food stamps introduced. It is estimated that around 250 Tirschenreuthers who were drafted into the Wehrmacht were killed in the war.
Tirschenreuth was spared from war damage during World War II . In December 1944 a few aerial bombs exploded near Rothenbürg, but they did no damage. Towards the end of the war more and more war refugees arrived in Tirschenreuth, who were accommodated and cared for in municipal facilities and hospitals . At the end of 1944, the population of Tirschenreuth saw concentration camp inmates for the first time. When a train with prisoners derailed near Bayreuth who were to be brought to the nearby Flossenbürg concentration camp , the SA drove them to Tirschenreuth and from there to Flossenbürg.
In April 1945 the Allies advanced into Stiftland and first attacked the Konnersreuth market , where units of the Wehrmacht and the SS were still staying. On the evening of April 20, 1945, it was decided in Tirschenreuth not to offer any resistance to the advancing American troops. As a result, the urban Volkssturm was disbanded, the anti-tank barriers were removed and all weapons in the city were collected. Shortly before the arrival of the American troops on April 21, Tirschenreuth was designated as a hospital town by the Wehrmacht senior officer in Bayreuth without the knowledge of the Wehrmacht High Command, and it was signaled that no weapons were stored in the city. On April 21, 1945, shortly after 4:30 p.m., the city was occupied by American troops without fighting.
Post-war and present
Rail traffic in Tirschenreuth reached its peak in the middle of the twentieth century. Since then, the load on the route between Wiesau and Bärnau has steadily decreased. On February 28, 1975, passenger traffic between Tirschenreuth and Bärnau was stopped; the section between Wiesau and Tirschenreuth was closed on September 22, 1989 with the last trip of a VT 98 . Since then Tirschenreuth has been one of the few Bavarian district towns without a rail connection. The tracks on the former railway line have been completely dismantled in recent years between Wiesau and Bärnau and replaced by a cycle path .
In the 1990s, Tirschenreuth had to cope with a major economic setback. In 1994 Lorenz Hutschenreuther AG gave up the porcelain factory on Bahnhofstrasse in Tirschenreuth; the final closure of the plant followed in the following year. After more than 150 years of porcelain production, which made the city famous, the traditional craft in Tirschenreuth ended. After a fire broke out in the factory building a few years after it was closed, it was demolished and replaced with a shopping mall.
In 2004 Tirschenreuth was included in the funding program Stadtumbau West and has since carried out several urban renovation projects. The largest project so far was the redesign of the city center with the 10,000 square meter market square. Between 2007 and 2009, the city invested around 4.5 million euros in redesigning the square. Since the redesign was controversial among the population, it was only finally decided by a referendum.
After Tirschenreuth had already applied for the 2007 State Garden Show and failed, the city was awarded the contract for the 2013 State Garden Show , which took place from May to August 2013. The focus of the garden show was the partially rebuilt, around six hectare city pond. Since then - after more than 200 years - the Fischhof Bridge has stood in the water again and no longer crosses a meadow as it did before. Green areas have been created around the pond; The buildings of the former Schels brewery were demolished for the construction of a hotel and a restaurant.
Meaning of the place name
The ending -reuth identifies Tirschenreuth as a place that was created by clearing forests. Tirschen probably originated from the name of Turso, who is considered to be the founder of the city (cf. locator ), through sound shifts .
Source: Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing
Tirschenreuth has around 8,900 inhabitants, but was still a manageable city around 1900 with around half the population. A major boost in population development occurred during and after the end of the Second World War, when many refugees were taken in from the former areas of the German Empire, especially the Sudetenland . While the number of inhabitants in Tirschenreuth before the war (1936) was 5,502, it rose to 8,264 after the end of the war (1945), including more than 2,300 refugees, evacuees and foreigners. The incorporation of numerous smaller towns in the vicinity of the city (see above) brought a further increase in the 1970s. The 2011 census showed a population of 9,154 people for Tirschenreuth on May 9, 2011 and thus corrected the update of the Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing, which assumed a population of 9072 inhabitants as of December 31, 2011, retrospectively upwards.
