Systematics of the bony fish

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The following system of recent bony fish (Osteichthyes) is one of numerous existing models for classifying the more than 30,000 currently known bony fish species that live on earth today. It essentially follows a current revision of the bony fish system, which was published in April 2013 and updated in November 2013, July 2014, 2016 and July 2017 (Betancur-R. Et al., 2013, 2014, 2016, 2017; DeepFin. org).

This revision is the result of the comparison of the DNA sequences of 21 genetic markers (one of the mitochondrial DNA and 20 of the cell nucleus DNA) of 1410 bony fish species from 1093 genera, 369 families and all traditional orders. In contrast to all previous systematics, the problematic groups of Percomorpha (perch relatives) and Perciformes (perch-like) become monophyletic taxa. The Percomorpha can be divided into eight well-founded taxa above the hierarchy. The order of the Perciformes, previously a polyphyletic one Collective group of over 10,000 species, over 1500 genera, 160 families and 20 suborders of perch-like fish ("wastebag" taxon), becomes a monophyletic order for the first time.

The bony fish are divided into two easily distinguishable groups, the meat fins (Sarcopterygii), of which there are only eight recent species, but from which the terrestrial vertebrates (Tetrapoda) emerged, and the ray fins (Actinopterygii), of which over 95% of the fish species living today. Extinct groups have not yet been taken into account in this system.

Meat finisher (Sarcopterygii)

Phylogenetic systematics of the basal bony fish
  Bony fish  

 Quastenflosser  (Coelacanthiformes)


 Lungfish (Ceratodontiformes)


 Tetrapodomorpha → Land vertebrates (Tetrapoda)


 Flösselhechte  (Polypteriformes)


 Sturgeon  (Acipenseriformes)


 Bonefish  (Lepisosteiformes)


 Archfin  (Amiiformes)


 Real bony fish (Teleostei) 

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Ray fins (Actinopterygii)

Phylogeny of Teleostei

 Elopomorpha ( tarpon-like , bone-fish , thorn -back eel , eel-like )


 Osteoglossomorpha (Osteoglossomorpha) ( bony tongues , mormyrids u. A.)


 Herring-like (Clupeiformes)




 Sandfish (Gonorynchiformes)


 Carp-like (Cypriniformes)


 Tetras (Characiformes)


 New World Knifefish (Gymnotiformes)


 Catfish (Siluriformes)


 Lepidogalaxias salamandroides


 Pike-like (Esociformes)


 Salmonid fish  (Salmoniformes)


 Golden salmon (Argentiniformes)


 Galaxies (Galaxiiformes)


 Smelt-like (Osmeriformes)


 Maulstachler (Stomiiformes)



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Phylogeny of Neoteleostei

 Lizardfish relatives (Aulopiformes)


 Deep- sea tadpoles (Ateleopodiformes)


 Lanternfish (Myctophiformes)



 Bearded fish (Polymixiiformes)


 Percopsiformes (Percopsiformes)


 Petersfisch (Zeiformes)


 Stylephorus chordatus (Stylephoriformes)


 Cod-like (Gadiformes)


 Lampriformes (Lampriformes)


 Mucous heads (Beryciformes)




 Soldier fish and hussar fish (Holocentriformes)


 Perch relatives (Percomorpha)

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Phylogeny of the perch relatives
  Perch relatives  

 Viscera (Ophidiiformes)


 Frogfish-like (Batrachoidiformes)


 Gobies (Gobiiformes)





 Pipefish (Syngnathiformes)





 Gill slit eels (Synbranchiformes)






 Ovalentaria ( earfish relatives ,
 cichlids , mullets ,
 mucous fish- like etc.)


 Perch-like (Perciformes)




 Mojarras (Gerreiformes)




 Wrasse (Labriformes)




 Sea bass (Moronidae)


 Surgeonfish (Acanthuriformes), armfinches (Lophiiformes), pufferfish relatives (Tetraodontiformes) and others

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  • Richard E. Broughton, Ricardo Betancur-R., Chenhong Li, Gloria Arratia, Guillermo Ortí: Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis reveals the pattern and tempo of bony fish evolution. Edition 1. PLOS Currents Tree of Life, April 16, 2013. doi: 10.1371 / currents.tol.2ca8041495ffafd0c92756e75247483e ( full text PDF ).
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