Between 1988 and 2018 the population decreased from 9,698 to 8,707 by 991 or 10.2%.
For Tirschenreuth, a population decline of 10.6 percent is predicted from 2006 to 2025. Forecast of the absolute population development from 2006 to 2025 for Tirschenreuth (main residences):
The actual population loss is not as high as predicted so far.
The vast majority of the Tirschenreuth population is Roman Catholic with 82.5 percent. The Catholic community is named after the Assumption of Mary and has several churches in the city and the districts. Tirschenreuth is the seat of the Tirschenreuth deanery , which together with the Kemnath-Wunsiedel deanery forms a region within the diocese of Regensburg . The second largest religious community is the Evangelical Lutheran Church , to which 8.3 percent of the population belong and whose only place of worship is the Church of the Redeemer. The Protestant parish of Tirschenreuth belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran Dean's Office in Weiden in the Upper Palatinate . A total of 9.1 percent belong to other religious communities or did not provide any information on religious affiliation.
The city council consists of 20 members and is elected every six years in the course of local elections together with the mayor. In the last election on March 15, 2020, 7,212 people were eligible to vote, 4,775 of whom exercised their right to vote. The turnout was 66.2 percent.
|City council of Tirschenreuth: voter share and seats since 2002|
|Sources: Radio Ramasuri ( radio ramasuri.de ) and the Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing .|
Since the election in 2002, the CSU member Franz Stahl has been the first mayor of the city of Tirschenreuth, he received 53.99 percent of the vote in the runoff election. In the 2008 election he was re-elected with 66.92 percent, and in the 2014 election with 86.6 percent of all votes.
His predecessor was Franz Fink from the SPD .
In the Bavarian municipal elections on March 15, 2020 , Franz Stahl received 92 percent of all votes. There was no rival candidate.
badges and flags
The blazon of the Tirschenreuth coat of arms reads: “Divided by blue and silver; above a golden crenellated wall with a gate and a golden tower on each side, the standing golden figure of an abbot with miter, crook and book; down on the green ground between two green deciduous trees a man dressed in green who is clearing with a hoe. "
The oldest known seal Tirschenreuths dates back to 1364. The city received this year by Abbot John V of the monastery Waldsassen the town charter and with this also a city seal. In this, then as now, the rule of the monastery over Tirschenreuth is expressed. The seal showed a crenellated wall with an open gate and two square towers with pointed helmets. Above the gate stands an abbot with a miter , crook and book. In the lower part you can see the local founder Turso with the hoe who cleared the area on which Tirschenreuth was built. As an inscription on the edge is the Latin saying “Sigillium civium in Tursenreut”. This seal is found on several documents from the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. In addition, it can be seen from documents and documents from the 16th century that Tirschenreuth also used a small seal. It was only about half the size of the big city seal, bore the inscription "Secretum civium Tursenreut" and only showed a man in peasant clothes. Durs means something like demon or giant in Old High German, so it is rather questionable whether there was a city founder with this name.
Today's coat of arms contains the same symbols as the seal from 1364, only minor changes were made in the representation. The coat of arms has been attested since the great city seal awarded by Abbot Johannes V in 1364 and was newly confirmed in 1966 by the city council and the State Ministry of the Interior.
The city's flag shows two stripes in yellow and green, some with the city's coat of arms.
|The Tirschenreuth city partnerships|
|Planá u Mariánských Lázní||Czech Republic||2008|
|Run on the Pegnitz||Germany||2011|
The first of the Tirschenreuth city partnerships was agreed on November 17, 2001 with the French city of La Ville-du-Bois in the Essonne department , a few kilometers south of the French capital Paris , by the then mayor Franz Fink and the mayor of La Ville-du-Bois . The partnership association AMITIÉ (German: friendship) was founded to establish and deepen the relationships between the two cities and organize regular exchange programs.
A special partnership was signed in November 2004 in Karlovy Vary in the Czech Republic by eight cities and municipalities in Europe. The kaolin city partnership connects places that have a special relationship with the raw material kaolin . Members are the cities of Hirschau , Königswartha , Mügeln , Schnaittenbach , the former municipality of Sornzig-Ablaß and Tirschenreuth in Germany, Nová Role in the Czech Republic and Nowogrodziec in Poland .
Another twin town is Planá u Mariánských Lázní in the Czech Republic, only about 30 kilometers away . The partnership certificate was signed on June 5th in Tirschenreuth and on June 6th, 2008 in Planá. From Tirschenreuth there are regular trips to the twin town. In June there is an annual pilgrimage to the pilgrimage church of St. Anna in Planá, an important pilgrimage site in the West Bohemian region.
The latest partnership agreement is with the Middle Franconian town of Lauf an der Pegnitz . The relationship between Lauf an der Pegnitz and Tirschenreuth began as early as the 1970s when the two cities competed against each other in a quiz show on Bavarian Radio . From this developed a decades-long friendship between cities, which was deepened on June 3, 2011 through a city partnership.
The city of Tirschenreuth took on a special sponsorship on November 12, 1953 with the home district Plan - Weseritz . This represents the former residents of the former political district Plan-Weseritz in Czechoslovakia . In addition to the Egerländer Musikantenbrunnen, which the Heimatverein Plan-Weseritz donated to the sponsored town of Tirschenreuth in 1984, one of the five subject areas in the Museum Quarter was also dedicated to the Heimatkreis .
Culture and sights
Cinema and theater
The Cineplanet multiplex cinema is located in the east industrial park . It has seven cinema halls with 46 m² screens and can accommodate a total of 736 people. The small Luitpold Theater is centrally located in the city center. Until a few years ago there was a cinema in the building. Most recently it was used as a venue for the Tirschenreuth Modern Theater and for cabaret events. At the moment, however, no games are possible there, as extensive renovation and conversion measures have to be carried out. The theater events of the modern theater and the city of Tirschenreuth take place in the culture and event center Kettelerhaus Tirschenreuth.
The Tirschenreuth Museum Quarter (MQ) consists of the Oberpfälzer Fischereimuseum, the tourist information center, the house on the pond, the reconstructed monastery garden and the renovated old monastery. An underground passage connects the old monastery and the fishing museum. One of the six subject areas presented in the former monastery is porcelain , for which Tirschenreuth was known since 1938; the museum is located on the Bavarian Porcelain Route . Other areas include the town's history and traditional pond management in the Stiftländer Teichpfanne as well as the home district of Plan-Weseritz. In addition to a nativity scene exhibition, the museum also provides information about the city's most famous personality, the Bavarian language and dialect researcher Johann Andreas Schmeller .
The Upper Palatinate Fishing Museum, which opened in 1982, is located on Regensburger Strasse at the point where Tirschenreuth Castle stood until the 19th century. Subject areas include river fishing, pond management and angling. The history of fishing in the Tirschenreuth area from the 11th century to the present day is also documented. In the museum, four large aquariums show native fish such as carp and trout in their natural environment.
Churches and chapels
The parish church of the Assumption of Mary at the northern end of the market square is the largest Catholic church in the city. It probably dates from the second half of the 13th century and is built in the Gothic style. A special feature is the winged altar from the late Gothic period , the only one of its kind in the Upper Palatinate. The sacred building was destroyed several times by fires or wars, including the two city fires in 1475 and 1814. At the beginning of the 18th century, a grace chapel with the miraculous image of Our Lady of Sorrows was added to the south next to the 46 meter high church tower . Today only the church choir is Gothic, the rest of the building is in Baroque style .
The oldest church in Tirschenreuth is the Alte Sankt-Peter-Kirche , the predecessor of which was probably built in the 11th century. It was mentioned in a document as early as 1130 and it was Tirschenreuth's parish church until the beginning of the 14th century . In the late Middle Ages and in the 18th century it was rebuilt and expanded several times.
Built in 1963 by the Steyler missionaries , the New Sankt-Peter-Kirche is the youngest church in Tirschenreuth. It is only a few meters away from the Old Saint Peter Church and bears the patronage of the Trinity . The plan of the church is a hexagon, the symbol of the omnipotence of God. Although it is only around 50 years old, the New Saint Peter Church is one of the listed buildings.
The small Fatima church on Luitpoldplatz was built in the middle of the 19th century as the monastery church of Sankt Kunigund for the neighboring monastery of the poor school sisters of Our Lady . The church building in neo-Gothic style was used by the school sisters until the monastery was closed in 1979. It was then renovated and given its current name. A carillon sounds four times a day on the north side of the church.
The cemetery church St. Johannis , built between 1594 and 1596, is located in the city cemetery. The church, which had become dilapidated over the centuries, was rebuilt in 1783 by the Tirschenreuth cloth maker Johann Georg Neber. In the 1970s it was again in poor condition and was renovated. The dance of death, created in 1939 and consisting of 29 different panels, has been located on the back since 2006 .
The Erlöserkirche , the only Protestant church in the city, is located on Äußere Regensburger Strasse . In 1904, the Protestant community acquired the gymnasium restaurant with the adjoining dance hall in order to set up a church there. Until the 1960s, the church only had a small turret on the roof; a church tower was added north of the building in 1964.
There are seven chapels in the urban area . The Fischhof Chapel is a rococo chapel in the shape of a round tower, it was added to the Fischhof around 1715. The coat of arms of the Waldsassen abbot Wigand Deltsch is on a rococo grille . The chapel has not been used since the abolition of the monastery in 1803. The Murschrottkapelle is a small pilgrimage chapel near the cemetery, which was built over the Murschrott spring at the beginning of the 20th century. The pilgrimage to this chapel started in 1692. Other chapels are the Vorholzkapelle, the Sägmühlkapelle, the Schirmerkapelle and the Mieskapelle.
The Fischhof east of the old town now houses the district court of Tirschenreuth. Built by the abbot of the Waldsassen monastery in 1219, the building complex stood in the middle of the upper city pond for centuries. The Fischhof served the monastery as a tithe farm, where the grain that the monastery received from the farmers was stored. The building, which was originally connected to the country by a wooden bridge, also served as the ducal residence of the electors and as the summer residence of the abbots. During the Thirty Years' War the Grangia Vischhove was burned down by the Swedes and rebuilt in its current form in 1689. The doors from the Baroque period are still there, as are the rooms, and have been renovated. The baroque chapel of Saints Stanislaus and Aloysius is located on the upper floor.
The Tirschenreuth town hall was built in the Renaissance style from 1582 to 1583 . For a long time it was located in the middle of the upper market square and was moved to the row of houses on the upper market square to facilitate traffic. During the town fire in 1814, only the front of the building with the Renaissance bay was left. The bay window is adorned with the coat of arms of the Electoral Palatinate and the Waldsassen monastery coat of arms; on the two narrow sides there are four more coats of arms, which are probably the civil coats of arms of the mayor at the time from 1583.
In the south of the old town stands the Klettnersturm, the last remaining and visible remnant of the former city fortifications . The tower at the southern end of the city wall , built in 1330 by Abbot Johann IV of the Waldsassen monastery, served the city as a defense tower . By order of the city council, the Klettnersturm was raised by two floors in 1529 with the cooperation of the citizens and has since been 33 meters high. The fortified tower was named after a family named Klettner, who moved into the tower room in 1615 and lived in the tower for a long time. The Klettnersturm has not been inhabited since 1972.
The rectory on the north side of the church square is one of the few buildings in Tirschenreuth that was spared the great fire of 1814. Built by Abbot Anselm from the Waldsassen Abbey between 1720 and 1722, the parsonage built on a slope is one of the last witnesses of the baroque development of the old town of Tirschenreuth before the town fire. In the 19th century, the building first housed the royal district court and then the royal district office.
The center of the city is the ten thousand square meter market square in Tirschenreuth . The 230 meter long square has been adorned by two rows of chestnut trees and a fountain on the lower and upper half of the square since the 1830s . Many markets and other urban events take place on the rectangular Maximilianplatz, the official name of the square. There are also numerous listed buildings, a monument to Johann Andreas Schmeller and the Trinity Column. Alongside the TEO shopping center, the market square is the largest retail location in the city with many shops and restaurants . Between 2007 and 2009, following a positive referendum, the square was redesigned.
There are also two historic stone bridges in the city of Tirschenreuth. The better known is the Fischhofbrücke , which leads to the Fischhof. It was built from 1748 to 1750 according to plans by the Waldsassen master builder Philipp Muttone and is modeled on the Stone Bridge in Regensburg. Since the small state horticultural show in 2013, the Fischhofbrücke has been crossing a pond again after being drained for 200 years. The other is the Johannisbrücke , which crosses the small Mühlbach. Like the Fischhof Bridge, it was built by the Waldsassen Monastery.
The Fronfeste, where the police station is housed, is part of the former Tirschenreuth Castle. The building is a historical monument.
The city of Tirschenreuth is surrounded by extensive forest areas. The Stiftländer Teichpfanne borders the city in the north and west . Most of the ponds are still used for carp farming. The Rothenbürger Weiher , a large swimming pond , is located in the south-west of the city near the Rotenbürg district .
The Teufelsküche is located in the coniferous forest near Pilmersreuth on the street . The Bachtal, surrounded by granite rocks, is a popular hiking destination.
The nature reserve Wondrebaue north of Tirschenreuth.
The oldest sports club in Tirschenreuth is the Schützengesellschaft 1549. Before the beginning of the 20th century, the sports club ATSV Tirschenreuth (1892) and the men's choir were formed in 1886. In 1995 the Tirschenreuth swimming club was established, which, together with the partner club SV 08 Auerbach, of the swimming community ( SG) Nordoberpfalz belongs to and is successful at regional, national, federal German and international level. The women's and men's teams of SG Nordoberpfalz swim in the Bavarian State League. In 1997 the Turngemeinschaft 1997 e. V. founded. Three football clubs are based in Tirschenreuth: FC Tirschenreuth (District League Upper Franconia East), ATSV Tirschenreuth (District Class East Hof / Marktredwitz) and FSV Tirschenreuth (A-Class East Hof / Marktredwitz). The handball club Tirschenreuth is represented in the handball district class Men Staffel Ost. In the west of the city there is a glider airfield used by the Stiftland gliding club .
In Tirschenreuth there is an outdoor pool and an indoor pool. The outdoor pool has around 2400 square meters of water, divided into three pools. It also has a 10 meter high diving platform, an 86 meter long water slide and a children's paddling pool. The indoor pool has only one pool. There are also two riding facilities and two tennis facilities. There is a skate rink for young people.
Parks and memorials
A few years ago, north of the market square, the area around the Mühlbach was prepared and a new city park with a playground and a city pond was created. There is also a small park with a playground and pond next to the bypass. In addition, the site of the former small state horticultural show is a popular inner-city recreation and park area.
Regional culinary specialties
Tirschenreuth and the surrounding Stiftland are particularly known for their carp . Almost 95 percent of all ponds in the Tirschenreuth district are used for carp farming. The Upper Palatinate carp as a term is a protected term by the European Union . There are numerous different recipes for preparing carp. An alcoholic drink traditionally widespread in the northern Upper Palatinate is the Zoigl , a bottom-fermented beer that is brewed light or dark and is usually made in a communal brewery . The Tirschenreuther Kommunbrauhaus was probably demolished in the 1940s.
Regularly recurring events
The Tirschenreuth carnival parade, which attracts spectators from the city and the surrounding area, is held every year in mid-February. The folk festival takes place annually at the beginning of June for about a week on the festival square in Franz-Heldmann-Straße.
Every Thursday there is a small weekly market on the Upper Market Square. Once a year, in October, numerous stalls are set up on the market square for the Kirwa ( church fair ). An Easter market takes place in spring and a farmers' market in autumn, as well as a Christmas market in the Fischhof on the first and second weekend in Advent.
The Tirschenreuth Passion , which took place in 1997, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 under the direction of Johannes Reitmeier, is performed every five years . In 2020 Tirschenreuth will host the Europassion .
In 1994 and 2007 the historical drama Winsheims Tod from the city's history was performed.
Starting in 2014, the Oberpfälzer Jedermann will be given every five years under the direction of director Johannes Reitmeier.
Economy and Infrastructure
Road and air traffic
The federal highway 15 begins in Raubling in the district of Rosenheim and ends after about 380 kilometers at Hof (Saale) in the highway 93. The B 15 has been largely replaced by the federal highway 93 north and south of Tirschenreuth, it only has a different one in the district of Tirschenreuth Route to cross Tirschenreuth. The main road leaves the autobahn at the Neustadt an der Waldnaab exit and heads north to Tirschenreuth. At the Mitterteich Süd motorway exit, it joins the A 93 again and only leaves its course at Hof (Saale). Until the early 1990s, the B 15 ran right through the center of Tirschenreuth. Due to the high volume of traffic , the traffic load on the market square over which the route ran, as well as the risk of accidents, especially in the narrow streets around the market square, the decision was made to route the main road past the market square and build a bypass road . However, instead of leading the main road completely past the city, it now only bypasses the south of the city and the market square, to flow into Bahnhofstrasse and Mitterteicher Strasse next to the former post office . From there it continues unchanged to Mitterteich, where it joins the Autobahn 93.
Two different state roads run through Tirschenreuth . State road 2167 leads from Falkenberg via the district town to Mähring and on to the Czech border, from where it runs to Planá u Mariánských Lázní. State road 2173 begins south of the city and then runs to Bärnau and from there to Tachov in the Czech Republic.
Due to its remote location not far from the border with the Czech Republic, Tirschenreuth does not have its own motorway junction . The federal autobahn 93 ( Hof - Weiden - Schwandorf - Regensburg ) crosses the Tirschenreuth district from north to south and roughly follows the route of the Regensburg – Hof railway line . The city can be easily reached via the Windischeschenbach, Falkenberg and Mitterteich-Süd junctions.
The closest airfield at Hof-Plauen is a former regional airport, from which taxi and business flights are possible. There are regular flight connections to cities in the CIS countries from Karlovy Vary Airport , which is around an hour and a half away . The Nuremberg airport is located about 140 kilometers, the Prague Airport 180 km and Munich airport 230 km away.
After the closure of passenger traffic on the Wiesau – Bärnau railway line by the Deutsche Bundesbahn in 1989, public transport in Tirschenreuth is only determined by bus traffic.
Local transport is organized as part of the Oberpfalz Nord tariff and the Tirschenreuth transport association . The central bus stop in the city is the Central Bus Station (ZOB), which is directly connected to the large car park west of the city center. Parallel to the redesign of the market square, the new bus station, which has been in operation since September 13, 2008, was built. Before that, the city's central bus stop was on the market square. The only transport companies that run regularly on regular services are the Deutsche Bahn subsidiary Regionalbus Ostbayern (RBO) and the district-owned company Eska Stiftlandkraftverkehr . However, the two companies only offer overland connections. Eska Stiftlandkraftverkehr operates routes to Neualbenreuth , Waldsassen and Weiden in the Upper Palatinate; Regionalbus Ostbayern maintains connections to Hermannsreuth, Kemnath and Friedenfels
The city bus with the name Tursolino is responsible for the inner-city local transport. This city bus is unique in the region and has served more than 30 stops across the entire city since 1999. The small Mercedes-Benz Cito is operated by Stadtwerke Tirschenreuth in cooperation with Eska Stiftlandkraftverkehr; Regionalbus Ostbayern was responsible for the operation until 2009.
The best known and largest company in Tirschenreuth is Hamm AG . The manufacturer of road rollers , founded by the two brothers Franz and Anton Hamm in 1878, is one of the world's leading roller manufacturers and has received several awards for the design of its machines. The company has been a member of the Wirtgen Group, a group of companies in the construction machinery industry, since 1999. With more than 700 employees, Hamm AG is the third largest employer in the Tirschenreuth district after SCHOTT AG in Mitterteich (formerly: Schott-Rohrglas ) in Mitterteich and Siemens in Kemnath. It is also the oldest still producing roll manufacturer in Germany.
The brothers Mehler cloth factory GmbH was founded in 1644 and is the oldest enterprise of the city and the oldest textile mill in Germany. In addition, the company, which is now in the twelfth generation of family ownership, is one of the 30 oldest industrial companies in Germany. The cloth making trade has a long tradition in Tirschenreuth and in the mid-19th century employed almost half of Tirschenreuth's residents.
Another company is the Kommunale Entwicklungs- und Wohnungsbau Gesellschaft (KEWOG), which was founded in 1949 after the end of the Second World War due to the great housing shortage. In addition to the headquarters in Tirschenreuth, it has branches in Weißenfels , Reichenbach , Kahla , Fulda , Regensburg and in Zwickau in Saxony . KEWOG owns more than 1500 residential properties, most of them in the Tirschenreuth district.
One of four German locations of Netzsch -Feinmahltechnik GmbH is located on Mitterteicher Straße . The plant opened in 1974 and expanded in 1977 and 1979, respectively. In 1989 Netzsch enlarged the factory in Tirschenreuth again; Two more production halls with an area of 4000 m² were built.
South of the urban area, Imerys Tableware Deutschland GmbH operates a plant for the production of the raw material kaolin, which is used for porcelain production . In the immediate vicinity, Heidelberger Beton Grenzland GmbH & Co. KG operates a concrete plant for the industrial production of concrete .
Another company in Tirschenreuth is HJS Schmidt, a manufacturer of technical injection molded parts, which has also founded a subsidiary in the Czech Republic. HATICO Mode GmbH is a well-known manufacturer of men's shirts and fashion . HATICO only houses the company administration in Falkenberger Straße; production was relocated abroad years ago. The architectural office Brückner & Brückner Architects is also based in Tirschenreuth.
The regional daily newspaper is Der neue Tag with a local edition. Der neue Tag - Oberpfälzischer Kurier Druck- und Verlagshaus GmbH has a local editorial team. The Marktredwitz edition of the Frankenpost also reports on local events in the Tirschenreuth area. There are two advertising newspapers, Rundschau and OWZ (Oberpfälzer WochenZeitung).
The regional television broadcaster Oberpfalz TV (abbreviation OTV) based in Amberg can be received via cable and satellite in the Upper Palatinate districts of Amberg-Sulzbach , Schwandorf , Neustadt an der Waldnaab and Tirschenreuth as well as the independent cities of Amberg and Weiden in the Upper Palatinate. This station is also broadcast on the ASTRA 19.2 East satellite position in a time slot under the broadcast name ONTV .
In addition to the large Bavarian radio stations Antenne Bayern , Bayern 1 and Bayern 3 , the local radio station Radio Ramasuri (VHF 88.5 MHz) broadcasts from Weiden and can be received throughout the northern and central Upper Palatinate. The Regensburg radio station Radio Galaxy (VHF 97.3 MHz) can be received especially for young listeners . Due to the proximity to the Czech Republic, Czech stations can also be received in Tirschenreuth, including Radio Egrensis (FM 92.5 MHz) from Cheb .
The largest of the three hospitals in the district is located in Tirschenreuth. The hospital Tirschenreuth , which dates back to the year 1816, has 165 beds and employs around 230 people. Since 2006 it has belonged to the group of Kliniken Nordoberpfalz AG together with other hospitals in the northern Upper Palatinate . As a standard care hospital (care level I) with the specialist departments of surgery , internal medicine, anesthesia / intensive medicine, neurology , gynecology , trauma surgery , ear, nose and throat medicine and urology , it is significantly smaller than the clinic in Weiden, 30 kilometers away. The hospital has been housed in the building of today's middle school since it was founded; Only after the Second World War was a new building erected on St.-Peter-Strasse.
As the district town of the district and middle center, various offices and authorities are located in Tirschenreuth, for example the office for food, agriculture and forestry , the health office , the veterinary office and the surveying office . At the beginning of 2009, in order to strengthen the structurally weak region of Northern Upper Palatinate , the decision was made to relocate the Office for Rural Development of the Upper Palatinate from Regensburg to Tirschenreuth. Construction work on the site of the former train station was completed in 2013. The office now employs 135 people in the district town.
The Tirschenreuth city library has been located in a former municipal utility building on Bahnhofstrasse since 1996. As a special feature, the library has a functioning steam engine, which was previously used by the Mehler cloth factory to generate electricity. The district court of Tirschenreuth , which is responsible for the district, is located in the historic Fischhof . The next higher judicial instance is the Weiden district court in Upper Palatinate . A police station of the Bavarian State Police is located in Falkenbergerstrasse not far from the Office for Rural Development.
The Tirschenreuth voluntary fire brigade was founded on May 30, 1869 and had 70 active members at that time. Today it has nine vehicles. In addition, the districts of Lengenfeld, Matzersreuth, Pilmersreuth am Wald, Rosall and Wondreb have their own fire departments.
There are a total of seven schools in Tirschenreuth. The largest educational institution in the city is the state Stiftland-Gymnasium Tirschenreuth (SGT), which with around 1000 students is also the only grammar school in the Tirschenreuth district. The SGT was founded in 1955 as a municipal secondary school in the buildings of today's middle school; it was not until 1974 that a new building was erected on the northern outskirts of the city. South of the city center on the Waldnaab is the Marienschule, the municipal elementary school, and north of the old town is the middle school , named after the Bavarian linguist Johann Andreas Schmeller, who was born in Tirschenreuth . Since the city does not have a secondary school, the pupils have to attend the Waldsassen girls secondary school of the Cistercians or the secondary school in Stiftland (boys' school). The district music school and the adult education center are housed in the district office on Mähringer Strasse. In addition, there has been a nursing school at the Tirschenreuth district hospital since 1975.
The next higher educational institutions are the Amberg-Weiden University of Applied Sciences in Weiden and the University of Bayreuth and the University of Regensburg , which can be reached in around 60 minutes. There is a vocational school in Wiesau .
Tirschenreuth as a learning location
After a two-year construction period, the historic Fronfeste was reopened as a new learning location in Tirschenreuth on February 20, 2020. From March 21, 2020, the part-time study courses “Social Work” from the OTH Regensburg and “Industrial Engineering, Energy and Logistics” from the University of Landshut will be offered at the new learning location in the center of Tirschenreuth .
sons and daughters of the town
- Georg Hauer (1484–1536), theologian and classical philologist
- Lorenz Hochwart (around 1493–1570), theologian, clergyman, lawyer and historian
- Philipp Dobereiner (1535–1577), cleric, translator and author of spiritual writings
- Sebastian Span (1571-1640), lawyer
- Joseph von Stichaner (1769–1856), administrative officer and statesman in Bavaria
- Christoph Maurus Fuchs (1771–1848), painter
- Johann Andreas Schmeller (1785–1852), Germanist, linguist and dialect researcher
- Hugo Müller (1833–1915), chemist
- Johann Baptist Mehler (1860–1930), prelate and writer
- Maria Almeda Schricker (1879–1955), Superior General of the Poor School Sisters
- Heinrich Franz Kühn (1894–1981), politician
- Karl Forster (1904–1963), composer, choir conductor and cathedral music director
- Walter Martin Neidl (1930–2014), Roman Catholic priest and philosopher
- Franz Weigl (1932–1996), politician
- Friedhelm Kröll (* 1945), sociologist
- Reinhard Erös (* 1948), senior physician retired D. and founder of Kinderhilfe Afghanistan
- Peter Brückner (* 1962), award-winning architect
- Claudia Edelmann (* 1965), writer and journalist
- Christian Brückner (* 1971), multiple award-winning architect
- Ramona Schröpf (* 1974), linguist and translation scholar
- Claudia Gesell (* 1977), track and field athlete, former junior world champion
- Stefan Zant (* 1977), former member of the German national ski freestyle team
- Jürgen Schmieder (* 1979), journalist and author
- Wolfgang Gründinger (* 1984), political advisor, journalist and publicist
- Johannes Fischbach (* 1988), cyclist
Persons connected with Tirschenreuth
- Franz Wittmann (1895–1975), farmer and politician
- Herbert Molwitz (1901–1970), engraver and eraser
- Max Jobst (1908–1943), composer
- Johannes-Helmut Strosche (1912–1996), educator and politician
- Gerhard Franz (1920–2005), co-founder (1964) of the Gerhard-Franz-Volkssternwarte Tirschenreuth, named after him
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